Translated by
2019/01/28 15:38:03

5G Fifth generation of mobile communication

Communication networks of "fifth generation", so-called 5G, together with the analysis of Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT) are designed to become one of fundamentals of digital economy which main driving force should be an artificial intelligence (AI). For 40 with small years four generations of networks of mobile communication were replaced. If cellular networks of first generation 1G disappeared long ago, then networks 2G, 3G and 4G still continue to be operated. Moreover, a quantity of legacy infrastructure of 3G networks and 4G will organically be a part of mobile networks of fifth generation of a 5G.

Content

Need of transition to a 5G

Expenses on the admission of escalating traffic on networks of telecom operators as of 2019 it is not covered by income from traditional services. Search of new services, so-called "killer application" of traditional telecom platforms usually does not give the expected results.

Rupture of income of telecom operators. Source: telsoc.org
Rupture of income of telecom operators. Source: telsoc.org

Meanwhile, the main growth of traffic and income happens not in the sector of devices of people, and in the sector of devices of Internet of Things which is one of the basic purposes of functionality of a 5G.

Growth of number of the devices connected to network. Source: Ericsson
Growth of number of the devices connected to network. Source: Ericsson

Therefore, 5G network can consider one of necessary components of digital transformation and digital economy.

«
We see that the USA and China promptly are in the lead in a 5G. Switzerland is also torn forward, Australia, Japan, Korea already do early projects 5G. I think, the governments of these countries understand that the 5G really is important national infrastructure, - SEO noted Ericsson companies Borje Ekholm.
»

Standardization

Standardization of technologies and solutions 5G should come to the end by 2021 therefore term 5G designates so far only fragmentary solutions which in the future will be a part of full-scale solution IMT2020. Such solutions are already deployed in the different countries, however they have local and test character so far, and do not provide all planned functionality of networks of IMT2020 standard.

The main standardizing organizations 5G

As of 2019:

3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) - alliance from seven organizations developing different standards of telecommunications in which, other partners in turn enter. A problem of 3GPP – the wording of technical requirements, assessment of offers, and final adoption of standards. In the middle of 2017 was the version of the general Release 15 standard is accepted, Release 16 which will be accepted in 2019 Krom of development of the general architecture is developed now, 3GPP also develops standards of radio technologies of a 5G of New Radio (NR) for the new frequency ranges selected under a 5G.

ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute), the European institute of telecommunication standards which is a member of 3GPP and most actively works in the development area of standards 5G.

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) develops solutions of upgrade of the IP protocol for support of virtualization of the network NFV functions (Network Fucntion Vitrualization). For example, IETF developed technology of a hitch of functions of SFC services (Service Function Chaining) which combines the virtualized components of architecture of a 5G, for example, base stations, gateways of services and data packets in a uniform route. It allows dynamic creation and a hitch of the virtual VNF network functions (Virtual Network Functions). IETF works in close interaction with 3GPP.

ITU (International Telecommunication Union) – the UN agency located in Geneva which is engaged in standardization of a broad spectrum of telecommunication technologies. In particular, it coordinates work on sharing of a range of radio frequencies, including for 5G networks.

Except these three main coordinating organizations, there is some other in which systematic practical work on development of the IMT2020 (5G) standards is conducted.

5GPPP (a 5G of Infrastructure Public Private Partnership), it is considered one of the leading partnership on standardization of a 5G. The organization sets ambitious goals on development of requirements to 5G network, for example, hobby of capacity of network by 1000 times, decrease in energy consumption of the user devices by 90%, significant reduction of time of creation of new services and services, a complete and safe network covering and with a negligible data deference and so forth.

NGMN (Next Generation Mobile Networks) Alliance. The alliance of mobile networks of the next generation is engaged in standardization of a full range of solutions 5G. The alliance includes the management of the chief American operators: AT&T, U.S. Cellular and Verizon.

Except specified, there are industry and regional organizations, such as 5G of Americas, Small Cell Forum which also make a big contribution to development and standardization of solutions 5G.

The road map of standardization of a 5G in 3GPP. Source: The ABC’s of 5G New Radio Standards. 5992-3406EN © Keysight Technologies, November 8, 2018
The road map of standardization of a 5G in 3GPP. Source: The ABC’s of 5G New Radio Standards. 5992-3406EN © Keysight Technologies, November 8, 2018
The planned diagram of standardization of a 5G in ITU. Source: <a href=\"https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/default.aspx\" class=\"external text\" title=\"https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R/study-groups/rsg5/rwp5d/imt-2020/Pages/default.aspx\">www.itu.int</a>
The planned diagram of standardization of a 5G in ITU. Source: www.itu.int

The big contribution to development of standards is made as well large telecom operators, such as AT&T, Verizon, etc. They coordinate the work with ETSI and ITU, but sometimes advance these organizations. Therefore solutions of these operators often form the basis of the ETSI and ITU standards.

Purpose of creation and purpose of 5G networks

Networks of mobile communication of the previous generations had the following appointments and functionality:

  • 1G: Voice services on analog network
  • 2G: Voice services on a digital network, low-speed data services (GPRS, EDGE)
  • 3G: High-speed data services (HSPA), with a possibility of voice transmission on IP networks, mobile access to the Internet of MBB (Mobile Broadband).
  • 4G: Mobile broadband access of MBB based on LTE, LTE-A, voice transmission (VoLTE)

5G networks considerably expand limited functionality of mobile networks of the previous generations. The main functional features of 5G networks is the following:

  • Advanced mobile broadband access of eMBB (enhanced MBB)
  • Superreliable communications with a low delay of ULLRC (Ultra Low Latency Reliable Communication)
  • Massive intercomputer communications of Massive IoT/IIoT, MMTS (massive Machine Type Communication)

On the basis of these three generalized types of functionality all variety of services and opportunities of IMT2020 (5G) networks, the most characteristic of which ostentatious in the drawing below, is under construction:

Variety of functionality of IMT2020/5G networks. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G/IMT2020, 2016, ITU
Variety of functionality of IMT2020/5G networks. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G/IMT2020, 2016, ITU

Gigabytes per second. 5G networks are capable to increase considerably data transfer rate through different technologies of a radio access (RAT), and by means of involvement of new ranges of radio frequencies 5G NR (New Radio). The user receives almost unlimited bandwidth, both for home use of different services, and for the purposes of the enterprises (Immersive Telepresence, Industrial IoT and so forth)

Smart house. The whole range of different services of Internet of Things (IoT) will be available to the solution Smart home (Smart Home) and "The smart building" (Smart Building): video surveillance, management and automation of home appliances, systems management of security, storage of content, klimatik and so forth.

Smart city. The solution "Smart City" is horizontal and vertical scaling of functionality and a range of services of Smart home. Main services of "Smart city": Safe city, electronic government of e-Government, electronic health care of e-Health, electronic formation of e-Education, electronic banking of e-Bank, electronic collecting of indications of housing and public utilities of Smart Meters, "smart power supply networks" Smart Grid, and so forth.

New video services 4K/8K: Volume video, screen of the ultrahigh clearness (UHD), possibility of effect of presence.

Work in a cloud. Service gives the chance not only to store data in the cloud storage and to take them from there, but also to use application programs which work directly from a cloud. And, with a possibility of their use on any device and from any location. Besides, there is a possibility of use of the application programming interfaces of API through which cloud service providers can provide the services to subscribers of the operator of 5G network.

Augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR). Service of virtual reality of VR (Virtual Reality) submerges the person in other world, influencing his sense organs, first of all sight (VR glasses). Service of augmented reality of AR (Augmented Reality) combines for the user the real environment with virtual items. These services are suitable not only for entertainment, games, virtual communication in the telepresence mode, but also can significantly improve learning process when students by means of VR glasses can see, for example, visually the internal structure of the person at a lecture on anatomy, the master in workshop can study an assembly procedure of the difficult unit and so forth.

Industrial automation. 5G network, together with technology of Internet of Things of IoT, by means of industrial IIoT sensors (Industrial Internet of things) and also by means of artificial intelligence of AI (AI, Artificial Intelligence) are capable to raise extent of industrial automation significantly. At the same time becomes possible in real time to analyze large volumes of diverse data (Big Data) and on the basis of the received outputs (insights) and using machine and deep learning (Machine learning, Deep learning).

Business and critical applications (Mission Critical Applications). The electronic medicine (e-Health), communication at emergencies (Mission Critical Communication), the tactile Internet (Tactile Internet) and others can belong to these applications, for example.

Pilotless transport (Driverless Vehicles). Pilotless transport can act as the part of service "The smart city", however, can be provided on own platform. Not only unmanned vehicles (driverless cars), but also and pilotless tractors for "smart agriculture" (Smart Agriculture), pilotless trains for the subway and the suburban railroads, drones and other types of public and special transport enter it. Besides, on platform 5G implementation of the systems of the help to the driver of ADAS (Advanced Driver-Assistance Systems) is possible.

It is necessary to emphasize that in the drawing only some services and solutions of platform 5G are shown above. Unlike networks of the previous generations which range of services was strictly limited and a little expanded in 4G services of platform 5G have synergy and scalable character, and are not limited to the set functionality once. Actually, the 5G plays a platform role for the mode of development of new services and applications of DevOps when new features are created by developers (Development) in close coordination with commands which are responsible for their implementation and operation (Operation).

In general, one may say, that 5G network incorporates not only the mobile, but also and fixed communication services and also high-speed Internet access with short delay (see fig. below), and, besides, specialized and corporate networks for vertical branches of the economy.

Universality of platform 5G/IMT2020
Universality of platform 5G/IMT2020

At the expense of networks of fifth generation it will also be possible to improve quality of use of already existing services where large volumes of traffic are involved.

Theodore Sizer, the vice president for development of wireless technologies in Bell Labs noted that in 5G networks the set of the most various devices will work. Smartphones and tablets will not get to anywhere, but, in addition to them, in network whole "zoo" of different devices, including surveillance cameras, weather sensors, sensors of the "smart" electric networks, "smart" houses and cars will appear.

Ericsson said that the 5G will lay the foundation for long-term development of Networked Society:

«
We are on a threshold of improbable revolution which will forever change our world. In this new world each person, each device, regardless of where they are, will communicate in real time. Within the next 10 years our society will undergo more changes, than for the last 100 years. And it only the beginning.
»

«
The number of the devices interacting with the Internet and among themselves, constantly increases. More perfect networks capable to provide this interaction in the most effective way are necessary. Networks of new generation open new opportunities in many areas - from increase in efficiency of production processes, increase in security on roads and in the city in general to improvement of utility services and more net environment, - John Healy, the representative of division of Communication & Storage Infrastructure Group in Intel noted.
»

The South Korean operator SK Telecom - one of the first companies which showed in operation technologies 5G at the initial stage of deployment of networks of new generation is guided by normal users as on the main consumers of services, representatives of the company told TAdviser in February, 2016. Thanks to a 5G users will be able to look 3D - television without points, to download in seconds or to watch online of UltraHD of video at a high speed.

Also it will be possible to use applications of virtual and augmented reality at the new level, note in SK Telecom. For example, to include elements of augmented reality in educational process, creating the virtual museums and models of the Universe in classes.

The 5G will allow to transfer in projects of "the smart cities" in real time information from much bigger number of sensors on different objects. The senior director of Qualcomm on product management of mobile technologies Sanjeev Athalye notes that it will be possible to deploy one thousand sensors instead of one hundred for which service will be rather smaller number of base stations, than at the networks existing nowadays. It can be, for example, sensors of condition monitoring of objects of housing and public utilities, sensors of "smart lighting" or the sound sensors installed for the purpose of security and observance of an order in the city. In the latter case sensors can fix suspicious or too loud sounds, and this information will be automatically transferred to security services of law and order.

New services using a 5G can be implemented also in medicine. For example, for the organization of remote condition monitoring of patients. The doctor will be able quickly to obtain information from special sensors and to monitor a status of patients day and night.

Thanks to very low data deferences of a 5G will also open more opportunities for remote performing transactions using the robot. Such service is especially relevant for small localities where there are no surgeons on places: managing manipulations of the robot, the specialist who is in absolutely other place can perform operation. At the expense of a 5G such service can be deployed in the wireless networks.

The low delay of data which networks of new generation are capable to provide is important also for deployment of "smart" networks of electricity transmissions. Use of sensors will allow to detect instantly damages on a transmission line and to block distribution of effects of damage further on the line. Thus, damage will affect smaller number of consumers of the electric power.

In large production companies, in retail, logistics of a 5G will give the chance to use more industrial robots performing different functions instead of people and also drones. The last are already now used on some productions, but most often are controlled with use of Wi-fi networks. the 5G will allow to cover a big distance, than Wi-fi networks, and thanks to low delays – to increase stability of work of such systems. Using drones Amazon has a project of system deployment of the goods delivery, for example.

As an example services for which will have advantage of a 5G it is possible to give also city video surveillance systems. the 5G will help to simplify their deployment and use. Now traffic from thousands of cameras in the cities, is generally transferred on the fixed networks. Unroll such infrastructure – a difficult task as it is required to lay a set of wires. Using a 5G it will be possible to receive terabytes of video of high resolution without use of wires.

One more example - service of monitoring of transport in the companies. Sandzhiv Atali from Qualcomm believes that with the advent of networks of new generation the operators acting as providers of such service, I will be able to reduce its cost. It will become possible because the cost of one base station of a 5G will be lower than the cost of stations for the existing networks and also because one base station will be able to service at the same time the bigger number of devices, respectively, service will require less base stations.

Practical advantages of a 5G

The platform of 5G network provides for operators the powerful benefits which are expressed first of all in expansion functionality and characteristics of network (performance) and increase in satisfaction of users (User Experience). In the drawing key parameters of IMT2020 (5G) network, in comparison with indicators of IMT-Advanced (4G) which allow to reach it are shown below.

Practical advantages of a 5G. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G/IMT2020, 2016, ITU
Practical advantages of a 5G. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G/IMT2020, 2016, ITU

Peak speed: 5G network provides by 20 times бòльшую speed in comparison with 4G, i.e., about 20 Gbps.

Speed on the user (average) at the same time can reach 100 Mbps and more.

The efficiency of spectrum use, amount of information which can be transferred per unit of frequency range in 5G network will be at least 3 times higher, than in 4G.

The mobility of the user, speed with which the user with terminal 5G on the area of a covering of network without loss of a handoff between base stations can move in 5G network reaches 500 km/h that gives the chance to use services of a 5G in high-speed trains.

The delay in 5G network decreases to 1 ms and less while in 4G network it is possible to reach a minimum of a 10-millisecond delay. It allows to use technology 5G for critical communications and video surveillance, services of the tactile Internet, AR/VR and so forth.

Density of terminals in 5G network increases much and can reach several million devices on 1 sq.km, i.e., on 1 square meter of a surface several tens or even hundreds of miniature devices can be located (for example, IoT sensors).

The energy efficiency of 5G network is much better, than in network of the previous generation.

Traffic capacity per acre, i.e. data transfer rate square meter of the area of a covering of network, in a 5G is two orders higher, than in 4G network.

In the drawing ratios on importance degree for the main functionality of a 5G (advanced mobile broadband access of eMBB, superreliable communications with a low delay, massive intercomputer communications) the parameters of 5G network shown in the previous drawing are shown below.

Ratios on degree of importance of parameters of 5G network for the main functionality. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G/IMT2020, 2016, ITU
Ratios on degree of importance of parameters of 5G network for the main functionality. Source: Emerging Trends in 5G/IMT2020, 2016, ITU

Frequencies

As of 2019 the 5G is supposed to be used in different ranges of radio frequencies. However, in the range up to 6 GHz, including the range of 5 GHz selected under Wi-Fi, there are serious problems with presence of free frequencies so far. Selection of frequencies for a 5G in a range up to 6 GHz is already approved at the World conference of a radio communication of VKR (WRC-15, World radiocommunication conference) in 2015. Ranges of higher frequencies will be distributed on VKR-19 in 2019[1].

Application of low-frequency sections of a range for 5G networks allows to reach an optimal covering of network without massive investments into development of network infrastructure.

Low frequencies provide good penetration of radio waves into premises that is very important for IoT. In particular, the range of 700 MHz intended for the M2M communication systems, "the smart city" and smart homes is important. For especially reliable connection of such objects as, for example, autonomous cars, robots, industrial automation, can be used the ranges of 3.4-3.8 GHz. It is supposed that during a 5G era to operators continuous frequency bands on 300-400 MHz will be selected.

The high-frequency range is necessary for 5G networks for achievement of data transfer rate to 20 Gbps, in particular, for provision of services 3D - video in the UHD, AR/VR format, cloud services for work and games, holographic communication, the tactile Internet and so forth. In particular, the possibility of use of the ranges of 24.25-27.5 GHz and 37-43.5 GHz is for this purpose considered.

In the drawing the planned distribution of a low-frequency range of a 5G in the different countries and regions of the world is shown according to WRC-15 below.

Distribution of low-frequency range of a 5G in the different countries and regions of the world. Source: Nokia
Distribution of low-frequency range of a 5G in the different countries and regions of the world. Source: Nokia

According to Scientific Research Institute Radio (NIIR) and the Union of LTE-operators, selection of frequencies of a 5G for Russia will be defined by purpose of frequency ranges.

Selection of new frequencies for a 5G in Russia (a source: NIIR, Union of LTE-operators)
Selection of new frequencies for a 5G in Russia (a source: NIIR, Union of LTE-operators)

Technologies 5G of New Radio (5G NR)

To meet escalating requirements to mobile communication, the technologies integrated under the general name "new radio 5G", a 5G of New Radio (5G NR) were developed for a 5G. In comparison with the radio-interface in 4G networks, 5G NR has several important advantages.

Development 5G NR was conducted practically "with zero", taking into account requirements to 5G networks and using the best technologies which will be available by the time of full-scale deployment of 5G networks. Thus, in 5G NR the newest technologies of modulation, formation of forms of waves (waveforms) and technologies of a radio access of RAT (Radio Access Technology) which, including, will provide high data transfer rate and prolongation of service of batteries of the user devices 5G are used.

Main requirements of standard 3GPP. Source: ITU, Nokia, Qualcomm

Preliminary requirements to technology 5G NR appeared in the 3GPP Release 15 standard approved in December, 2017 and it is expected that the final version will be approved in December, 2019.

The main distinctive features of a radio technology 5G NR are the following:

Adding of new ranges of a radio spectrum, according to requirements to signaling rate, numbers of devices, growth of traffic of numerous applications 5G. New ranges 5G NR lie ranging from 2.5 up to 40 GHz. Discussions about spectrum use up to 100 GHz are conducted.

The optimized OFDM technology (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing is multiplexing with orthogonal frequency demultiplication of channels). This technology was already successfully applied in 4G/LTE-A and also in the latests version of Wi-fi.

Formation of beams (Beamforming). It is technology which passed from the concept only in recent years to implementation and which is capable to implement many advantages of a 5G. Beamforming gives the chance to direct a beam of radio waves from the base station to certain devices, both moving, and motionless, without influence on other beams directed to the same devices.

Formation of beams of Beamforming. Source: Analysys Mason
Formation of beams of Beamforming. Source: Analysys Mason

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). MIMO is the Method of space coding of a signal allowing to increase circuit bandwidth which was already applied in Wi-Fi and 4G, in a 5G considerably it was improved, in particular, in the multi-user MU-MIMO mode (Multi-User-MIMO) in base stations of a 5G of gNnodeB (gNB) which antennas consist of a matrix of the radiating elements. It gives the chance to strengthen the signal level for the specific user, at the same time minimizing influence of this signal on other users.

Technologies of sharing of a range (Spectrum sharing). Many ranges of radio frequencies which are appropriately distributed often are not used effectively. Spectrum sharing technologies were developed for the solution of this task.

The unified interfrequency interaction (Unified design across frequencies). As in 5G NR the set of new frequency ranges is added, it is important to provide an interaction interface upon transition of the channel from one frequency to another at a handoff between base stations.

Small cells (Small cells). Consolidation of a network covering conducts to the fact that the number of base stations should increase. Therefore the solution Small Cells – the solution inexpensive, simple in installation and service of base stations of small power was proposed. They can be hanged out on masts of street lighting, on walls of houses and other objects. 5G network is capable to coordinate effectively their work, redistributing loading between antennas.

The solution small cells (at the left), in comparison with the normal base station of Macro BTS in network of the previous generations
The solution small cells (at the left), in comparison with the normal base station of Macro BTS in network of the previous generations

At the same time it is possible to use the distributed antenna systems of DAS (Distributed Antenna System) actually "closing" one or several base stations multi-storey buildings. Small antennas with radio units it is possible to locate practically in each premises, providing the best communication quality.

The distributed antenna systems of DAS and the uniform base station servicing the building entirely
The distributed antenna systems of DAS and the uniform base station servicing the building entirely

Several telecom operators at the same time can use uniform infrastructure of base stations and DAS.

Architecture of reference network (Core Network) 5G

The feature of architecture of 5G network consists that the traditional concept "architecture of network", based on hardware solutions, in 5G network loses relevance.

Therefore the 5G more often is called not network, but a system, or "platform" under which the software platform, but not an equipment room means. If networks 1/2/3/4G were under construction based on hardware solutions (equipment), then platform 5G is under construction based on software solutions, in particular, of the program configured SDN networks (Software Defined Network) and also virtualization of the network NFV functions (Network Function Virtualization).

Functions 5G are implemented in the virtual VNF program functions (Virtual Network Function) which work in infrastructure of NFV. The difference between these concepts, similar on sounding, consists that VNF is a function, and NFV are a technology. In turn, NFV is implemented in physical infrastructure of data centers (data center, DC, a data processing center, DPC), based on the normal commercial equipment of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf). The equipment of COTS includes only three types of standard, rather inexpensive devices – the server (computing device), the switch (network device) and a storage system (storage device).

Transition to virtual to the SDN/NFV platform in a 5G. Source: HPE, TAdviser
Transition to virtual to the SDN/NFV platform in a 5G. Source: HPE, TAdviser

Thus, the equipment of traditional networks of mobile communication is replaced with the program entities working in data centers on standard servers and VM virtual machines (virtual machines).

For implementation of program functions, except virtual machines, program containers (containers) and also program architecture of microservices (microservice) will also be used.

The distributed architecture of network of mobile access of D-RAN (Distributed RAN) gradually evolves in 4G networks to the centralized architecture of C-RAN (Centralized RAN).

In architecture of a 5G of function of reference network are implemented in the central cloud of Central Cloud (Cloud RAN), on VM virtual machines.

An important role in development of 5G networks will be played also boundary cloud (Edge Cloud), in particular, by MEC technology (Mobile Edge Cloud) and also "a foggy cloud" (Fog Cloud).

Network virtualization based on NFV/SDN is necessary also for very useful function 5G: logical network cutting (Network Slicing).

General architecture of 5G network. Source: TsPIKS
General architecture of 5G network. Source: TsPIKS

The Network Slicing technology allows to make based on the uniform amount (pool) of network resources logical separation of networks for different types of services of a 5G for which different technologies of a radio access of RAT (Radio Access Technology), with different characteristics of data transmission mediums are required. These are, for example, services:

  • High-quality video of UHD
  • Voice services (Voice 5G)
  • Internet of Things with a large number of sensors, sensors and actuators (Massive IoT)
  • Internet of Things for critical applications, such, for example, as pilotless transport (V2X), electronic medicine (Mission Critical IoT)
  • and many others.

All these services provided based on Network Slicing technology work at uniform physical infrastructure of data centers of the central and boundary cloud and also "foggy" infrastructure (Fog Computing) necessary for Massive IoT and industrial Internet of Things of IIoT (Industrial IoT).

It gives the chance of reuse of the created hardware-software infrastructure once and also flexible reassignment of its cash resources. Besides, such approach allows to lower not only capital costs of construction of network, but also operating costs of its service.

Cutting of network resources (Network Slicing)

In a 5G such concept as network slicing is used. It is, roughly speaking, cutting of network resources under different types of traffic, and for each slice (literally — a piece of network) the data transmission technology can be used. Thanks to flexibility of approach it is possible to meet the most different and even contradictory user requirements of different types. LTE quite is suitable for transfer of web and data — it is necessary to finish, raise it only a little speed.

For data transmission with a small delay the special slice which is called ultra-reliable low latency communication will be used. He allows to transfer data with extremely low delay. If in LTE the minimum duration of transfer one millisecond, then here the minimum duration of transfer lasts millisecond shares, and reliability will be very high, up to 99.999%.

The separate slice within a 5G is allocated for IoT. He allows to transfer data by a large number of devices with low power consumption.

Besides, there will be a slice for high-speed data transmission in the millimetric range, i.e. in frequency range from 30 to 300 GHz. For example, in the usual range of 2-5 GHz width of the used frequency channel in which data are transferred rather small and is units, is more rare — tens of MHz. In the range of 40-70 GHz available to spectrum use it is significantly more that will allow to increase width of frequency channel to hundreds and thousands of MHz and more. Thus, millimetric range is practically "an infinity equivalent" for operators (in sense of volume of available channel resources). The problem is in what should be transferred given only to devices which are in a direct visibility range, otherwise signal quality sharply falls[2].

Somewhat the 5G will become the "puff pie" combining different technologies, use of each of which will be defined depending on requirements of the specific user.

Security of 5G networks

2018: Problems with the Authentication and Key Agreement protocol

According to the message of November 13, 2018 the team of researchers from Switzerland, France and Great Britain revealed problems with the protocol of security of a 5G known as Authentication and Key Agreement (AKA). Shortcomings were exposed thanks to the Tamarin tool which is considered the most effective for studying of cryptographic protocols. AKA represents the standard in which the developer of communications protocols of the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is involved.

That AKA type which is connected with a 5G should guarantee that the device and 5G network are capable to authenticate each other, supporting confidential data exchange and saving identity and location of the user in a secret. However researchers claim that as it stands AKA can not perform these functions as the requirements stated in it are insufficiently exact.

The team of researchers expresses confidence that security of a 5G using AKA will be more reliable, than for network protocols 3G and 4G. Nevertheless, there are shortcomings. In particular, detection of location of phone in a certain area, though without disclosure of identity of the owner is possible. Moreover, because of vulnerability of AKA the payment for use of 5G network by other user can mistakenly be levied.

Researchers recommend to make a number of corrections. For example, to give security of AKA necessary properties which are absent now and to modify a component of confirmation of a key. According to them, AKA does not provide adequate personal data protection from active attacking. But to correct this shortcoming it will be difficult.

Researchers hope to involve 3GPP over improvement of AKA and to complete it before wide circulation of a 5G begins.

The agency of the European Union on network and information security (European Union Agency for Network and Information Security, ENISA) also issued the report in which warns that the revealed shortcomings of signaling protocols of networks 2G, 3G and 4G can arise also in 5G networks.

Researches of Ericsson company show that by 2023 3.5 billion devices of Internet of Things (IoT) can appear.

Unsafe 5G network represents a field for more and more widespread attacks thanks to the high speed which increases quantity of available subjects to the attack. It is easy to imagine, than massive DDoS attack on the enterprise using the IoT sensors connected to 5G network can turn back.

The ARM company developing architecture of processors creates the software set which will allow IoT devices to work with chips of SIM cards that will make them similar to smartphones with tariff plans on mobile communication. Then need to connect IoT devices through Wi-Fi will disappear. However hackers can attack SIM cards and put them out of commission. They are capable to extend also at the attack of SIM cards a malicious code using text messages.

So far early to speak whether hackers will use vulnerabilities of SIM cards if they appear in IoT devices, but such opportunity is available. It is anyway obvious that opportunities which are given by a 5G can promote efforts of hackers on the organization of more and more destructive attacks with use both already known, and appearing methods.

«
The 5G will not necessarily change risk factors which we have. But will exponential increase vectors of threats and an opportunity which attacking will be able to use. the 5G will allow the companies to connect more and more devices with higher information exchange rate thanks to what more data will be consumed for shorter time, increasing thereby possibilities of network and flows of the entering and outgoing data of DPC. So if you connect more devices more data streams, you have more potential vulnerabilities caused by growth of number of additional attack vectors. It becomes very important to have due means of monitoring, an opportunity to identify the attack if the criminal got into network, and the potential of the effective answer and elimination of any potential problem. Eventually, you still look for anomalies which just will become more. So an opportunity to immediately identify threat will also react to it to be crucial for risk minimization.
Tom Lelya, the vice president for sales[3]
»

Development of 5G networks in Russia

Main article: Development of 5G networks in Russia

Development of 5G networks in the world

Main article: Development of 5G networks in the world

6G (the sixth generation of mobile communication)

Main article: 6G (the sixth generation of mobile communication)

5G in evolution of cars

Main article Vehicle-to-Everytning (V2X)

Notes