As complex safety of places of mass stay of people the Overview of special technical means is ensured
Due to constantly increasing level of terrorist threat in the world ensuring complex security of objects and places of mass stay of people is represented especially relevant for any country. Andrey Prozorov, Candidate of Law Sciences, the special security technologies director told about what special technical means are used for the organization of security GKS (JSC Gruppa Sistematika).
In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation public security is a component of national security. Together with security of the personality and the state from internal and external threats it is considered as the most important conditions of ensuring implementation of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens of the Russian Federation on worthy quality and level of their life in sovereign, independent, territorially complete .
In the Strategy of national security  defines the main threats of public security which are relevant for places of mass stay of people. Treat them:
- the activity of the terrorist and extremist organizations directed, in particular on intimidation of the population, including by taking by weapons of mass destruction, radioactive, poisoning, toxic, chemically and biologically dangerous substances, commission of acts of nuclear terrorism, violation of security and stability of functioning of critical information infrastructure of the Russian Federation;
- activity of the criminal organizations and groupings, including transnational, connected with illicit trafficking in drugs and psychotropic substances, weapon, ammunition, explosives, etc.;
- the criminal encroachments directed against the personality and public security;
- the natural disasters, accidents and accidents including connected with global climate change, deterioration in technical condition of infrastructure facilities and emergence of the fires.
Due to constantly increasing level of terrorist threat in the world and the awful acts of terrorism which happened only for the last two months in New Zealand and on Sri Lanka (Mass firing in the mosque of Al-Nour and the Islamic center Linvud in Christchurch, New Zealand; Eight explosions in Catholic temples and hotels on Sri Lanka) are represented especially relevant for each country ensuring complex security of objects/places of mass stay of people.
According to item 45 of Strategy of national security of the Russian Federation ensuring the state and public security is performed by increase in efficiency of activity of law enforcement agencies and special services, state control (supervision) bodies, improvement of a single state system of prevention of crime, first of all among minors, including monitoring and efficiency evaluation of law-enforcement practice, development and uses of the special measures directed to decrease in level of criminalization of the public relations.
In security of objects with mass stay of people and venues of mass actions a special role is played by the prevention directed to prevention of implementation of threats of public and personal security of citizens. At the same time, along with preventive operational measures, the actions aimed at the special equipment of protection of objects/places of mass stay of people are of great importance.
It should be noted that in solving of tasks of security there cannot be no universal technical tool capable quickly to reveal different security risks, to recognize them, to localize and suppress. Only the complex of special technical means can really counteract threats and its efficiency that will be higher, than the regulations of application of its components will be worked out more deeply.
Experts in the field of security can offer the system of the innovation means of the emergency identification of security risks of different character, signs of preparation for commission of illegal acts and timely response to them.
Systems of face recognition and intellectual video analytics
First of all, operational face recognition of people for the purpose of identification of the wanted citizens, violators of law and order is relevant. It is possible to perform the solution of this task using means of IoT-technology. So, for example, in 2015 the Chinese company LLVision put on the market smart GLXSS glasses.
For May, 2019 these points are used by the Chinese police on objects transport and proved as highly effective operational means of identification of the persons who are wanted and also persons with forgery documents. Besides, points of such modification can also successfully be applied to verification of registration numbers of vehicles. GLXSS are equipped by quad-core processor Cortex-A7 and also 16 GB of the internal memory are delivered complete with 1 GB of RAM, and the 8-megapixel video camera can record video in permission 1080p. Also points support functions of recognition of a voice and management of gestures. With all these GLXSS functions have weight only 55 g. The 0.25-inch view-finder with permission of VGA. is built in points Data Wi-Fi n also Bluetooth 4.0 are given under the protocol 802.11 b/g/.
Security of objects/places of mass stay of the people who are characterized by the big areas (multi-storey buildings, volume constructions with complex underground and land structure) cannot still be provided without permanent round-the-clock video monitoring using means of a system of security television. Huge volumes of the received video information require operational processing. As the effective tool for this purpose serves development of domestic engineers in the field of intellectual video analytics. At the same time as a part of the solution on complex security of places of mass stay of people the special video analytical complex on the basis of model of the effective predictive analysis and an automated system of data collection and processing (SSOI) can be applied. This complex promotes identification and recognition:
- non-standard behavior of people;
- disturbing situations;
- movements in the prohibited direction;
- aggressive behavior of people: robberies, assaults, fights, vandalism, etc.;
- intersections of control lines;
- accumulations of people and education of crowd;
- persons of people;
- ownerless objects, etc.
Useful functions of intellectual video analytics are also tracking of objects (tracking a specific object) and quick search of a required object / subject in its appearance in a videoarchive of events.
Are a part of a product:
- video intellectual solution modules of the listed above tasks;
- intellectual analytical platform;
- system of data collection and processing.
Video intelligent modules of the analysis of video flows receive video input signal, analyze behavior of objects and reveal "undesirable events". The output data can be broadcast on operational monitors of a security service in real time and in a videoarchive of a system of security television.
Unique utilization properties of video analytical modules are reached due to application of the methods used by the Russian scientists in nuclear physics for the analysis of superpoor signals, and developed by domestic company HeadPoint (enters into GKS (JSC Gruppa Sistematika)) the integration software package - the InOne IoT-platform, is intended for creation of the SSOI system and also integration of video analytical modules into a common information space.
According to experts, in solving of tasks of ensuring complex security of places of mass stay of people the system of remote contactless scanning and recognition of a psychophysiological status of the person which can set the level of its danger to people around has good perspective of application (aggressions, a stress, uneasiness). The basic useful function of a system is identification of potential terrorists, persons is able alcoholic or drug intoxication, the increased excitation, etc. The program of a system works at fundamentals of technology of the vibroimage which register insignificant vibrations of a live object using standard technical hardware, for example, of digital or analog video cameras. This insignificant vibration (movement of points of a body) reflects a psychophysiological status of the person and level of its emotional excitation in space. All this allows to scan remotely people, to reveal the level of their aggression, a stress and also to perform detection of a lie in real time.
Main stages of system operation of recognition of a psychophysical status of the person:
1. Image capture (5-10 seconds of a video), display of dynamics of micromovements for this time frame.
2. Analysis of the vibroimage
A system analyzes and registers more than 20 parameters of the vibroimage. Using the solution it is possible to analyze the video files (avi) written earlier and to perform the analysis of a lie in the video records received from any source.
This system was successfully applied in composition of complex security (KSB) of the Olympic Games Sochi-2014. For May, 2019 a system is operated on objects of OTI in our country and abroad.
Local positioning of people and vehicles
Special technical means of local positioning of people and vehicles on the basis of RTLS technologies (localization in real time) and RFID (radio frequency identification) allow to control in real time location and movement of people, vehicles, loads and other objects. They can be applied in premises and in the open air, in different weather conditions.
As a part of systems tags are applied to designation (tagging, marking) of objects, antennas, information readers, printers for tags of RFID, special software, the server hardware, integration platforms and databases.
Systems work independently - at the expense of own hardware. Data transmission happens on a digital interference-immune radio channel. The role of satellites is executed by the access points of systems set so that to provide a continuous covering of controlled zones.
Systems on the basis of means of RTLS and RFID on objects can solve the following problems with mass stay of people:
- access control of people and vehicles on the protected objects (territories);
- control of different technology processes;
- automation of accounting of objects;
- time recording (for example, security guards, service staff, etc.);
- control of the current location and trajectory of movement of people, vehicles, the construction equipment, other objects in real time in borders of controlled premises and territories;
- calculation, control and analysis of length of routes;
- providing security guards, personnel of an object with digital trunking, a possibility of a bidirectional or multilateral voice communication, record of negotiations, connections of a conversation to a fixed telephone network of the enterprise or any other object (for the RTLS systems);
- identification of a subject to observation in borders of the controlled territory or building and automatic connection of video tracking an object;
- signal transmission of alarm (for the RTLS system);
- control of accumulation of people.
The principle of work of the RTLS systems is very simple: on perimeter of the premises the specialized equipment - the access points measuring distance from themselves to mobile tags is placed. Knowing distances from the mobile device to at least three access points, a system rather precisely defines location of an object. As a basis of such solutions technologies RFID, Wi-fi, ultrabroadband Ultra Wide Band technologies and also the standard of a radio communication of IEEE 802.15.4a (Chirp Spread Spectrum) can be used.
The choice any of technologies in many respects depends on specifics of a task and controlled objects. For example, if the large territory, then is more correct to apply CSS technologies. At very high number of controlled objects the cost of mobile devices is extremely critical. In this case it makes sense to use cheap RFID tags.
It should be noted that means of RTLS and RFID are issued domestic enterprises and the companies (for example, the RST Invent company entering into GKS (JSC Gruppa Sistematika)) and on the characteristics do not concede in anything to foreign analogs, and on some characteristics exceed them.
Means of a system of an emergency communication for May, 2019 represent the highly effective domestic IP solutions integrated in KSB. They are intended for signal transmission of alarm, a call of service of rescue, law enforcement officers, the emergency notification of people about threats, indications of actions in emergencies, assistance in the choice of an optimal route of the movement, etc.
The IP systems of an emergency communication on wireless technology are provided the improved transmission quality of voice messages. One and all subjects to mass stay of people, including medical, educational institutions, objects of transport infrastructure, shopping and entertainment centers, sporting venues, museum and cultural complexes, etc. need an emergency communication.
The most important component of KSB of objects with mass stay of people and venues of mass actions are means of special security technologies for operational identification of substances, materials and products of the increased danger (including subversive and terrorist means). Usually these means are applied as a part of the special customs complexes (SCC) intended for operating control of people, them wearable, including personal belongings, hand luggage and baggage (if it is about objects of transport infrastructure) and also vehicles and loads. SDK, depending on conditions of their application, can be in stationary and mobile execution. They can be a part of special capital and temporary check-points. On the basis of the customs equipment also modular check-points can be created (including the combined check points of people and vehicles). SDK for control of transport and loads often call inspection and customs complexes which can also be mobile (MIDK) and stationary (SIDK or simply - IDK).
The SDK capital equipment is:
- pedestrian and transport radiation monitors, full-growth mm are wave checkpoints (including with the highest speed of pass) scanners of a body of the person, stationary arch and wearable metaldetectors, footwear scanners, thermal imagers of temperature monitoring of a body of people;
- X-ray television introscopes for examination of wearable, including personal belongings of citizens;
- universal customs remedies which can be applied to control of people, vehicles, loads, researches of premises, ownerless things, etc. – wearable and desktop detectors of substances and materials of the increased danger, including detectors of the explosives, drugs and psychotropic substances poisoning strong toxic agents, dangerous biological materials, dangerous liquids; portable wearable dosimeters radiometers, etc.;
- means (system) of examination of transport and loads – automated systems of examination of the bottom of vehicles, x-ray scanners of the hidden cavities, X-ray television pallet scanners, video endoscopes, mobile inspection and customs complexes, etc.
All security aids called above are issued in the Russian Federation and on the technical and utilization properties do not concede to the leading foreign analogs, and some of them have no analogs in the world, for example, x-ray scanners of the hidden cavities, radiation monitors, detectors of dangerous liquids at all. The high level of development of the customs equipment managed to achieve thanks to the innovative developments of domestic scientists and engineers and also operational localization in the Russian Federation of a number of modern foreign technologies.
It should be noted that the listed above capital customs equipment of SDK at the KSB organization of objects (places) of mass stay of people without fail should be complemented with the technical means solving specific problems of operational recognition, suppression and localization of security risks. These means unlike the capital customs equipment which is openly standing on check (customs) points are not visible, but their role is extremely important. The majority of these means represent technically complex systems with special characteristics.
Those means and security systems which we consider especially perspective for implementation in KSB of places of mass stay of people were considered. Except the means and systems stated above which make KSB still a number of the systems of traditional security is applied: control and access control, security and disturbing signaling, fire protection systems, systems of security lighting, management of evacuation, etc. But already even according to the general description of the special technical means of security considered above it is possible to imagine, security systems are how already difficult.
KSB of places of mass stay of people are based on certain principles, in several boundaries of protection. People, vehicles, loads, goods, land and underground constructions, airspace, etc. are already reliably controlled. The most important part of the organization of security of places of mass stay of people are deeply thought over regulations of control (examination) which, minimize influence of a human factor.
Modern KSB represent the smart integrated systems performing internal monitoring, data collection and processing from the elements, control themselves due to automated management. Subsystems of ensuring their functioning are definitely duplicated and protected from unauthorized access, including to the collected, processed and stored information.
KSB provide scaling, permanent development and can be applied to ensuring complex security of subjects to mass stay of people of different volumes. They surely consider specifics of territories, objects, actions and adapt to certain operating conditions.
The modern KSB organized on the basis of the means considered above represent the designer (a combination of stationary and modular and mobile solutions) who can quickly be rebuilt for effective security of capital and shoddy constructions of objects, territories, including preschool, educational and treatment and prevention facilities, objects of trade, including large shopping and entertainment centers and the markets, sports constructions, culture objects, including museum exhibition complexes, parks of rest and entertainments, territories of mass festivities, for example, of fan zones, venues of cultural actions (festivals, concerts, opening days, etc.), transport objects, etc.
In the provided overview of special technical means for obvious reasons specific functional characteristics of security systems, structure of KSB and level of integration of the equipment do not reveal. In this case we consider it necessary to adhere to the principle "do not do much harm".