Translated by
2019/07/15 13:24:51

As robots replace people

The researches devoted to perspectives of substitution of people by robots on the industries and separate economies, already hundreds if not thousands. And their outputs are similar. If to trust researches of economists Karl Frey and Michael Osborne, in the USA by 2033 under the pressure of robotization 47% of the jobs existing in 2018 risk to disappear. The world bank counted that for China this share can make 77% at all. The International Labour Organization considers that even in such countries as Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand, 56% of workers fall under risk of automation.

Content

Main article: Robots (robotics)

As robots turn the middle class in prekariat

Robots in medicine

Robots at restaurants

Fighting robots

2019

IIDF: robots will destroy 6 million jobs in Russia

In the middle of July, 2019 the director of the Internet Initiatives Development Fund (IIDF) Kirill Varlamov  told about what professions, according to him, will disappear and how many people can lose work because of wide circulation of robots.

Varlamov predicts that within 10 years about 90% of work of people will be automated, and 6 million jobs will be gone because of robotization.

Development of robotization in the next 10 years can lead about 90 percent of all workflows in which by July, 2019 people are engaged to automation
Development of robotization in the next 10 years can lead about 90 percent of all workflows in which by July, 2019 people are engaged to automation

The head of IIDF considers that the professions assuming low-skilled intellectual activity in parts or in full will disappear: lawyers, accountants, personnel personnel have such workflows.

«
In these spheres a lot of things will be reduced, it already occurs now. There will be people who are engaged in the organization, planning, control of robots, but technical office-work will disappear — Kirill Varlamov in a conversation with RIA Novosti said.
»

At the same time the released personnel will not be able to be in full involved in new conditions as have no enough skills and competences. According to Varlamov, "the unemployed will become almost disabled" as will enough not have competences and skills.

Moreover, in parallel to process of digitalization of the industries there will be also substitution by foreign services which will come to Russia, the head of IIDF noted. Development of robotization leads to emergence of new professions, but not in Russia, he emphasized.

«
If earlier we bought tickets in the transagency, standing in queues, then now we buy tickets online. And here the main issue — where these jobs? Services which we use, they are mainly foreign. We, using them here, we create jobs there. In fact there is not that a local redrawing of jobs, and their creation abroad — Varlamov added.[1]
»

The trade robots understanding statements of the Central Banks earned from the exchanges

At the end of June, 2019 at the exchanges there were robots of Prattle company who understand statements of managing directors of the central banks. In read seconds of the machine are capable to process foggy political statements and to offer the forecast on their basis. People who develop and use them, say that the artificial intelligence issues the correct forecasts more often, than wrong. Read more here.

The first robot dishwasher for restaurants is provided

In the middle of June, 2019 Dishcraft Robotics provided as the company claims, the robot dishwasher, the first in the market, for restaurants and cafe. Read more here.

The robot climbing transmission lines and debugging is provided

At the end of May, 2019 the Canadian energy company Hydro-Quebec developed the LineRanger robot who climbs transmission lines and debugs. Such robot can create the serious competition to air UAVs which are already used for check of high-voltage transmission lines. Read more here.

IMF: because of robots of the woman works first of all will lose

In May, 2019 the International Monetary Fund (IMF) published a research in which it announced that because of robotization of the woman risk to lose work first of all as they more often than men carry out routine tasks.

According to experts of the IMF, the man are engaged in solving of tasks less often, not requiring additional training, and perform more often work in which analytical and communicative skills and also manual labor are necessary. In such conditions of the woman are more vulnerable to mass implementation of the technologies in workflows executing people.

Comparison of risks of loss of jobs by men and women in the different industries
Comparison of risks of loss of jobs by men and women in the different industries

The research covers 28 countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and also Cyprus and Singapore. In Russia this survey — PIAAC (The program of the international assessment of competences of adults) which reveals core competencies of aged people from 16 to 65 years, their application at work and in everyday life was not conducted.

According to collected information, the probability of dismissal of the woman from work which the robot is capable to execute is about 40%. In a case with men this indicator is estimated at 38%.

The risk degree significantly fluctuates depending on the country. For example, in Sweden and Finland risks at men nevertheless are higher, than at women. Besides, this indicator is influenced by structure of production in the country: whether the industry in GDP and also level of penetration of technologies into labor market dominates.

If to take professions to which disappearance because of use of artificial intelligence most of all threatens then here the risk of loss of work as women is about 1.2 times more in comparison with men. In this category of 11% of women and 9% of men face not less than the 70 percent probability of automation of work. Link to the report

The first claim in the history for bad operation of the robot is submitted

At the beginning of May, 2019 a claim in connection with the investment losses caused by the robot for the first time was in the history submitted. The Hong Kong magnate Samathur Li Kin-kan took legal action – he submitted a claim against Raffaele Costa, to the seller who Li Kin-kan convinced to entrust a part of the status to the supercomputer. Read more here.

The robot police officer who is checking documents at drivers and writing out penalties

At the beginning of May, 2019 the SRI International research company provided the robot police officer who is capable to check documents at drivers and to write out penalties. Read more here.

Robots became driving instructors

At the end of April, 2019 the Chinese company Beijing Yi Jia Jia Technology provided the driving instructor based on AI under the name RoboCoach and already implemented it in driving schools. Read more here.

Robots began to pick apples for export worldwide

In March, 2019 the T&G Global company which is engaged in cultivation of fruit and vegetables announced the beginning of use of robots for collecting of apples. The agreement with the Californian startup of Abundant Robotics was for this purpose signed. Read more here.

The robot security guard in the residential complex

At the end of March, 2019 in the residential body in Beijing there was a robot security guard patrolling neighborhoods at night. His developers call the product the first in own way — integrates face recognition functions, infrared thermal imagers and the interface for communication with people. Read more here.

JPMorgan and Citigroup replaced traders with robots

In the middle of March, 2019 Citigroup and JPMorgan dismissed the commands working only with corporate bonds within the small transactions known as "incomplete lot". They were replaced with robots.

The dismissed specialists dealt mainly with retail clients. Profit on these transactions was too small to form separate teams, and now computing algorithms will be engaged in trade in these bonds.

JPMorgan and Citigroup banks dismissed the departments specializing in trade in small corporate bonds. Instead of them implemented artificial intelligence
JPMorgan and Citigroup banks dismissed the departments specializing in trade in small corporate bonds. Instead of them implemented artificial intelligence

Citi of a duty of eight traders was included in the platform of electronic trading in bonds. In JPMorgan the command from less than five people who traded in corporate bonds was absorbed by larger group on the credits. The management decided that thanks to new technologies the bank all the same will be able to service clients, dismissed a command and aimed the released funds at the development of electronic trade infrastructure. Nevertheless, most of traders of the dismissed command still work in JPMorgan. The bank representative refused further comments.

These steps are connected with the fact that large banks try to reduce costs and to reduce the unprofitable business directions, especially in trade departments. It is considered that JPMorgan and Citi were the last dealers with separate commands for transactions on "incomplete lots". If financial institution is not able to make the large volume of small transactions, the amount of profit is too small to support a big human command. And

zvestno what from 75% to 80% of transactions with bonds worth less than $1 million is processed by machines. Specialists consider that this share will only grow.

Though the majority of algorithms work at bonds worth less than $1 million, machines become more and more perfect. Specialists consider that some dealers already have algorithms with the permission to participate in transactions for the amount to $2 million. Completely algorithms are excluded from work only on a mark of $5 million[2]

As robots leave millions of Chinese without work

According to the Chinese state research institute of China Development Research Foundation, during the period from 2015 to 2017 the companies in the country reduced on average from 30% to 40% of jobs in connection with implementation of automation and robots. Such data in February, 2019 were published by the South China Morning Post edition in article devoted to a problem of substitution of people by machines.

This problem promises to become even more sharply, considering the growing penetration of robots in a manufacturing sector in which about 100 million Chinese are engaged and of which about 30% of GDP of the country are the share (data of National bureau of statistics for the first three quarters 2018).

During the period from 2015 to 2017 the companies in the country reduced on average from 30% to 40% of jobs in connection with implementation of automation and robots
During the period from 2015 to 2017 the companies in the country reduced on average from 30% to 40% of jobs in connection with implementation of automation and robots

The Chinese authorities, unlike western, are not called for reserved substitution of personnel robotic mechanisms and, on the contrary, invest huge amounts of money in automation of the cities and industrial robots. So, the city of Dongguan in  the Province of Guangdong only for  2018 selected  $ 56.8 million for transformation of factories. In January of the 2019th the mayor Xiao Yafei said that for the last five years of Dongguan he reduced the labor power by 280 thousand people, having begun to use 91 thousand robots.

In a conversation with South China Morning Post 34-year-old Xia Xiaobo told that he had to leave from the plant on release of electronics in Dunguani after implementation of robots. Xia worked for 10 hours a day, being responsible for functioning of 104 machines on 13 production lines, but work of lines was controlled by only two persons — people on objects became less.

Big investments  viskusstvenny intelligence and  robotics are also observed in many other industrial regions of the People's Republic of China,  including  the Provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang.

The company Foxconn which smartphones Apple makes the most part at the Chinese plants, is going to automate completely by 2020 about 30% of production. During the period from 2012 to 2016 the company already reduced more than 400 thousand jobs, having replaced them with tens of thousands of robots.[3]

Replacement of 120 robots by people in hotel

In January, 2019 it became known that the Henn-na hotel in the prefecture of Nagasaki removed a half of robots because they not only badly coped with the duties the Japanese city of Sasebo, but also created extra work for personnel. Read more here.

Robots valets at the airports

In January, 2019 it became known of use of robots valets at the airports. They already found application in air harbors of Paris, Lyon and Düsseldorf, and since August, 2019 will be for the first time tested in Britain. Read more here.

2018

The robot builder mounting gypsum cardboard is provided

At the end of September, 2018 Japanese National Institute of the advanced industrial sciences and technologies (AIST) showed robot- the builder HPR-5P. Among other functions he recognizes sheets of gypsum cardboard, lifts them and precisely beats to a wall using self-tapping screws. In more detail here.

Robots replace English teachers at schools: Japan starts implementation of AI

In August, 2018 it became known of plans of the Ministry of Education of Japan to start in 2019 the pilot program within which at schools of the country English-speaking robots with artificial intelligence will be implemented. By calculations of the Japanese authorities, AI robots will help to solve a problem of shortage of the pedagogical personnel and will allow pupils to improve skills of an informal and written language in English.

It is difficult to Japanese schools to find the qualified teachers for teaching English as on it additional resources which are absent often are required. Experience of some elementary and high schools which are already using AI robots showed that modern technologies are capable to help to increase the level of teaching English.

In August, 2018 it became known of plans of the Ministry of Education of Japan to start in 2019 the pilot program within which at schools of the country English-speaking robots with artificial intelligence will be implemented
In August, 2018 it became known of plans of the Ministry of Education of Japan to start in 2019 the pilot program within which at schools of the country English-speaking robots with artificial intelligence will be implemented

According to the Agence France Presse (AFP) agency, about 250 million yens (about $227 thousand) are planned for project implementation. It is supposed that robotized the English teacher will appear approximately in 500 classes in the territory of the country.

«
The AI robots who are already available in the market have various functions. For example, they can trace correctness of the English pronunciation at each pupil that is difficult to normal teachers, - the official supervising issues of the international education who asked not to reveal the name said to the edition.[4]
»

According to the interlocutor of AFP, in addition to AI robots for quality improvement of teaching English in the country it is also going to use at lessons tablets with customized applications and to hold online occupations with native speakers.

It should be noted that the listed measures are undertaken in anticipation of the changes in the national education program of Japan which are coming in two years. Now studying of English is obligatory for pupils of the Japanese schools aged from 12 up to 15 years. Since 2020 English should become an obligatory subject from elementary school - children will teach it from 10 years.

The Disney robot will replace stuntmen at cinema

At the beginning of July, 2018 the company Disney provided robot Stuntronics which, as envisioned by developers, will be able to replace the stuntmen duplicating actors in dangerous episodes during shootings of movies. In more detail here.

Replacement of highly paid employees by robots in Amazon

In June, 2018 it became known that Amazon began to replace the highly paid employees with robots. Before automation in the company concerned only manual work in warehouses and in distribution centers. Read more here.

The robot cleaner of windows of commercial buildings is created. Intel will make him mass

In May, 2018 Australian Oliver Nicholls won in the competition of the scientific International Science and Engineering Fair projects (Intel of ISEF) organized by Intel which took place in the American Pittsburgh. The award was presented for creation of the robot for washing of glasses of high rise buildings. In addition to a monetary prize, the winner had an opportunity to make the project mass thanks to support of Intel.

On Intel of ISEF Oliver Nichols showed a prototype of the automated cleaner of windows for commercial buildings. The robot is supplied with eight rotary rotors set in a configuration 4 x 2 and fastens to the winch on a building roof. By means of lifting gears the robot moves on up-down and on the right on the left. Reaching dirty glass, he gives through an atomizing nozzle cleaners move, the laying after that rotating wipe foam. 

Oliver Nichols with the robot cleaner of windows
Oliver Nichols with the robot cleaner of windows

According to the developer, a system can work with a wind speed up to 45 km/h and is capable to replace the existing means of cleaning of windows which cost can reach $11 thousand for each order if it is about the big glass building. Oliver Nichols says that cost value of his robot is equal about $2300.

In addition to monetary economy, advantage of the automatic cleaner of glasses is that people do not need to carry out injury-causing work. 

Robot cleaner of windows
Robot cleaner of windows

Oliver Nichols received from Intel a grant for the amount of $75 thousand Besides, the company will help developers to realize the idea at the commercial level

The world review competition of scientific and engineering achievements of Intel of ISEF is held annually. Its purpose — identification and support of talented young scientists, development of researches in the field of applied and fundamental sciences and also technical creativity. This competition constantly brings together more than two thousand participants from 65 countries of the world.[5]

Robots help to reduce use of herbicides

In Europe and the USA began to use new agricultural robots who using AI technologies are able to distinguish weeds and to selectively destroy them. Implementation of such robotic systems will allow to reduce sharply use of herbicides and will reduce the need for genetically modified cultures steady against chemicals, the Reuters agency reported on May 22, 2018.

In Switzerland on fields with sugar beet the robot-propolshchik developed by Ecorobotix company is tested. A system on solar batteries externally looks as a table on castors. Moving across the field, the robot using the camera scans escapes, reveals among them weeds and sprays it with a small dose of herbicides.

Robotic Ecorobotix system
Robotic Ecorobotix system

The Swiss developer assures that thanks to the selection approach his robot-propolshchik is capable to reduce by 20 times use of herbicides in farms. The company says that in the nearest future will sign the agreement with investors on financing selection. The release of the robotic Ecorobotix system to mass market is planned in 2019.

Meanwhile, in the USA the American startup of Blue River in 2017 purchased by the producer of Deere & Company agricultural machinery experiences the installation for fight against weeds under the name See & Spray. The principle of work same, as well as at the Swiss system — recognition of weeds and their point processing by herbicide, but moves the American installation not independently, and using the tractor. By Blue River estimates, its technology allows to reduce use of herbicides by 90%.

The See & Spray system is already tested on cotton fields, and the company is going to test on other cultures, such as soy. It is expected that installation will be available in the market in 4-5 years.

Other companies, such as German Robert Bosch and the Danish Agrointelli also work on the similar systems of selective processing by herbicides. The representative of robotic exchange-traded fund Robo Global Richard Lightbound said in an interview to the agency that point processing by herbicides using robots not only will be very demanded among farmers, but at a certain stage can become obligatory.[6]

Robots begin to replace builders aged

In Japan the trend of substitution of builders aged robots gains strength. However to create such automated solutions not easy.

According to the Futurism edition in the publication of April 25, 2018, on people is more senior 65 years more than a quarter of the Japanese population is necessary and it is expected that within the next 40 years this indicator will grow to 40%. It is a big problem for industries which should look for replacement to the workers retiring. In construction the situation is, perhaps, worst of all as here automation develops not so quickly, as in other areas.

Construction Shimizu robot
Construction Shimizu robot

According to the Bloomberg agency, by April, 2018 industrial robots are used more than in 2 million manufacturing enterprises worldwide. They are widely applied in automotive industry: in build process of machines about one robot on average is the share of five workers, counted in the International federation of robotics (International Federation of Robotics).

Implementation of robots on construction objects is complicated by unpredictability of the environment and presence of a large number of people. Therefore often automation in construction is limited to the solution of peripheral tasks, like use of drones for monitoring of the course of construction of constructions.

Several Japanese construction companies develop a new class of the robots intended for high-rise construction. So, the construction giant Shimizu tests robots who can weld beams, transport loads and set ceiling panels.

The head of division of construction Shimizu technologies of Masahiro Masahiro Indo says that robots will allow to save thousands of hours of human work, however only about 1% of amount of works at construction of high rise buildings will fall on them. The machines capable to work at a floor and walls can appear in the future, but it will be difficult achieve a 10 percent indicator, considering that the most labor-consuming stages of construction are carried out in the building, he emphasized.

According to the associate professor of school of the mechanical and space equipment of the Nanyang Technological University in Singapore of Kuanga Kyonga Fam (Quang-Cuong Pham), the last achievements in the field of deep learning improved capabilities of robots to define Wednesday in which they work that opens a way for development of such directions as navigation in unmanned vehicles.

«
In the next years there will be more automation, but its lion share will pass outside building sites, - the expert predicts.
»

As notes Indo's Masahiro, robots for the plants it is easier to create because they are on the same places that is impossible in construction. Shimizu wanted that robots were installed on the moving platform, but most of producers state that it is impossible, he told.

According to Indo, most likely, construction bots will mainly work at night and at the weekend as new technologies still should prove that people can comfortably and safely work side by side with robots. Shimizu is going to start the construction robots on the platform in Osaka by October, 2018.

At the end of April the company showed the automatic loader equipped with laser ranging sensors for navigation in space. And the technology differs from that which is used in self-governed machines. Also Shimizu showed the robot who can set ceiling panels. He is capable to lift objects weighing 30 kg.[7]

Use of robots in construction of the ships

Two large-scale South Korean ship-building Hyundai Heavy Industries and Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering concerns began to use robots for construction of the major segments of the ships for container transportations. Automation helps to reduce costs and accelerates production of courts. In the middle of April, 2018 the Bloomberg agency reported about it.

Shipbuilding — one of the industries where human work is more involved. About 200 people participate in production of one ship.

The Hyundai Heavy company created and began to test the 670-kilogram industrial robot capable to bend and weld steel plates for a front and back part of courts at the enterprises. The robotic system used together with a CAD is going to be implemented on mass production since 2019. By calculations of the company, it will allow to reduce time for welding by two thirds and to reduce number of busy qualified employees that, in turn, will provide annual economy for the amount about 10 billion wons ($9.4 million).

Caddy robot welder of Daewoo Shipping company
Caddy robot welder of Daewoo Shipping company

Also Hyundai Heavy she intends to construct the automated plant which using robotic manipulators will make the mentioned steel parts for the ships and to deliver them to two child divisions of Hyundai Mipo Dockyard and Hyundai Samho Heavy Industries company. Besides, in plans of South Korean vendor development of new robots for accomplishment of other types of welded works and automatic painting of the ships.

The industrial Hyundai Heavy robot for bending and welding of steel plates for courts
The industrial Hyundai Heavy robot for bending and welding of steel plates for courts

As for Daewoo Shipbuilding, she since 2016 uses the 16-kilogram robotic manipulator under the name Caddy for welding of steel parts of the gas carriers of an ice class released by the company for transportation of liquefied natural gas. As of April, 2018 five such vessels are released already. According to Daewoo Shipbuilding, use of the robot helped to save about 4.5 billion wons ($4.2 million) on each ship. Taking into account successful experience the South Korean shipbuilder develops more compact model of the robot welder weighing 14.5 kg now.[8]

Robots threaten with liquidation of 12% of jobs in Russia

At the beginning of April, 2018 the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development  (OECD)  published a research in which it is said that about 14% of jobs are under the threat of liquidation because of universal implementation of robots. In Russia this indicator slightly lower and makes about 12%. So about 17.6 million Russians can be left without work because of new technologies.

Authors of the report Ljubica Nedelkoska and Glenda Quintini note that the risk degree because of automation varies depending on the country. For example, Slovakia where a third of working positions are capable to replace computers most of all can suffer. In Norway the indicator is the lowest — 6%.

The countries with the greatest number of workers instead of whom can employ robots, data of OECD
The countries with the greatest number of workers instead of whom can employ robots, data of OECD

10% of the working population get to the USA in risk group that it is much less than 47% which researchers from the University of Oxford called in 2013. However, even the 10 percent indicator can pour out in big unemployment as it corresponds to about 15 million jobs.

«
It can be several times worse than crash which was endured by economy in connection with falling of automotive industry in Detroit in the 1950th years when technology changes and the growing automation, in addition, led to huge dismissals, the report says.
»

Robotization will have the most negative impact on the production industry and agriculture and also on some services industries — OECD
Robotization will have the most negative impact on the production industry and agriculture and also on some services industries — OECD

According to experts, automation and artificial intelligence are capable to make significant changes to the nature of the performed work for much larger amount of specialties in comparison with those which can be completely replaced by robots.

Nedelkosk and Kuintini said that their outputs reflect reality better, than researches of previous years as 4656 separate observations of professional skills are reflected in the new report.

According to researchers from OECD, jobs in Holland and also in the Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian countries can be to a lesser extent replaced with computers, than in the states of Eastern and Southern Europe, Germany, Chile and Japan.

Robotization will have the most negative impact on the production industry and agriculture and also on some services industries. In group of the highest risk there are low qualified specialties and also youth.[9]

At the airport of Dubai there was a robot announcing suspicious people

Main article: Neurototalitarianism

On February 27, 2018 it became known that at the airport of Dubai there was a robot who can detect and announce any suspicious people or activity. According to  the Khaleej Times edition, customs of Dubai already completed a pilot stage of sale of the robot which will be set in a zone of arrival of the airport. For more details see Neurototalitarizm.

Implementation of robots at the plants in Eastern Europe

In February, 2018 the Reuters agency published article, the devoted subject as in Eastern Europe implement robots for improvement of production and compensation of staff deficit. Read more here.

Russians believe in advantage of robots

At the beginning of February, 2018 it became known that Russians with big optimism, than on average in the world, treat implementation of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and robots. At the same time the most positive spirit to similar innovations of digital economy of Chinese, showed poll of the British marketing agency Dentsu Aegis Network.

About 20 thousand people from 10 countries participated in a research which was conducted in the summer of 2017: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Spain, Great Britain and USA. Excerpts from it are published by The South China Morning Post.[10]

In general on the world people it is quite pessimistic estimate influence of technologies of the future on labor market, and only 29% of respondents believe that technology achievements will bring more benefit, than harm. At the same time 33% of Russians believe that the artificial intelligence and robotization will promote creation of new jobs instead of depriving of people of work. Among Chinese of such optimists it appeared even more — the whole 65%.

For comparison, in Germany and Great Britain only 18% of respondents believe that implementation of AI and robots will not have an adverse effect on perspectives of their employment in the next 5-10 years.

Also people were asked whether they agree that digital technologies will help mankind with the solution of global social problems, such as poverty or pollution of ecology.

Russia appeared among optimists, along with Celestial Empire again. Nearly 50% of the polled Russians lay hopes for technologies and believe that with their help it will become better to live, and among inhabitants there is the People's Republic of China like those more than 70%.

People in general pessimism look at a situation with jobs in digital economy
People in general pessimism look at a situation with jobs in digital economy

The most skeptically configured as it is unsurprising, there were Japanese: in capability of technologies to resolve global problems trust only 22% from them. Slightly higher results in Germany, Great Britain and the USA where 37% and 38% of respondents agreed that technologies will help society to overcome difficulties.

Women more men risk to be left without work because of robots

In January, 2018 the Bureau of Labor Statistics which is division of Department of work of the USA published the results of a research which showed that women more men risk to be left without work in the conditions of the growing replacement of human work robotic.

 Follows from the report made with assistance of Boston Consulting Group company and published within the World Economic Forum in Davos (Switzerland) that during the period from 2018 to 2026 about 1.4 million Americans can lose work because of implementation of the replacing people of technologies in the organizations and at the enterprises. And about 57% of the people who are in risk group are women.

Data of Bloomberg
Data of Bloomberg

At proper retraining most of the workers dismissed because of full automation of their functions will be able to find new more highly-paid job. Without retraining which will demand considerable efforts and expenses, to make it it will be difficult, and in a case with a female of case will be even worse.

By estimates of authors of a research,  on average  men have about 22  spare options of alternative career development whereas at  women  — only 12. After  retraining of the woman can expect  49  positions whereas men  — on  80.

Organizers of the World Economic Forum predict that for achievement of gender equality in workplaces will be required 20 years more, than was predicted earlier.

There is also a positive trend for women: after retraining their salary can increase approximately by 74% against 53 percent expected growth at men.

Specialists consider that retraining should include  not only rates and  the help in  job search,  but also  a financial support in  learning process, and the main focus needs to be placed on hybrid skills.

Experts estimate that one industrial robot is capable to replace six people, and 30% of bank jobs will just disappear in five years because of implementation of artificial intelligence.[11]

2017

Robots can replace advertisers

More than a half marketing specialists is sure that the artificial intelligence can cope with work of advertisers and create qualitative advertizing content. Researches of the companies Criteo and IDC[12] demonstrate to it[13].

At the moment machine learning rather violently develops, its application increased in the creative industry and further growth is predicted: IDC predicts annual average growth rates on the world at the level of 54%, approximately from $360 million in 2016 to more than $2 billion in the 2020th. Already over 450 heads in the field of marketing use artificial intelligence technology and machine learning in the work.

Machine learning thanks to global personalisation will be able to improve advertizing and creative tools. Therefore marketing specialists gradually refuse creation of advertizing content human resources and even more often trust this duty to artificial intelligence.

Specialists are also going to use machines for automation of the personalized approach to clients through online declarations. By 2020 the peak of popularity of use of machine learning is planned.

Replacement of 75 thousand staff of Amazon with robots in 2017

On December 4, 2017 the Amazon company stated that the number of staff of the company grew by 40% in comparison with the same period of last year. For the end of 2016 of Amazon was the eighth in value private employer in the USA. The Internet giant also announced plans to open the second headquarters in the USA in which 50 thousand employees will work.

According to the Quartz edition, when preserving a trend of substitution of work of living people robots the number of the employees of Amazon involved in retail will be laid off approximately by 1% in 2017 concerning the 2016th. Though it is small percent, but 170 thousand can lose work human.

The American farmers more and more active select robots

The fight against illegal migration started by the U.S. President became this headache for the American agricultural producers. Only instead of solving a problem of shortage of working hands due to hiring of Americans as Donald Trump calculated, farmers became more active to automate agricultural production and to implement robots, the Reuters agency in November, 2017 reported.[14]

Trump thought that the companies will employ Americans, and those select robots
Trump thought that the companies will employ Americans, and those select robots

According to Federation of the American farmers (American Farm Bureau Federation), 7 of 10 employees of local farms are in the country illegally. However against the background of tough migration policy of Trump the number of the illegal immigrants arriving in the country is reduced. Moreover, the bill which will oblige all employers to check social security numbers of employees according to the federal database is under consideration of the Congress to confirm legality of their stay in the USA. So far it is optional to follow this rule, except for several states.

Similar measures aggravate already critical situation with reduction and aging of labor power in the American agricultural sector and push farmers on mastering of the new technologies allowing to reduce the need for human resources.

According to the agency, farmers and the food companies aim to automate literally everything: from milking of cows and processing of meat of hens to crop production and harvesting. Some even want to mechanize cleaning of such gentle berries and fruit as strawberry and peaches.

«
Today's motto in agriculture — automate everything that is possible, and pay more than subjects to people without whom it is impossible to do — the head of the American trust of Farmland Partners investing in farmlands of North America characterized a situation in Paul Pittman industry.
»

Words are confirmed by an example of Pilgrim's Pride, one of the large-scale poultry-farming enterprises of the USA. In 2017 because of tough migration policy the company decided to buy robots and X-ray engineering for the lethal workshops. Also the salaries of workers were raised.

The retailer Wal-Mart accelerated an inventory control using robots

The American retail network Walmart implements in the shops of the robots capable to scan contents of trade racks, the Reuters agency reported at the end of October, 2017.[15]

Wal-Mart, 2017
Wal-Mart, 2017

The robotic systems help Wal-Mart to resupply more quickly goods and not to allow their absence in warehouses and also save time of staff of retail chain stores.

Robots are supplied with a sliding tower with illumination and cameras for scanning of barcodes and recognition of objects on shelves. Plying along racks, robots scan goods and check their warehouse stocks, reveal that is unavailable and also find products not on the place, the wrong price labels and errors in marking. Robots transfer all information to the staff of shop, and those fill up the sold-out goods and correct errors.

For retailers it is extremely important to fill up timely the range, every time when the buyer does not find on counters that it is necessary for it, shop to miss an opportunity to sell goods.

Wal-Mart also California tests robots in several shops in Arkansas, Pennsylvania and announced intention to equip with the robotic systems of scanning more than 50 outlets across all America.[16]

In an interview of Reuters Jeremy King, the executive director of Wal-Mart on technologies and e-commerce, said that at accomplishment of such monotonous tasks as scanning of shelves, robots is 50% more productive, are more exact and three times quicker, than employees people.

At the same time, assured of Wal-Mart that are not going to replace with robots of people and that implementation of such systems will not affect number of staff in shops.

It should be added that the idea to automate retail using robots is not new. The competing retailer Amazon.com uses in the warehouses Kiva robots for assembly and packaging of orders that allows the company almost to lower operating costs by 20%.

Robots will replace up to 800 million workers worldwide

Up to 800 million workers can lose the work because of implementation of robots and automation worldwide by 2030 that is equivalent more than the one fifth part of global labor power. Such data were provided in the report covering 46 countries and more than 800 professions, research division of McKinsey & Co. company at the end of November, 2017.

Up to 800 million people can be replaced by robots and automation systems worldwide by 2030
Up to 800 million people can be replaced by robots and automation systems worldwide by 2030

According to experts, the problem concerns as the developed, and developing countries. Nevertheless, the poor states having not enough means for investments into automation will not be so strongly subject to changes, and in richer, such as Germany and the USA, about a third of all busy population can be faced the need for retraining for new work. The need for university education as the quantity of the jobs available to people with smaller education level is reduced will increase in the developed countries.

Machine operators, workers of the sphere of fast food, mortgage brokers, paraligala, accountants and employees of back offices are brought among those specialties which changes will concern most of all if automation of jobs gains steam. The specialties requiring personal human interaction such as doctor, lawyer, teacher or bartender, will be less subject to influence.

According to analysts of McKinsey & Co., for displaced employees the fact that there will be jobs to which they will be able to pass though in many cases they should purchase additional skills is positive. Similar jobs will be available to health workers for elderly people, technology experts, plumbers and gardeners, the report says.

Even if distribution of robots will be less fast, about 400 million workers all the same can be the substituted automated systems and forced to look for new work during 2017-2030, said in a research.[17]

5 dying professions in which technologies will replace people

At the beginning of the 20th century futurologists foretold that robots will force out the person from the majority of professional spheres. At first mechanisms will master professions where work goes on the looped algorithms, and with development of artificial intelligence will occupy also areas in which decisions are made based on collecting and the analysis of information arrays. Despite courageous forecasts and the growing rates of technology development, neither housewives, nor teachers, nor nurses, nor even translators and priarshchik digitalization so far without work did not leave.

It does not mean at all that the professional structure of society does not change. Futurologists were fond of imaginations towards robots assistants who were not so demanded in the short term. And technologies, meanwhile, were financed by large business, stimulated with his needs and for a corporate segment caught up with people on the level of professional demand.

In October, 2017 TAdviser tried to understand what professions really are at the stage "extinctions" and will be completely replaced with technologies in the next years. Good news — that who develops technologies and services threatens nothing. Bad news — machines come from not the most low-paid professions and with such speed that for retraining people have not enough time.

So, we selected 5 areas in which the staff list will replace the list of tangible assets soon:

  • Driver of rail transport
  • HR manager
  • Employee of bank department
  • Sales manager of package products / services
  • Call center agent

Read more here.

WEF: By 2020 robots will force out 7 million people from jobs

Experts of the World Economic Forum (WEF) said in April, 2017 that by 2020 robots will force out about 7 million people from jobs. The cause is – global automation of all workflows: productions, service, management, etc.

Due to the active development of the various systems on the basis of artificial intelligence specialists predict not the first year the fourth industrial revolution which will lead to complete transformation of economy. All professions connected with data processing shortly will be unclaimed: first of all it is office workers, supervision manpower, cashiers, operators. Also robots will get jobs on industrial enterprises. However the number of robots workers everything increases, and someone should manage them. Therefore there will be new vacancies in the areas connected with mental work.

In church of Wittenberg (Germany) the robot priest begins to work

Functions of the priest in evangelic church of the city of Wittenberg (Germany) will be performed by the BlessU-2 robot. According to the press secretary of faith in Hesse and Nassau Sebastian von Guerin, "is an experiment which should generate a discussion (in church)"[18].

During the celebration of anniversary of the Reformation (in Wittenberg 500 years ago Martin Luther beat the "95 theses" on a door of castle church) the robot priest will start service – he will communicate with parishioners and to bless them.

BlessU-2 on construction reminds the person. It has a head with eyes and a digital mouth, a metal box - "trunk" with the touch screen and two hands on each side. Whether the robot priest will meet all visitors of the temple and those wish to be interested to receive blessing, specifying what sort a request for the help they want to address to God. Then it, addressing the sky, will read a fragment from the Bible and will say: "God will bless and will protect you". Parishioners will be able to print the bible quote which was read by the robot priest.

Von Guerin, notes that robots anyway will not replace priests completely and BlessU-2 blessing parishioners will not be present at each temple.

Robots will replace 250 thousand government employees in Great Britain

In February, 2017 the analytical center Reform published a research according to which robots can replace up to 250 thousand employees in the British state organizations.

According to experts, automation of jobs on civil service will allow to increase efficiency and quality of work at customer interaction. One more plus from implementation of artificial intelligence — reduction of the wages fund of the British public sector for 4 billion pounds sterling a year.

Reform counted that IT systems are capable to replace  248,860 jobs in public sector in Great Britain within 15 years. In particular, the number of staff of the central government could be reduced by  131,962 persons.

Number of staff in government institutions of Great Britain, given for 2016.
Number of staff in government institutions of Great Britain, given for 2016.

Besides, it is possible to replace 90 thousand administrators and 24 thousand employees of registry and also to automate 30% of work of nurses and doctors of some directions, reported in the report of Reform.

«
Reduction of jobs should be considered as end in itself. Technologies should replace people only where they can provide better service and expense reduction — experts consider.
»

The most part of the research Reform is constructed at scientific work of the University of Oxford. In 2013 considered more than 700 professions there, having applied Gaussian process to studying of impact of automation on these specialties. Scientists came to a conclusion that managerial positions can be replaced with computers with 96 percent probability.

Later the central bank of England, referring to these researches of the University of Oxford, said that because of automation about 15 million jobs are in the British public sector under the threat of liquidation.[19]

2016

Robotization will reduce jobs in Russia

On December 22, 2016 the Superjob company published the report with market research of work in 2016 according to which in the medium term the market expects considerable falling of number of vacancies in the different industries, as a result of use of high technologies.

According to outputs of HR analysts, in 2017 many Russian companies will implement the different automation equipment which will help to get rid of low-skilled employees, replacing them with robots. In 2018 it will respond reduction of quantity of vacancies[20].

As authors of the report noted, since 2017 the Russian companies will begin to implement in large quantities different algorithms of automation which will allow to reduce number of jobs.

Decrease in demand for employees contact is expected - and call centers - in this sphere of the market automation will be implemented especially actively. Experts predict: in the next years the volume of proposals of employers for information processing specialists (operators of data entry, moderators, etc.) will many times be reduced. It will affect, generally the IT sphere where demand will be reduced to 70%.

In 2017 the rate on cost efficiency will proceed: the companies will try to employ the best, and acting employees to deliver "develop in conditions or leave".

Experts promised: 2017 will become the last year with the growing number of jobs in Russia. In 2018 automation will lead to falling of number of vacancies. The activity of employers will grow in the competitive industries, and average monthly growth rates of number of vacancies will be about 5%. At the same time, analysts predict - 2017 will become the last year when it is possible to state the general growth of quantity of real jobs.

In 2018 reduction of offers for low-skilled employees for 5% is expected every year. At the same rates also real unemployment will grow.

By 2022 unemployment rate in Russia will grow to 20-25%.

At the current trends the overall level of real unemployment in Russia by 2022 will grow several times and will reach a point of 20-25%, experts of the company said. At the same time demand for qualified professionals will continue to grow. According to authors of a research to save employment of the population the state support of employment will not be got by the existing methods.

It is expected that process of selection of employees will become more exact, the companies will aim to hire the employees who are most conforming to all stated requirements. For this purpose many employers will allocate funds for development or purchase of ready IT solutions for search, assessment, management of communications with employees.

Robotics