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2020/02/21 21:32:23

Auto pilot Unmanned vehicle

The automobile industry undergoes significant transformation: the largest producers of machines together with IT and a telecom developers go to creation of vehicles with a possibility of completely autonomous driving. The trend is already obvious – in the future pilotless transport will become the mass phenomenon, but on the way to an era of completely autonomous cars still it is necessary to solve the mass of problems. .

Content

The unmanned vehicle — the vehicle equipped with an automatic control system which can move without participation of the person. An auto pilot — the device or a hardware and software system conducting the vehicle on the trajectory defined, set to it. Most often auto pilots are applied to control of aircraft (because flight most often happens in the space which is not containing a large number of obstacles) and also to control of the vehicles moving on railway lines. The modern auto pilot allows to automate all stages of flight or movement and other vehicle.

General principles of work of the unmanned vehicle

The general principles of work at all unmanned vehicles are approximately identical. We suggest to get acquainted with them on the example of the Toyota Prius car in the version of Google.

The principle of work of the Toyota Prius unmanned vehicle in the version of Google. Secret-seo.ru

Later developers come up with the idea to use high-precision cards together with the specified equipment. Autonomous movement only using sensors requires permanent scanning of the neighborhood and as result, huge computing powers. High-precision cards allow the car to move even on the roads which do not have a special marking, and sensors are supposed to be used only for timely reaction of the car to changes of situations on roads (crossing of the road by pedestrians, overtakings, etc.).

Technologies of the unmanned vehicle belong to the class of solutions of artificial intelligence. For more details see. Artificial intelligence (AI, Artificial intelligence, AI)

Standards for unmanned vehicles

Main article: Standards for unmanned vehicles

In a mra there is an active development of ITS of new generation with a big range of opportunities, such organizations as ETSI, IEEE, 3GPP and others are engaged in their standardization. The modern ITS systems solve such problems as admission control, management and payment by parkings, providing information on the movement and payment of the parking, management of cargo transportation, traffic observation, etc.

One of the main applications of ITS is the help to the driver of the vehicle. Due to cooperative awareness transport means the notification about dangers, the indicator of slowly going machines, warning of collision at the intersection can receive, the indicator about approach of the motorcycle, etc.

Notifications about such situations as breakdown of electric lighting, the incorrect road, the stationary machine (accident or breakdown of the vehicle), carrying out a roadwork, risk of collision, the notification about a status of traffic and the notification about change of a signal will be available to the driver. The decentralized databases will provide information on dangerous zones, rainfall, couplings on roads, visibility, wind, etc.

Use of ITS in unmanned vehicles will become the next step. External cameras and the radar equipment, according to the report of NIIR will be basic component of UAVs. But information exchange between cars on means of V2V-systems together with receiving by vehicles through the V2I-systems of information on a situation on roads and relevant digital maps of roads will allow to provide safe and effective traffic of UAVs.

Types of ITS: V2V and V2I

The first type of systems - "the vehicle-the vehicle" (vehicle-to-vehicle, V2V) - provide safe driving due to communication between cars at intersections with poor visibility. A V2V-system can warn drivers about danger of head-on collision, side crash, back collision, notify on fault of the vehicle, provide the road and regulatory information

For example, two machines invisible each other at the intersection or on turn, through a V2V-system can exchange with each other coordinates and values of speeds for collision avoidance. The same way the car approaching the end of a stopper will obtain information with coordinates and speeds of the next vehicles.

The second type of systems safe the movement - "roadside infrastructure - the vehicle" (vehicle-to-infrastracture, V2I) - provide information transfer (a signal and the regulatory information, etc.) from the roadside equipment to the car through means of a radio communication. For example, roadside sensors at the intersection will detect machines which are going to cross the intersection or to turn, and will transfer information to other approaching machines on means of V2I-systems.

V2X technology: use of Wi-fi and cellular networks

Main article Vehicle-to-Everytning (V2X)

Degrees of autonomy of cars

Unmanned vehicles are machines which safely go on public roads without participation of the person; the computer and sensors united in a single system of autonomous driving manages them. Level of autonomy of a system is established by his producer.

Those cars by which there goes each of us already log in autonomous vehicles. The matter is that zero level of automation assumes its total absence. The fifth — the highest level — in turn means that a system drives the car as well as the experienced driver.


Levels are determined by SAE International, professional association of automobile engineers, and briefly describe as far as this or that system is ready to give driving in a charge of the computer. Categories SAE are now applied everywhere: regulators, engineers, car makers and investors[1].

  • On classification of SAE International of the systems of the help to the driver or ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) there are six classes of autonomy from level 0 — completely manual control with a possibility of warning of dangerous situations on the road, to 5 — completely unmanned vehicle. Categories begin with Level 0 (machines about ABS and a cruise control belong to it).
  • At the level of 1 car helps the driver already a little: there is, for example, an adaptive cruise control and control of taxing or braking, but only one of two.
  • The management system of Level 2 can control both taxing, and braking, but, as well as level earlier, only under certain circumstances: for example, on the highway the driver should interfere. If it is simpler — the machine can go itself, but the driver needs to be ready to take over control at any time.
  • At the level of 3 autonomies the machine has slightly more, so, the driver has more time to react and take control over the car in any unclear situation. If Level 2 assumes that the driver always monitors the road and is ready to join at any time, then at the Level of 3 a role of the driver — to be in a reserve.
  • At automation of Level 4 a system undertakes full control, allowing the driver to have a rest, but only if all conditions are for this purpose created — for example, there are highly detailed three-dimensional maps that a system with an accuracy of couple of centimeters knew where it is. Most of developers try to create the systems of this level.
  • Level 5 assumes full automation — in this hypothetical situation before a driver's seat there is even no wheel. According to the last report of Autonomous Vehicle Technology Report 2020, in the world there are no working technologies of the 5th level of autonomy. Experts do not expect emergence of such technologies and in the near future: highly automated systems will be applied only as advanced assistants to the driver.

Advantages and shortcomings

Advantages

  • transportation of goods in dangerous zones, during natural and technogenic catastrophes or military operations.
  • reduction in cost of transportation of loads and people due to economy on the salary of drivers.
  • more economic consumption of fuel and use of roads due to centralized operation by traffic flow.
  • saving of time which is nowadays spent for management of the CU allows to be engaged in more important issues or to have a rest.
  • people with the weakened sight have an opportunity to move independently on the car.
  • minimization of road accident, human victims.
  • capacity growth of roads due to narrowing of width of road bands.

Shortcomings

  • Responsibility for causing [2]
  • Loss of a possibility of independent driving of the car.[3]
  • Reliability of the software.[4]
  • Lack of experience of driving at drivers in critical situation.[5]
  • Loss of jobs by people, whose work is connected with driving of vehicles.[6][7]
  • Loss of privacy.[8]
  • [9]
  • The ethical question of the most acceptable number of the victims similar to a trolley problem facing the car computer at inevitable [10]Ошибка цитирования Неверный вызов: нет входных данных

Some systems rely on the infrastructure systems (for example, built in the road or near it), but more advanced technologies allow to simulate presence of the person at the level of decision making about taxing and speed, thanks to a set of cameras, sensors, radars and systems of satellite navigation.

Calls on the way to the UAV

At the beginning of 2017 the correspondent of TAdviser visited the Mobile congress in Barcelona and examined development of technologies of unmanned vehicles.

Communications

2020: Data storage from the car in a cloud and a role of a 5G

Data from unmanned vehicles can be stored as directly onboard if their operational processing, and in a cloud which is more suitable for the profound analysis is necessary. Data routing depends on their function: there are data which are necessary to the driver without delay, for example, information from motion sensors or data on location from a GPS system, besides, on their basis car maker can draw important conclusions and, relying on them, to continue work on improvement of a system of the help of ADAS to the driver [11].

In Wi-Fi coverage sending data to a cloud is proved economically and simple technically, but if the car is in the movement, connection on 4G (and in the long term on a 5G) can be the only available option. And if the technical aspect of data transmission on a cellular network does not raise serious questions, its cost can be incredibly high. For this reason it is necessary to leave many unmanned vehicles near the house for some time or in some other place where they can be connected to Wi-Fi. It is much cheaper option of downloading data in a cloud for their subsequent analysis and storage.

The existing 4G networks will still remain the main communication channel for the majority of applications, however, the technology 5G can become the main catalyst of further development of the connected and autonomous cars, giving them the chance to contact almost instantly with each other, buildings and infrastructure facilities (V2V, V2I, V2X).

Autonomous cars cannot function without connection to network, and a 5G are a key to fast connection and decrease in a delay time for the benefit of drivers of the future. Higher connection speed will allow to lower time of obtaining the data collected by the car at the expense of what the vehicle will be able to react to sudden changes of traffic or weather conditions almost instantly. Arrival of a 5G will also mark progress in development of digital services for the driver and passengers who will derive bigger pleasure from a trip, and, respectively, will promote increase in potential profit for suppliers of these services.

2017: Problem of ensuring high-speed network connection

On the way to unmanned vehicles still it is necessary to solve many technology and legal problems. Developers agree in opinion that one of key – to provide cars with opportunities of high-speed network connection. Networks of fifth generation are considered as the driver of technologies of autonomous driving: they will allow the car to obtain most quickly information and to interact with other cars and the infrastructure surrounding it.

The minimum transfer lags of information which are expected in a 5G are critical for unmanned vehicles at their mass use. High-speed communication will allow to accept and transfer instantly data from one car to another. Information on changes in the movement of one car, for example, about braking, will allow to adjust operations of the machines surrounding it at once.

As of the beginning of 2017 of the standard of communication of a 5G does not exist yet. Regulators, the world telecom companies and equipment manufacturers are involved in its development. 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) — the organization approving international standards of cellular communication – is going to complete completely the work on testing and standardization of technologies of wireless communication of fifth generation in 2020.

In February, 2017 the International Telecommunication Union published the first version of the working draft copy of the specification describing 5G network. The draft document sets a level of the expected performance of new IMT-2020 standard: it is supposed that the average speed of downloading in a 5G networks for users will be 100 megabits per second, and loadings — 50 Mbps. At the same time waiting time will not exceed 4 ms (for 4G this LTE the value is about 20 ms).

5G networks should accelerate mass implementation of technologies of pilotless driving

The special systems allowing the car to exchange data with other objects are also developed for communication with surrounding objects. The vehicle-to-everything (V2X) technology for wireless communication allows the car to receive warnings of road conditions and the approaching cars long before they appear in its viewing field. For this purpose and surrounding infrastructure should be "smart". For example, traffic lights, road marking, road signs.

Development of the interface for the V2X systems which will be able to work with networks of new generation is conducted, for example, by Qualcomm. The company tells that are going to hold until the end of the year testing of a prototype as a part of end devices in Germany in partnership with a number of the companies, among which Ericsson, Audi.

In March, 2017 the head of development of mobile online services of Volkswagen Nicolai Rhymer (Nikolai Reimer) noted that one of key tasks – to provide machines with communication opportunities. The company considers this question so important that it even purchased about three years ago the European research and development center of BlackBerry with a team approximately of 200 engineers.

Based on this division of Volkswagen develops Competence Center according to solutions of communication for the cars now. It provides development of technologies which will be able to be applied in the connected cars in the future. Among them – communication control units. Volkswagen expects to provide itself with them in the future. Nicolai Rhymer considers that the company should invest more in these developments.

Eye of Omniscience

The autonomous car should know with an accuracy of centimeters, where exactly it is also that is further on the road out of a zone of the current physical visibility. The cartographic company Here (Nokia belonged earlier) note that cards of high accuracy – a fundamental element in addition to sensors and cameras in order that the unmanned vehicle could be guided in the situation surrounding it.

Cards should reflect also location of the car and to allow it to know what is further, behind turn what cameras and sensors cannot provide. Then the car will be able to build not the reactive, but pro-active strategy of driving, Alex Mangan, the head of product marketing of Here says.

For testing of the Google unmanned vehicles previously itself, for example, builds the detailed 3D maps on pilot routes considering even small features of roads. For data collection on the basis of which the card will be under construction the staff of the company previously specially goes on roads. In a case with test routes it is a feasible task, however, when it is required to create cards for roads millions kilometers long, it looks difficult implementable. Especially taking into account that once the created cards need to be supported and updated – the picture on roads can change very often.

The autonomous car should know what occurs not only in a visibility range, but also behind turn

Cooperation with car makers can simplify creation of accurate maps for cars: their machines equipped with sensors and radars can "share" information obtained from roads with developers of cartographic services. At the expense of it cards could be updated literally in real time.

In February, 2017 the decision maker for Mobileye and BMW unmanned vehicles announced similar cooperation. Its purpose is collecting of geospatial data for self-governed machines. The BMW 2018 cars of model year will be equipped with cameras and software of MobilEye for collection of information, necessary for updating of digital maps of high resolution.

For the purpose of the accelerated creation and updating of the BMW and Mobileye cards will transfer the data generated within partnership, Here company. Alex Mangan from Here believes that the industry should integrate around the idea of data exchange – it can accelerate distribution of technology of pilotless driving. In addition to BMW, the company is going to agree also with other producers of cars about similar data transmission, including Audi and Mercedes.

Recognition of road signs and marking

As researchers managed to detect at the beginning of August from the university of Washington, the systems of machine vision applied in machines with an auto pilot to recognition of road signs it is easy to confuse: for this purpose it is enough to place definitely on signs small stickers.[12]

During the experiment researchers pasted several black and white stickers on one of signs of Stop, on another placed additional texts on top and from below from Stop text, and made the third sign more faded. At the same time it is emphasized that in all cases road signs remained quite known and were read well.

Photo: 24gadget.ru

Nevertheless, the autopilot system in the majority of attempts glitched: the above described manipulations with signs of Stop led to the fact that instead of them the auto pilot "saw" the restrictive sign of speed.

Photo: 24gadget.ru

Results of an experiment suggested researchers an idea that malefactors can independently do similar stickers to force a computer system of the car to recognize incorrectly the sign of traffic.

As a method of fight against the detected vulnerability researchers suggest to implement the algorithms which are in addition analyzing a context in which the sign met in the system of an auto pilot. In particular, algorithms will help a system to define that the sign is located in the inadequate place (for example, Stop — on the high-speed motorway or restriction of speed in 100 km/h — on the city street) that will help to avoid an emergency situation.

As noted, not the system of some specific car maker, but an auto pilot operation algorithm, standard for all producers, was subjected to test. Results of a research, according to authors, show degree of vulnerability of automatic equipment. The distortions used on road signs modelled the typical striking factors of the urban environment: acts of street vandalism, I spoil sign coverings because of weather conditions and so on.

During the experiment scientists used several road signs with different types of texts, stickers and graffiti. According to researchers, in 100% of cases, cars recognized the sign "Feet" with Love\Hate texts as the sign "Restriction of Speed 45", the second and third signs were also recognized as "Restriction of speed 45", but only in 67% of cases. As for the fourth sign, its system of machine learning classified as the sign "Feet" instead of "The right turn" in 100% of cases.

Security

2020

Data security: in whose hands keys?

It is obvious that autonomous cars should be protected by the most modern means of ensuring of cyber security. As it is specified in one[13], 84% of respondents from among engineers auto makers and IT specialists stated concern that car makers do not manage to react to escalating cyberthreats.

For ensuring inviolability of the client and his personal data all components of the connected cars – in the machine before connection with network and a cloud – should guarantee the highest level of security against the hardware and the software. Some measures which will help car makers to ensure safety and integrity of the data used by unmanned vehicles are included below.

  • Cryptographic protection limits access to the ciphered data to a certain group of people for which operating "key" is known.
  • End-to-end security assumes implementation of a package of measures, allowing to detect attempt of cracking in each point of entry in a data transmission line – from microsensors to masts of communication of a 5G.
  • The integrity of collected data is an important factor and assumes that information obtained from vehicles is stored in an invariable type until its processing and conversion to the informative output data. In case of damage of the transformed data it gives the chance to address "crude" data and to carry out their repeated processing.

For accomplishment of all crucial tasks the central storage system of the car should work reliably. But how car makers can guarantee implementation of these tasks if a system fails? One of methods of warning of incidents in case of refusal of the main system creation of the backup copy of data in a duplicative data processing system can, however, such option be improbable roads performed by.

Therefore some engineers went some other way: they work on creation a backup systems for the separate nodes of the machine involved in providing the pilotless mode of the movement, in particular brakes, steering, sensors and computer chips. Thus, in the car there is the second system which without obligatory backup of all data which are stored in the car in case of critical fault of the equipment will be able safely to stop the car on a roadside. As not all functions are really vital (in emergency it is possible to do, for example, without conditioner or radio), such approach, on the one hand, does not require creation of a backup of noncritical data that means reduction of expenses, and, on the other hand, after all gives secure on a case of failure of systems.

In process of development of the project of pilotless vehicles all evolution of transport will be is based around data. Having adapted algorithms of machine learning for processing of huge amounts of data on which autonomous vehicles depend, and having implemented reliable and operational strategies of security and protection them from external threats, producers at some point will be able to develop the car which would be rather safe for driving on digital roads of the future.

The ITMO University suggested to use a blockchain for control of security of pilotless cars

Staff of faculty of information technology security of the ITMO University offered a method of use of a blockchain system for monitoring of a road situation. The university reported about it on February 21, 2020. Using the offered algorithm it will be possible to create the magazines of activity of unmanned vehicles allowing to fix reliably road incidents protected from changes. Also the technology can potentially help to be the road accident databases to define the most dangerous sections of the road.

The offer on use a blockchain for control of safety of unmanned vehicles

Describing the near future, engineers, economists, politicians of the whole world say that the cities will become "smart", and cars, on the whole, – pilotless. However in order that this picture became a reality, development of technologies of collecting, the analysis, storage and protection of a huge number of data is necessary. At the same time it is necessary to remember that many are interested in distortion of data: the drivers wishing to suppress the fact of participation in road accident; the producers of unmanned vehicles needing in as it is possible the best indicators of safety of the developments; the authorities trying to improve statistics of accidents and traffic jams. The staff of faculty of information technology security of the ITMO University Sergey Bezzateev and Vadim Davydov offered model of accumulation and data protection about a road situation which uses the mechanism a blockchain. Their development should help to protect data from manipulations.

The first possible application of the mathematical algorithms offered by the staff of the ITMO University – creation of a data collection system about "behavior" on roads of unmanned vehicles. All events which happen to the car: the parking, accident, traffic offense, failure in work – can be fixed on the on-board computer and be sent to the general database.

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In China there is a problem to raise the security level of unmanned vehicles. It is necessary to keep the magazine writing all events, otherwise, according to rules, security is not considered secure. For February, 2020 one of the checked and reliable methods to make this record reliable – a blockchain whose reliability is already proved on cryptocurrency. At the same time accounting of the events which happened to the specific car will conduct not only this car, but also all other UAVs in which observation zone it will appear,
tells Bezzateev
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The technology can help not only for work with UAVs. Implementation of such system will help to collect Big Data about city roads and country routes. Information will accumulate in uniform base which will allow to be the big, constantly updated road accident base. Having such information, road services and traffic police will be able to see patterns and to reveal places with misoperation of the traffic light, errors in a marking, the defects of a roadbed leading to permanent accidents. At the same time data collection can be conducted not only on-board computers and video recorders, but also and ordinary passersby who will be able to transmit information on road accident through the mobile devices.

Potentially, scientists explain, a similar system can also help to collect authentic data on history of the used car before its purchase. So, the person wishing to buy the car could request data from such information base and check whether the machine participated in road accident or even what reliable run at it.

2019

The unmanned vehicle it is possible to deceive special pictures

On November 10, 2019 became izvechtno that specialists from Institute of intelligent systems of Max Planck and the University of Tübingen conducted a research of unmanned vehicles regarding security. Engineers checked how cars cope with recognition of human figures.

The unmanned vehicle it is possible to deceive special pictures

There is a total failure of a system, the unmanned vehicle can leave a band or is unexpected slow down. Something it reminds effect when stroboscopic flashes of a certain frequency cause epileptic seizures in some people. So through sight failure of functions of an organism is caused by an artificial image, in this sense the brain of the person and the UAV have something the general.

According to scientists, in only four hours they managed to create a sample of the color combinations causing a status in the unmanned vehicle it is similar to panic, and it becomes security risk. The pattern can be applied easily on t-shirts or to make stickers on road signs or shopping bags. Hackers can use it too, researchers warn.

The problem consists in imperfection of artificial intelligence which is shown at image understanding. The algorithm uses the built-in camera for observation of the environment, such as road before the car, and for detection of obstacles. If recognition glitches, the machine robot at best stops from security reasons.

Authors of a research emphasized that such bug arises with probability only several percent, but it is enough that the UAV began to behave it is unpredictable. The experiment showed that if the car camera several times sees the same spot, its reaction will be every time special.

Certainly, scientists and programmers will solve this problem over time, but so far it remains. Researchers believe that now a task of car makers — to train the systems to be steady against such attacks[14].

The number of unmanned vehicles will grow to 10 million

July, 2019 - according to scientists from Institute of Technology of Georgia, in the future the number of unmanned vehicles will grow to 10 million. Scientists are afraid that cybercriminals will be able to paralyze city traffic, having cracked only a small part[15].

The road accidents and also huge traffic jams to which ambulance cars with wounded, patients and the dying people will get will become the main effects of such cyber attacks to unmanned vehicles.

Researchers simulated a situation as cracking of several unmanned vehicles can affect city traffic in Manhattan (the district of New York).

According to researchers, the stop of only 20% of cars per hour peak completely will paralyze the transport movement in the city. The city will be separated into several sectors that will allow to move between quarters, however it will be impossible to reach other end already. Cracking and a forced stop of 10% of cars per hour will lead peak to blocking of the movement of ambulance cars. Results of a research also showed that such effects can arise also in any other time of day.

Researchers recommend to engineers of unmanned vehicles to connect machines by several digital networks to prevent access to the malefactor to each car by a compromise of one or two networks.


In October, 2017, speaking at the World forum of knowledge in Seoul, South Korea, the chief executive officer of Mobileye and the senior vice president of Intel, professor Amnon Shashua offered the automotive industry the method allowing to confirm safety of unmanned vehicles. Its solution published in the scientific article and provided in a summary of this work for inhabitants offers a mathematical formula, using which it is possible to confirm that this or that unmanned vehicle works with observance of regulations of responsibility and cannot serve as a cause of accident, the blame for which could be laid on this car.

The Responsibility Sensitive Safety model provided by scientists provides the specific, giving-in to measurement parameters characterizing human ideas of responsibility and care and defines so-called Safe State, supporting which the unmanned vehicle cannot serve as a cause of accident, regardless of what maneuvers or actions make other vehicles.

In the performance Amnon Shashua called industry members and those who develop strategies, "together to work on creation of standards which would allow to set unambiguously responsible" at inevitable accidents with participation of the cars managed by drivers and unmanned vehicles. He explained that all modern rules and regulations are based on that idea that the driver therefore for regulation of unmanned vehicles it is necessary to enter new parameters into rules drives the car.

"The key moment is now an opportunity to set responsible for accident. Even the best drivers in the world get into the accidents, and unmanned vehicles will not be able to avoid this fate because of actions of other participants of traffic too. But the probability that the responsible and careful driver will have an accident on own fault is very small, especially if the panoramic overview is available to the driver, and it has flash-like reaction – as at the unmanned vehicle", – Amnon Shashua explains. The offered RSS model allows to formalize work of unmanned vehicles therefore "UAVs" will always work only within that model which is considered "safe", proceeding from accurate determinations of fault and which is approved by industry members and regulatory instances.

Cyberthreats – one of calls for any attached devices, including cars. The head of telecommunication company SoftBank Masayoshi Son (Masayoshi Son) at the end of February, 2017 provided data that the number of cyber attacks to objects with Internet connection grew four times in 2016 in comparison with 2015.

In a case with cars it is the special reason for concern as as a result of actions of malefactors I can suffer people. Theoretically, the hacker can hack network, stop data transmission, switch off brakes or just stop the machine.

In the middle of 2015, for example, specialists in a computer security of the Center of advanced technologies of Uber detected vulnerability in the software of the Jeep car thanks to which could provide remote access to some systems of the car: to the conditioner, window wipers, audio system and brakes.

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Cyber-incidents are a problem for any car maker in the world. It is a question of public security, - the CEO of General Motors noted before Mary Barra.
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The Argus company specializing in means of cyber defense for cars considers, any uniform product cannot be suitable for these purposes: the different solutions intended for different parts of the connected car should be integrated among themselves that security blanket was provided.

Car makers and decision makers for cars invest in development of this direction of cyber security. A number of car makers, including Tesla, Fiat Chrysler and General Motors, created special programs of encouragement of persons which will announce gaps in security of the systems of the machines.

Responding to the market requests, appears more and more companies developing specialized solutions for cars. Such direction appeared, for example, and at Kaspersky Lab. In 2016 the company reported that it conducts development of the protected safe operating system which, in particular, can be used for cars.

In 2016 the decision maker for the Harman cars purchased the Israeli technology of cyber security TowerSec for protected from software cracking. The same year investments for development of technologies of automobile cyber defense were received by other Israeli startup - Karamba Security.

Whose life is more important: driver or pedestrian?

In addition to technology calls to go to mass use of UAVs it is necessary to resolve also the "moral" issues connected with decision making by an auto pilot. For example, whether it should be designed so that to protect the driver's life at any cost even if in emergency situation for this purpose it is necessary to ram crowd of pedestrians?

Rules for unmanned vehicles in Germany

The federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure of Germany announced intention to enact road rules for unmanned vehicles, their producers and owners. According to in the summer of 2017 of The Register, the document will oblige developers of unmanned vehicles to program their auto pilot so that in any unexpected situation on the road it put human life above life of animals or safety of private or state-owned property[16].

Now in one country of the world there are no uniform traffic regulations which would regulate technical requirements to unmanned vehicles and regulated their movement on public roads. Some countries allow movement of unmanned vehicles on the general roads, but in this case obtaining special permission is required. At the same time driving the unmanned vehicle always there has to be a driver ready to intercept at an auto pilot management in case of any emergency situation.

Rules for unmanned vehicles in Germany were developed by the advisory board of the Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure of Germany into which 14 scientists and lawyers enter. In total 20 requirements to pilotless machines, their producers and drivers were included in the list. So, the requirement to the value of human life means that the auto pilot in any emergency situation should drive thus the car to save life of people.

In case of a dual emergency situation, the auto pilot should not make the choice whose life it is necessary to save — the driver or the pedestrian, the elderly person or the child. The auto pilot will have to do everything possible to save life of all participants of accident. All unmanned vehicles registered in Germany should have "a black box" from which records can be used after accident to find out on whom responsibility for it — on the driver or on an automatic pilot lies.

At the same time in all cases of accident with participation of the unmanned vehicle "the guilt presumption" will work, i.e. in accident the driver will be always considered as a guilty person, so far data of "the black sensor" or other results of investigation of incident will not prove the return. Also included the exclusive right of drivers to the choice of information which his producers will be able to receive from the unmanned vehicle in number of rules. It is about location, speed, driver's data and a set of other information which can be used, for example, for advertizing targeting.

Moral dilemma

The psychologist to School of economy in Toulouse Jean-Francois Bonnefon and his colleagues tell[17], people in general support the idea that in critical situation the car should crash into a wall or still somehow offer the driver to save bigger number of pedestrians. At the same time the same people want to go in cars which protect the driver at any cost even if it will entail the death of pedestrians.

Such conflict puts producers of the computerized cars in a difficult situation, Bonefon notes. Between the car which is programmed for the benefit for the majority and which is programmed for self-defense of the passenger buyers in the majority will select the second.

There are many scenarios of emergency situations when the car has to make a choice whom to offer

Authors of the research about a social dilemma of autonomous cars published in the Science magazine in 2016 believe that in it areas are also other difficult moral questions. Autonomous cars should make decisions which effects cannot be predicted in advance in emergency situations. Whether it is admissible to program, for example, the machine on that it avoided collision with the motorcyclist, having crashed into a wall? The passenger of the car in this case has more chances to survive, than at the motorcyclist who will face the car.

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Autonomous cars can make a revolution in the transport industry, but they put a social and moral dilemma which can slow down distribution of this technology, - Iyad Rahwan, the scientist from the University of California, one of authors of this research considers.
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The psychologist Kurt Gray from the University of North Carolina is confident in Chapel-Hil that it is possible to reach the working compromises. If unmanned vehicles also are programmed to protect the passenger in emergency situations, the number of road incidents anyway will decrease. Except for exceptional cases when such cars can constitute danger to passengers, they anyway will not exceed speed, will not take alcohol or to type text messages on the run why society, eventually, will win.

The moral of artificial intelligence — one of the most discussed issues connected with approach of an era of robots. In 2016 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the USA developed the special test which helps to understand better what moral dilemmas developers of artificial intelligence face, and also to deal with the moral guidelines[18].

Test very simple. In it it is necessary to deliver himself to the place of artificial intelligence of the self-governed machine and to select who in road accident can be offered — pedestrians at the intersection or passengers in the car. Sometimes it is necessary to select meanwhile which of pedestrians it is necessary to press and whom — to save.

In total in the test of 13 questions. The number of passengers and pedestrians in some tasks a miscellaneous, in some — identical. Besides, their age, sex, a social status differs. In some questions there are pets — they are equated to other passengers and pedestrians.

For an example we will take the following task: in the machine the woman and two children (the boy and the girl) sit, and on the crosswalk there are a woman and two old women. It is necessary to select which of them to artificial intelligence to save and whom — to sacrifice.

At the end of the test the user is told whom he sacrifices most often and as other people who passed a test answered.

On the website of MIT it is also possible to think up own moral task on the basis of questions of the test and to look what questions were raised by other users.

Legislation

In addition to technology calls, to go to mass use of autonomous cars it is necessary to resolve a set of issues at the level of legislative regulation. The regulating documents defining the basic technology and legal conceptions in this sphere, regulation of opportunities of use of such technologies in general, responsibility in case of incidents with unmanned vehicles, etc. are necessary.

In this or that type regulating documents in this area are already submitted or are developed in some countries. Especially moved ahead the USA here. Nevada in 2011 became the first state in the country which began regulation of use of autonomous vehicles on roads and the questions connected with their insurance, security and testing.

Conditions of movement of unmanned vehicles of different degree of freedom are now legislatively fixed in different states of the USA. In 2015 the governor of Arizona, the USA, signed the order according to which unmanned vehicles in the state are registered on the same conditions, as normal machines. No additional requirements were imposed to independent machines. Besides, state statutes do not prohibit testing of unmanned vehicles on roads.

At the end of 2016 the governor of the State of Michigan signed a packet of laws which directly concerns the sphere of unmanned vehicles and actually legalize their private and commercial use. They allow sale of serially released unmanned vehicles which underwent certification, at the same time it is authorized to cars to come out to public roads without driver driving and to move in motorcades. Besides, in the territory of the state it is authorized to use the pilotless taxi now.

In Britain in 2016 began preparation of amendments in the legislation which should, first, allow to insure responsibility of pilotless machines, and secondly, to update the Road code (the code traffic regulations of Great Britain) taking into account development of autonomous vehicles.

Artificial intelligence on transport

Main article: Artificial intelligence on transport

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Pilotless trucks

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Unmanned vehicles in Russia

Main article: Unmanned vehicles in Russia

Since 2015 the companies in Russia actively develop the technologies necessary for creation of unmanned vehicles.

World market

Main article: Unmanned vehicles (world market)

Creation of the full-fledged unmanned vehicle - one of the most fascinating calls for a technology thought of the beginning of the 21st century for the companies worldwide.

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Notes

  1. Unmanned vehicles: who develops them in Russia and that interferes with market development
  2. damage.Gurney, Jeffrey K. "Sue My Car Not Me: Products Liability and Accidents Involving Autonomous Vehicles", 2013 U. Ill. J. L. Tech. & Pol'y, Fall 2013.
  3. New Allstate Survey Shows Americans Think They Are Great Drivers - Habits Tell a Different Story
  4. Self-driving cars to jolt market by 2035
  5. Reliance on autopilot is now the biggest threat to flight safety, study says
  6. Will The Google Car Force A Choice Between Lives And Jobs?
  7. unemployment fears over Google artificial intelligence plans
  8. What If Your Autonomous Car Keeps Routing You Past Krispy Kreme?
  9. Минирование беспилотных автомобилей.Mark Harris FBI warns driverless cars could be used as 'lethal weapons '. theGuardian.com (16 July 2014).
  10. collision.Patrick Lin The Ethics of Autonomous Cars. The Atlantic (October 8, 2013).Tim Worstall When Should Your Driverless Car From Google Be Allowed To Kill You?. Forbes (2014-06-18).
  11. Not only pilotless technologies: future of automotive industry
  12. Autonomous cars it is possible to confuse road signs
  13. research Securing the Modern Vehicle: A Study of Automotive Industry Cybersecurity Practices
  14. the Unmanned vehicle it is possible to deceive special pictures
  15. of Hackers Could Use Connected Cars to Gridlock Whole Cities unmanned vehicles
  16. of Kill animals and destroy property before hurting humans, Germany tells future self-driving cars
  17. Moral dilemma could put brakes on driverless cars
  18. MIT made the test for moral dilemmas which autonomous cars will collide