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Main article: Blockchain (market of Europe)
2020: The USA lags behind Russia and China on use of a blockchain in the military purposes
In the middle of May, 2020 experts of Amazon Web Services (AWS), IBM, Deloitte and some other the companies which participated in the briefing organized by analytical center Value Technology Foundation agreed in opinion that the USA lags behind Russia and China in a race on use of a blockchain in the military purposes.
The action took place with participation of representatives of the technology, consulting companies and developers of blockchain technologies. In addition to specialists of AWS, IBM and Deloitte Accenture, CGI Federal, ConsenSys, SIMBA Chain and Colvin Run Networks participated in creation of the document.
| ||Both superstates posing the greatest threat for the USA invest heavily both in researches, and in development of technology of a blockchain, - it is specified in the report made according to the results of a briefing.|| |
Experts consider that China conducts approach in "economic war", being going to implement digital currency, and Russia actively develops defense laboratory which should trace and prevent cyberthreats using blockchain technologies.
According to authors of the document, the USA should start the same way the blockchain research and be prepared for fighting in the new sector using new technologies. Experts are sure that all efforts will immediately pay off.
In the field of cyber security the blockchain can be used by military in all directions - from "release of weapon" before prevention of erasing of information that it is impossible in case of normal databases. Besides, the blockchain can support mechanisms of management and control by means of multi-party authentication. If several parties have powers of command and they should reach a consensus before acceptance of certain measures, then a system will be better protected from errors.
Such tactics can have certain advantages to all divisions of the U.S. Armed Forces, in particular in the field of space forces, experts consider. The blockchain can make the contribution to development of this division by adding of multifactor authentication in satellite communication systems. Usually such systems are unsafe and, according to the report, earlier already became the objects of operation or were vulnerable for actions of hackers. Could cope with such problems blockchain technology.
| ||To confirm the command, the malefactor will need to receive control over any number of accounts and to find an opportunity to use these accounts for accomplishment of certain actions with a blockchain, the document says.|| |
Experts also support application of a blockchain in military supply chains with the same aim which is pursued by the civil logistic companies: identification of counterfeit goods, tracking of origin of products, security of food, quick search of goods. All this is necessary for military not less, than to civilians, experts consider. However it should be noted that military supply chains already began to implement blockchain technology. In the report several tests of a blockchain in the defense aerospace industry, additive manufacturing of parts of airplanes and naval contracts are documented.
According to the group of experts, defense industry will win at implementation of a blockchain in process of purchases. Smart contracts will help to register transactions which data are transferred only to the authorized parties, at the same time allowing to control them from the Ministry of Defence in real time. Thus the blockchain will increase transparency and a possibility of audit in a huge military-industrial purchasing system which in 2018 recognized that it lost hundreds of billions dollars because of fraud with contracts.
the BaaS Market reached $420.5 billion - ResearchAndMarket
The amount of the world market of the blockchain technologies provided in service quality (BaaS) in 2019 was $420.5 billion, the ResearchAndMarket research company reports. Analysts did not specify dynamics relatively 2018. but said that expenses on such solutions increase.
As BaaS belong solutions which allow users to create, place and use own blockchains-applications, smart contracts and functions on a blockchain through cloud platforms. Accomplishment of all necessary tasks and actions for maintenance of flexibility and operability of infrastructure is controlled by cloud provider.
Analysts carry to shortcomings of the BaaS model which constrain development of this market that the cloud blockchain means a certain extent of centralization as transactions within a chain of blocks go through a host.
But for many companies it is much more important to cut down expenses on development of own distributed technology, as allows to make a cloud service. The company does not need to invent the bicycle if for the purposes of the business if there is already ready a solution blockchain. Unless the company cannot trust service of the network of other company, let and known, it is specified in a research.
ResearchAndMarket says that the solutions BaaS will transform the financial sector how banks and other financial institutions actively study a blockchain for use in practice.
The greatest growth rates of the BaaS market take place in the Pacific Rim thanks to a blockchain projects in a public sector.
Market leaders of the blockchain technologies provided in service quality, analysts call the following companies:
Investments into developers corporate a solutions blockchain flew up for 62%
Investment volume into developers of blockchain technologies of the corporate level in 2019 reached $434 million that is 62% more, than the previous year. Data of the CB Insights analytical company specializing in market research of the venture funding demonstrate to it.
In 2019 there was a surge in activity of investors in the field of a solutions blockchain for business. In the 2018th investments were reduced here, in 2017 growth was, but it was not so essential in comparison with the 2019th. However, in 2019 the large deal at which the cryptocurrency Ripple platform attracted about $200 million took place.
Investments in a blockchain projects which are not focused on the corporate sector in 2019 made $2.36 billion, having decreased rather previous year when the indicator was measured by nearly $4 billion.
In a research it is noted that the most part of the means received by developers of corporate blockchain technologies arrives not from venture investors. On i.e. several reasons.
First, the large technology companies, like IBM and Accenture, independently develop corporate a solution blockchain for the clients. By estimates of analysts, in 2019 global expenses on the companies on a blockchain products reached $2.9 billion.
Secondly, there is a set of large consortia which created the new enterprises. They are steadily financed by the companies, but not to venture investors, and investments are transparent only in several cases. It is possible to give the B3i insurance company supported by 18 global insurers which in 2019 attracted more than $22 million investments as an example.
One more reason — the blockchain system specializing in corporate a startup of R3 endures serious recession because of dispute settlement with Ripple. This incident pushes away venture investors from the market a solutions blockchain for business.
Investments in Chinese a blockchain company failed for 40%
In the middle of January, 2020 it became known that despite very favorable attitude of China towards blockchain technologies, investments into such startups were reduced, and it is essential — for 40% in 2019 concerning the 2018th. The data collected by analysts Rhino Data and the Chinese state media company Xinhua demonstrate to it. The total amount of investments into a blockchain development in the country was 24.4 billion yuans (about $3.6 billion) at the end of 2019.
In 2018 the Chinese investments in the field of a blockchain were measured by record digits. In the 2019th both the amount of investments, and the number of transactions decreased (including venture) — the last indicator decreased 60% in comparison with 2018.
Despite it, in 2019 steady growth of investments in comparison with 2017 as in terms of the amount, and the number of the performed transactions is observed. In 2017 only 168 investment transactions connected with a blockchain were registered, and in 2019 their quantity reached 240. Xinhua also opened distribution of different types of investments. The research showed that in 2019 43.3% of investments passed through financing rounds, such as round of financing of series A.
Chinese a blockchain community became more active generally in the second half of year when several large deals of merge and absorption were concluded — it is possible, in connection with the declaration of release of digital yuan.
Falling of investments became unexpected result, considering that the government of China insists on active use of blockchain technologies. It is supposed that researches and experience of other companies should become a basis for creation of digital currency of the local central bank. Earlier the president of China Xi Jinping announced need of implementation of a blockchain in national economy as one of key technologies.
What will be a blockchain in the corporate sector in 2020
According to standards of the majority of blockchain technologies should be still in embryo, but actually develops with an unprecedented speed. After splash in interest and innovations in the first several years heads of the companies get acquainted with advantages of technology and search for ways of their implementation.
The industry is gradually consolidated as the most effective models corresponding to requirements of the enterprise come forward. The corporate blockchain in 2020 will be the focus of attention, and experts of R3 claim that deployment of technology can be provided, following the principle "simplify, connect, trade".
Complexity — the enemy of corporate technologies. The blockchain should be the practical and scalable solution used by the different organizations with the different purposes and resources therefore reference platforms should aim at simplicity and flexibility.
The organizations want to make process as much as possible available therefore deployment of a node and connection to network should be simple and painless irrespective of whether the node locally or in several networks is unrolled. The leading platform of a blockchain in 2020 should "be developed in any place at any time" with the minimum efforts that will allow clients to focus on benefits of a blockchain for business, but not on problems of its deployment. Corporate blockchains will also get advantage in comparison with public blockchains in 2020 as will provide boy simple solutions.
Reorientation to network effects will become the second key trend in 2020. It will include loading of new networks and revival of functional compatibility as the priority allowing these networks to expand an audience scope.
Clients will need an easy and convenient way of start or accession to a partner network again. The user experience should not be limited to technical reasons, and services should provide simple management and "economy of consortium" which will allow the companies more effectively and reasonably to do business with several partners.
In 2020 the blockchain will prove the advantage in the field of transactions, and deployment of high-quality digital assets will become the key moment. Implementation of regulated network of assets will accelerate rates of innovations in the field of digital values, especially digital currencies which are regulated or supported by the central bank. The current reactionary movement against private or cryptocurrency stable coins will gain steam as public sector will aim to recode cryptocurrencies by means of the accelerated experiments with digital currencies.
In 2020 blockchain technology will reach a necessary maturity. In the last several years of the company appeared in the center of an improbable hurricane of innovations and experiments and put forward a set of different models in the best way to unroll and control networks of a blockchain in corporate environment. However many of a debate are already solved as the industry is consolidated around the most suitable models. In 2020 there will be those who will be able to simplify process of deployment of a blockchain, to establish relations between networks and to provide uninterrupted transactions in real time.
What to wait from a blockchain in 2020 for
At the beginning of December, 2019 analysts of Gartner submitted a number of the forecasts connected using a blockchain in 2020. The blockchain gradually gains trust of the market therefore this technology begin to use in spheres, earlier even not being considered. However specialists consider that before winning the market, the new technology still should ripen as technically and as a part of more powerful ecosystem.
1. Identification of false news
Articles and other content based on obviously false information are often attracted by more users, than these news - it is profitable to advertisers and ratings, but remains a serious problem for society. By 2023 the reality of 30% of world news and video content will be confirmed with the help a blockchain systems, resisting to Deep Fake technology.
2. Digital exchanges
Calculations for securities are performed by the central private organizations and though process of movement of stocks and bonds between buyers and sellers should take up to three days, long delays quite often meet. Provide to blockchain technology necessary transparency and reliability of transactions thanks to what need of multilevel checks disappears by itself.
3. The blockchain revolution will head China, having left the USA far behind
The government of China announced development of the development strategy focused on a blockchain recently. This solution mentions both initiatives of a state machinery of all China, and expenses of the different regional governments. To the contrary, the American and European regulators do not hide careful approach to blockchain technologies.
It is supposed that most quicker the blockchain will be implemented into the sphere of financial services as will be able to ensure safety of systems and management of identification data - at first for the separate enterprises, and then and for consumers.
5. In the market hybrid blockchains will dominate
Analysts schtat that the future behind hybrid blockchains which combine the best sides of both private, and public blockchains. Ideally the hybrid blockchain will provide controlled access and freedom at the same time. 
The leading companies on a blockchain patents are called
In November, 2019 Chinese academies of information and communication technologies (China Academy for Information and Communications Technology, CAICT) published results of the global research devoted to patents on blockchain technology.
At the end of 2018 the British company Nchain which sent to competent authorities 469 addresses worldwide was the leader in the number of requests for registration of the patents connected with a blockchain. Afterwards were located with Alibaba and Mastercard with 262 and 184 requests respectively.
Blockchain patents are concentrated at the companies from China, the USA, Canada, South Korea and Britain. From 2013 to December 20 of the 2018th in the Chinese business 4435 patents for a blockchain were registered that makes 48% of total number in the world. The share of the USA made 21% (1833 patents).
| ||Rapid growth of number of patents on Chinese blockchain technology not only reflects emphasis of the country on promotion of technology, but also indicates that the People's Republic of China will have a greater international influence on a blockchain market — it is said the report of CAICT.|| |
In China the surge in growth of number of the companies which are engaged in blockchain technologies is also observed. Them was 27,784 in June, 2019. Analysts from Celestial Empire claim what in the USA is registered only 1430 a blockchain companies, and in their Britain it is even less — 465.
However the public TV channel CCTV of China reports only that in the country of only 10% of the companies which carry themselves to the blokchen-market actually are engaged in development of technology.
The Chinese President Xi Jinping urged to accelerate implementation of a blockchain in the country, having called the latest technologies "a basis for conversions to the industries, finance and other industries". After that interest in a blockchain strongly increased in the country.
Where the government should implement a blockchain. 8 councils from Gartner
According to forecasts of researchers, by 2025 the blockchain technology will be become an interoperable basis for global hostless system of identification. Government officials who consider the possibility of use of a blockchain are already faced by a number of promising and practical options of use of this technology.
Use of a blockchain on elections is of interest to many governments though only the few use this technology at the national level. Different startups already carried out pilot projects in the USA, Ukraine and Sierra Leone though not everywhere this system could be fully called decentralized. In general, any of pilot projects could not provide safe option of authentication of voters yet or to solve more serious problems connected with fraud and intimidation.
2. Humanitarian and social services
Improvement of services which are provided to the needing population without documents can become one more reason for implementation of a blockchain. Such projects include the World food programme of the UN, the Program of development of the UN, the Aid program to refugees in Finland, MyPass initiative in the city of Austin, State of Texas, and department of the help to the homeless of New York.
3. Markets of digital assets
The governments are also interested in use of a blockchain for trade in purely digital assets or digital representations of tangible assets. It allows them to act as the supplier in the different industries, such as insurance, utilities, health care, fishery, agriculture, mineral extraction and the right to water.
4. Increase in efficiency
Initiatives of increase in efficiency are based on the idea that the system of transactions can be optimized using a blockchain. It can be useful to the governments which should provide interactions and transactions between the different government organizations or with participation of larger state/private ecosystems.
The governments of some countries announced creation of management systems for documentation on the basis of a blockchain, and Dubai and the American States of Vermont and Delaveruzhe showed pilot blockchain platforms.
6. The monitored transactions
The decentralized applications, or Dapps, are software applications which allow members of a peer-to-peer network to interact among themselves with complete tracking of all transactions. The government can trace supply chains, improve work of customs or increase transparency concerning origin and structure of products.
7. Difficult data
The blockchain can be used in the strategy including processing of difficult data. Medical records, the intellectual property rights, large volumes of the connected unstructured data and documents and, as a rule, record about the real estate can be examples.
8. Independent records (Self Sovereign records)
Self Sovereign means that the user owns credentials and also Credentials representing a set of attributes, such as diploma about education, the passport number, the medical book, etc., received and signed with the digital signature from the entrusted / authoritative sources (for example, a passport office, the university, bank). These records are stored at the owner and transferred to other participants only if necessary. Such system combines the entrusted sources with a safe method of information exchange and allows individuals to collect and manage the records from several sources.
IDC: In the 2019th the market the blockchain will grow by 80%
The IDC analytical company issued in the summer of 2019 the report of Worldwide Semiannual Blockchain Spending Guide which contains data analysis about expenses on a blockchain projects in cuts of regional and vertical integration, options of use, buyers and technology perspectives. Analysts believe that the industry waits for rapid development. So, in the current year its volume will reach about 2.7 bln. dollars, having increased in comparison with the 2018th by impressive 80%. After that growth rates of the market will decrease a little, annually being about 60.2%. In 2023 volume the blockchain market will make 15.9 billion dollars.
The USA — 1.1 bln. dollars in 2019 will become the champion among investors in a blockchain. The second place will be taken by countries of Western Europe with a total amount of investments of 661 mln. dollars. China which will invest 304 mln. dollars will get the third place. Russia where the interest of the population in blockchain technologies and mining of bitcoins does not die away also will contribute to the general deposit. And in costs growth rates of all competitors Canada which growth of investments in blockchain technology by 2023 will be 73.3% will overtake. In general growth rates in all nine analyzed regions are regarded by experts of IDC as phenomenal.
Among the industries the greatest investments in 2019 are predicted in the financial sector (about 30% of total amount). Mainly it will occur due to rapid implementation of a blockchain in the bank industry and insurance. About 20% of investments are expected in the field of discrete and continued (process) production. Expenses on a blockchain among the enterprises of continued production will grow most quicker — for 68.8% annually. Four more industries (discrete production, professional services, retail and utilities) will also grow quicker, than the market in general.
If IDC predicts rapid market development a solutions blockchain, then Gartner notes the flat demand on this technology among the companies. 77% of the polled Chief information officers in 2018 declared lack of interest in a blockchain. 43% of respondents are not going to conduct any works and researches in this area, though monitor news in the market.
Most the analytical agencies agree in opinion that behind a blockchain the future of e-commerce. According to the forecasts published by IBM by the end of 2020 about the two third banking activities it will be performed by means of this technology.
The banking sector — not the only sphere which will fully be able to take all advantage of a blockchain as the basic principles of its work are suitable for use practically in any field of activity. According to experts, the transparency of a blockchain and also an opportunity to make transactions in real time give the grounds to believe that advantages of technology just began to show the true potential.
Deloitte: China considers a blockchain the strategic weapon
For creation of this report under the name "The Global Overview of a Blockchain for 2019" of analytics of 1386 representatives of the companies from 11 countries, including 304 respondents from the USA and 200 of China to estimate their opinion on the main directions of development and investments in blockchain technology.
The research was conducted during the period between February 8 and on March 4, 2019. According to survey results, in China the share of the employees considering a blockchain one of the priority directions of development of technologies was the highest – so consider nearly 75% of the Chinese enterprises while the similar indicator in the USA is made by 56%.
On average in the world this digit made 53% that is 10% more, than in 2018. Among 11 countries the prevailing understanding of the fact that the blockchain — is very important for development of economy is observed, researchers note.
The head of the Asia-Pacific laboratory Deloitte and the partner in consulting in Deloitte Advisory Paul Sin noted in the report that China will implement a blockchain not tactically, and strategically, and to it is not present equal in the rest of the world yet. The matter is that the majority of projects in China the government which uses a blockchain as strategic weapon, but not as the tool for performance improvement directs, Sin noted.
Since the Chinese President Xi Jinping called a blockchain a disruptive technology, the authorities directed nearly $6 billion the state investments to this sphere. As of April, 2019 China is in the lead by quantity developed a blockchain projects. The governments of several large cities started investment funds for support of the enterprises in this industry.
Gartner: 7 main errors at implementation a solutions blockchain
On June 12, 2019 analysts of Gartner called 7 main errors at implementation a solutions blockchain. According to experts, the companies still carefully master this technology, trying to understand how it can increase efficiency of business processes, making the following mistakes.
1. Wrong understanding and use blockchain systems
Gartner noticed that by June, 2019 the majority a blockchain projects are implemented only for data writing through technologies of the decentralized register (DLT). At the same time the companies ignore such key functions as the decentralized consensus, tokenization and smart contracts. As business does not use all opportunities of a blockchain, there is a reasonable question — whether this technology is necessary to the companies in general, the senior director on the researches Gartner Adrian Leow notes.
| ||It is possible to begin with DLT, but Chief information officers first of all need to specify options of use of a blockchain in general and to pass to projects in which other components of a blockchain are also used — the expert added.|| |
According to forecasts of researchers, 90% a blockchain projects which develop by June, 2019, most likely, should be overworked in the next 18 months. Corrections are necessary in order that the companies remained competitive, protected and relevant for the market.
2. The delusion is that the technology is ready to commercial operation
The market of blockchain platforms is huge and consists generally of the fragmented offers which creators want to select themselves against the background of competitors. Some place emphasis on confidentiality, others — on tokenization, the third — on universal calculations. However the majority of platforms still too unripe for polnomashstabny implementation in work of the enterprise. It is connected with the fact that they do not meet the conforming standards of security and also have no architecture compatible to the majority of modern tools for management of networks.
According to analysts, the number of offers in the market confuses the specialists making decisions in the field of IT. The research company also says that with growth of interest of the enterprises to a blockchain also the number of producers of such platforms increases.
According to Adrian Lio, any blockchain platform will not become dominating till 2024. Many companies do not understand whether the blockchain differs from other modern technologies therefore do not hurry to implement it, the expert is sure.
| ||Many Chief information officers revaluate opportunities and short-term advantages of a blockchain as the technology helping them to reach the business objectives that creates unreal expectations at assessment of offers from developers of blockchain platforms and service providers — Adrian Lio noted.|| |
3. It is wrong to attribute to the protocol the status of business solution
Blockchain — this basic technology, but not the full application in which there is a user interface, business logic, mechanisms of preserving of data and interaction.
| ||In a case with a blockchain there is a wrong opinion that the technology of basic level is not so far from the finished solution. It's not true. It helps to consider a blockchain as the protocol for accomplishment of a certain task within the full application. It is wrong to believe that the protocol can be the only base for all system of e-commerce or social network — Adrian Lio specifies.|| |
4. The blockchain is considered the database or means of storage
By June, 2019 the blockchain does not include all opportunities inherent in traditional DBMS, such as creation, reading, updating and removal of information. Instead in a blockchain only creation and data reading is supported. Owing to this fact experts recommend to IT specialists to review requirements to data management in a blockchain systems and, perhaps, to resort to traditional to solutions.
5. You should not be believed in compatibility of technologies
The majority of blockchain platforms are at a development stage therefore developers do not think yet of how they will interact in the future. You should not select at the rate on its compatibility with technology of other producer, advise in Gartner.
6. Smart contracts yet not dorabotana
Smart contracts are considered as the most powerful catalyst of development of a blockchain as technologies. They add dynamic behavior to transactions. In the conceptual plan smart contracts can be considered the procedures of storage connected with specific records of transactions. But, unlike such procedure in a centralized system, smart contracts are executed by all nodes in the peer-to-peer network that leads to problems in scalability and controllability which were not completely solved yet. For this purpose 2-3 years are necessary, analysts believe. They recommend to the companies not to plan large projects of implementation of smart contracts, and to make only small experiments.
7. The companies forget about questions of management
| ||The behavior of people and motivation seldom undertake in attention. Chief information officers should realize risks which can arise because of problems of management of a blockchain. The large companies in particular should think of accession or formation of consortia to help to define management models for public a solutions blockchain — Adrian Lio concluded. || |
Flying University: The rating of the countries with the best conditions for development a blockchain projects. Russia on the 18th place
In March, 2019 Flying University published the rating of the countries in which, according to experts, there are optimum conditions for development and development of the business projects connected with a blockchain and cryptocurrencies.
The research is conducted on the basis of own methodology which includes assessment of legal, political and infrastructure conditions in the different countries in terms of friendliness to the business using technologies of a blockchain and cryptocurrency. Authors of the report first of all were guided by changes to which economies of the different countries were exposed under the influence of a blockchain and the accompanying technologies.
In a research it is said that by March, 2019 the market of cryptocurrencies and the blockchain projects in Russia is practically not regulated, and initiatives of the authorities remain bills. As soon as they are accepted, and steady legal practice will be created, it will be possible to speak about absolutely new period concerning the Russian regulators to cryptocurrencies, experts report.
Some aspects of the cryptoindustry are solved by analogy with taxation, but mostly the legislation in the field of cryptocurrency and a blockchain in the Russian Federation is absent, researchers specify.
According to experts, the majority of the countries have "rather positive relation" to cryptocurrencies and a blockchain, but development of regulation will depend on that, how effectively the cryptoindustry will be able to show "the reliability and transparency".
McKinsey: The blockchain remains at the initial stage of development, but attracts the innovative companies
At the beginning of January, 2019 the consulting company McKinsey published the trend report of development a blockchain industry. In a research it is said that the number of the investments involved to this sphere does not correspond to the level of its development. So far the blockchain cannot dictate the rules of the game, but it is capable to become valuable means — enough only to apply blockchain technology where they are the simplest of available solutions.
During 2017-2018 the market the blockchain became the center of attention of many investors. According to the estimates of the CoinSchedule portal, only in 2018 this technology attracted $21.4 billion financing from large corporations, venture firms and private investors.
However, according to analysts of McKinsey, a blockchain develop insufficiently quickly and real progress in the industry is insignificant, so, it does not justify huge investments. Experts are sure that this technology should make fundamental changes in many areas, but meanwhile proofs of almost significant and scalable options of use of a blockchain are not enough, despite hype in media.
According to market specialists, by the beginning of 2019 the blockchain still is at an early stage of development. As well as all hardly arisen technologies, a solution blockchain are rather difficult, expensive and unstable. All of them have no satisfactory system of regulation yet, and the trust of society to them is small, reported in the report.
Innovations in the field of a blockchain still should be selected from initial stage of development to expand the influence and to achieve acceptance in mass market. In spite of the fact that by 2019 a lot of pilot is created a blockchain projects, they are far from implementation commercially. In general industry perspectives as analysts note, look indefinite.
The main hitch, according to McKinsey, is that solutions, rather difficult for implementation, based on a blockchain are necessary not in all spheres. According to the methodological principle of Occam's razor, the best, as a rule, is the simplest solution. McKinsey notes that in terms of the economic theory any technology passes through initial phase when investments much more exceed practical return, and the first attempts of use of new technologies often seem unreasonably difficult or too expensive. Eventually the new technology should win the market and to become available to a wide range of users.
However in a case with a blockchain everything becomes complicated the fact that in most cases these projects try to win the place in quite developed markets where other solutions and alternative technologies directed to the solution of similar problems are enough. Proceeding from it, many a blockchain projects can not meet expectations of investors.
Nevertheless, analysts of McKinsey recognize that they in some industries of blockchain technology can be extremely useful and quite good to prove. Some niche options of use of this technology have no equivalent alternatives. The blockchain quite is suitable for integration into logistics, insurance, the capital markets and supply channels of products. In all these industries the transparency and traceability of processes which interferes with fraud and allows to increase efficiency significantly is important.
Besides, the blockchain is often attracted by the industries which are strategically focused on upgrade. Their participants see in a blockchain the tool for development of digital technologies, simplification of processes and the cooperation based on trust. In particular, the blockchain purchased popularity among the companies signing global contracts for the goods delivery, providing trade financing and developing payment applications.
Nevertheless, in many cases of blockchain technology provide only a small part of required changes and cannot independently provide breakthrough in this industry. In certain cases in the field of power, investments and the industry it is enough to companies to resume cooperation to solve problems which do not depend on the used technologies at all.
Analysts also emphasize that implementation of blockchain technologies positively affects image of the company and attracts shareholders who prefer to deal with the people ready to innovations. The increasing number of the companies develop pilot a blockchain projects for the sake of reputation to show to shareholders and to competitors the flexibility and readiness to make new solutions, however without having real intention to create the commercial offer.
Get to this category a blockchain development, focused on a customer loyalty and and not having the practical application. Nevertheless, the value of image should not be denied and in a certain measure of blockchain technology justify the finance enclosed in them even in that case.
In view of a difficult situation of a blockchain, analysts ask natural questions of the future of this innovative technology. McKinsey assumes that by 2020 the number of devices with access to the network will reach 20 billion pieces, and it will demand adequate technologies of management, storage and data retrieval. The modern blockchain is not considered an effective remedy of data management as the number of transactions cannot exceed a limit of the separate block. The blockchain, according to McKinsey spetsialit, cannot become the elegant solution of all problems what it is seen by some companies. Nevertheless, at the correct application this technology is still capable to change the world.
WinterGreen Research for IBM
IDC: Market size is $1.5 billion
According to forecasts of experts, in 2019 volume global the blockchain market will grow by 88.7%, having made $2.9 billion, and it will be measured in the 2022nd by $12.4 billion. Annual average growth rates of the considered market are expected at the level of 76%.
| ||The blockchain quickly develops, and we already reached a turning point at which projects quickly leave pilot and conceptual stages — the director of research of Worldwide Blockchain Strategies in IDC James Wester says. — Data on actual expenses on technology are important, and that is why: they open the contextual environment in which the blockchain develops. Understanding of that as well as where the companies invest the money, gives to suppliers the best idea of where they need to provide products and services and also offers buyers of technologies understanding of how their colleagues implement a blockchain. It also gives an idea of where the new technology will be able to change methods of distribution of the corporate software.|| |
More often and most of all representatives of the financial industry, including banks, insurance companies and service providers on the investment management and securities invest in a blockchain.
The second place on a blockchain expenses is taken by the enterprises representing industrial production and the extracting industry. Top three includes the markets of retail and professional services.
As for the countries, the USA remains the leader in costs for a solution blockchain. Follow the states of Western Europe and China, but on growth rates of investments Japan and Canada, the study says are in the lead]
IDC: Investments into a blockchain in Europe will grow by 10 times
Investments into blockchain technology in Europe will grow from $400 million which are expected in 2018 to $3.5 billion at the end of 2022, analytical company IDC predicts. It is strictly about the implementations of technology which are not connected with cryptocurrencies reported on July 24, 2018 the Prime agency.
Outputs of IDC are based on data on investments in technology and on information on its use by the companies from different regions.
The blockchain technology (blockchain) gives the chance to organize the decentralized database which information is stored in a continuous consecutive chain of blocks. Data thus are stored not on the uniform server, and on a set of the different systems.
Implementation of technology began with cryptocurrency bitcoin, however there is a set of other possible options of use of a blockchain. For this reason the research IDC considers only those implementations of technology which are not connected with cryptocurrencies in any way.
| ||The concept "blockchain" long time was inseparably linked with cryptocurrencies, but its application is not limited to them, and increasing number of the organizations — commercial and state — investigate a possibility of use of this technology for other needs — Roman Ginyatullin, the information security expert of SEC Consult Services company noted. — In principle, any industry needing preserving of integrity of the critical information can find for this technology practical application.|| |
Analysts of IDC predict that Europe will become the second in value investor in blockchain technology: the annual average growth rate of investments in 2017-2022 will be 80.2%. As of 2018 the USA remains the leader in investments into a blockchain.
| ||The European market less flexible, in comparison with other regions and also more differentiated in terms of the amount of business. Nevertheless... 2018 is year of a blockchain, and the European companies show the increasing interest in technology, says IDC.|| |
The blockchain, according to experts is most popular, in the financial sector — investments into technology at the end of 2018 will make $173 million (42% of the total amount of investments). Great interest to a blockchain is shown by also banking sector and insurance. By 2022, as expected, most often the blockchain will be used for tracking of observance of regulatory requirements, check and verification of cross-border payments and calculations and also in asset management and goods.
IDC: World expenses on a blockchain will double
By 2022 universal expenses on the solutions connected with a blockchain will exceed 11.7 bln. dollars, predicts in the summer of 2018 of IDC. From 2017 for 2022 the annual average growth of expenses (CAGR) will reach 73.2%. This year the total costs relatively will double 2017 and will overcome a boundary of 1.5 bln. dollars. The region with the most significant investments into a blockchain (over 36% of the general) will be the USA. Afterwards Western Europe, China and the Pacific Rim will be placed. Among the states with the most dynamically growing CAGR Japan (+108.7%) and Canada (+86.7%) are called.
Thanks to mastering of a blockchain (552 mln. dollars) the financial sector will be the bank industry in 2018 the first in expense level. The direction of distribution and services will reach 379 mln. dollars that will occur thanks to investments from retail and professional services. Production and production of resources will spend for not less than 334 mln. dollars connected with a blockchain of the solution, significantly having stimulated the directions of discrete and technology productions.
In the USA the largest a blockchain investment are expected in the field of distribution of goods and services, and in Western Europe, the countries of the Middle East and Africa, in China and the Pacific Rim on the first place there will be an industry of finance. Process production (+78.8%), the sphere of professional services (+77.7%) and the bank industry (+74.7%) will become the industries with most in high gear growth of costs for a solution blockchain. Beyond the scope of these categories the largest investments are expected in program blockchain platforms and software for information security support.
In a research it is specified that blockchain technology asset management mechanisms can significantly transform, give much-needed transparency in the field of deliveries of goods and services and also to make a revolution in logistics.
It is remarkable that while experts of IDC predict rapid market development a solutions blockchain, their colleagues from Gartner published the research speaking about the flat demand on this technology among the companies recently. 77% of the polled Chief information officers declared lack of interest in a blockchain. 43% of respondents are not going to conduct any works and researches in this area, though monitor news in the market.
DataArt: What waits for the market of a blockchain in 2019
At the end of October, 2018 the DataArt company specializing in outsourcing of software development and such areas as Internet-applications, corporate databases and instruments of industrial automation, submitted the forecast for development a blockchain market in 2019. Experts were own observations of the leading companies in several industries staking on development of technology the basis for the research.
Exit of the innovative solutions out of limits of an initial purpose of a blockchain
| ||We will see how more and more projects will use a blockchain in the processes which do not have a direct bearing on payments or cryptocurrencies. For example, in the insurance market we expect surge in researches, the developments and deployments directed to studying of controlled blockchains and application of smart contracts for problem solving of a low performance and delays in the business processes connected with checks, control and approval — reported in DataArt.|| |
Big emphasis on machine learning and synergy of a blockchain
The blockchain will interact with opportunities of machine learning thanks to what difficult solutions (for example, at approval of insurance payments) can be accepted automatically. Such integration can also find application at placement of contracts, assessment of an insurance indemnity, drawing of invoices on the basis of triggers, work with technical accounts and settlement of losses.
Data management will draw more attention
According to forecasts of DataArt, in 2019 in the market of financial services there will be new solutions which will be used by the principles of smart contracts for management and data transmission. It especially concerns those areas where before work with information was limited to the PDF documents, such as financial reportings or credit agreements.
The growing influence of large players
In 2019 emergence of solutions of larger players and communities, such as B3i insurance group (The Blockchain Insurance Industry Initiative) is expected. Their work can have a long-term impact on industry standards and business methods in the future.
Beginning of a new era of management of identification data
Management systems for identification of users on the basis of a blkocheyn will become more popular in 2019. Communities of the Open Source projects will play more and more important role in the help to the companies to create the new technical components and solutions applicable in all industries. In particular, it is directly about management systems for identification data, libraries of smart contracts and information exchange.
Experts are sure of existence of huge potential of a blockchain in the different markets and consider that 2019 can become a rotary point in development of technology. The blockchain stopped being the mysterious and created a scandal technology which was tested by the few. Now industry leaders develop its potential in the aspiration to transform the whole industries, going beyond a narrow framework of an initial purpose of a blockchain in cryptocurrencies.
For 2018 the experts of DataArt working with a blockchain watched changes in how the large companies involve this technology. Most the organizations aimed to invest in development of potential of a blockchain, staked on research projects and projects on verification of the concept (Proof of Concept) of corporate clients. Now these companies try to apply the radical concepts inspired by a blockchain to rethink difficult, expensive and inefficient business processes.
Gartner: Interest in a blockchain is overpriced
Interest in blockchain technology is overpriced, declared on May 4, 2018 in Gartner research company according to the results of poll of 293 Chief information officers of the companies. The purpose of poll was to set the level of interest in blockchain technology.
As it appeared, the blockchain is not interesting to most the companies which participated in a research. So, 77% of respondents reported that they are not going to apply a blockchain, but in general monitor development of technology, said in the report of Gartner.
In particular, announced lack of interest in a blockchain to 34% of respondents. 43% indicated that they were not going to conduct any work or a research in this area, though monitored news in this sphere.
Only 1% of respondents announced application of a blockchain in the business. Another 8% reported that they experimented with a blockchain and are going to integrate technology in the near future.
18% from among CIO which started implementation of a blockchain, were recognized that it it was extremely difficult to find specialists in this area. On a withdrawal of 14% of the Chief information officers who implemented a blockchain, the technology changes work of IT department and also causes the necessity of changes of a business model and management model by the company.
In an industry section, according to Gartner, the greatest interest in a blockchain is shown by CIO from the sphere of telecommunications, insurance and finance.
Commenting on results of a research, the vice president of Gartner David Ferlonger expressed opinion that around a blockchain and its possible implementation the agiotage is in large quantities inflated. Frequent references of blockchain technology in the press, according to him, can push away business from this technology.
| ||It is crucial to understand, than the blockchain is and that it is capable to do by its capability today to transform the companies, the industries and society tomorrow — the vice president of Gartner David Ferlonger is convinced.|| |
Implementation of a blockchain in business processes, according to him, requires extensive knowledge in many spheres, such as security, law, decentralized control, and the organizations which will decide to use a blockchain will be forced to change completely the historical structure whose traditional business processes do not correspond to the idea of a blockchain.
At the same time, as Ferlonger specified, the companies hurrying to integrate a blockchain can face loss of investments or find out that the technology does not suit them:
| ||Though a set of the industries show initial interest to a blockchain initiatives while it is not clear whether will approach decentralized by it, the distributed and tokenized networks. They have chances to stick, trying to integrate a blockchain into outdated flows of value creation and a system.|| |
Nevertheless, the range of opportunities of use of a blockchain is extremely wide: cross-border payments, intellectual sales contracts and purchase of assets, safe accounting, medical records and simplification of supply chains, specified in Gartner. Interest in this technology Microsoft IT companies (the service of Azure Blockchain allows the enterprise to unroll or single network based on Hyperledger Fabric, or multi-user network Ethereum), show Oracle (service of Blockchain Cloud Service), IBM (optimized the solution based on Hyperledger practices), HPE (is going to issue the Mission Critical platform).
IHS Markit: Revenues of financial companies from implementation of a blockchain in $1.9 billion
In 2017 financial companies earned (in number saved) in total $1.9 billion thanks to a blockchain, analysts of IHS Markit counted. They published some calculations from the research on February 11, 2019.
According to experts, literally and day does not pass without news about what banks and financial institutions use blockchain technology for conversion of a considerable part of the business. Taking into account a large number of such commercial projects which are started by February, 2019 and will be implemented in the future, it is expected that to the 2030th income of the financial industry from a blockchain it is on a global scale reached $462 billion.
| ||The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Financial Services Authority, Managements of currency circulation of Hong Kong and other regulating authorities positively react to implementation of blkocheyn-technologies in the financial sector — the leading analyst of IHS Markit Don Tait says. — Support from these regulators strengthens trust to a blockchain, helping it to become more widespread technology.|| |
Analysts note that there is a set of options of use of a blockchain in the financial sector: here both cross-border payments, and stock trading, and syndicated lending. Within the next decade the world financial industry which includes insurance and financial that will remain the largest market in terms of income from use of blockchain technologies, said in the research published in February, 2019.
As the financial sector includes the markets of large volume, even the small percent of economy of expenses and increase in efficiency can lead to a considerable pecuniary benefit for the companies and the industries in general which implement a blockchain. For example, the market of transactions with the derivative financial instruments is estimated approximately at $544 trillion a year, and market capitalization of all world stock markets makes $73 trillion.
According to Don Tate, applying a blockchain to a settlement and clearing system investment companies can save up to $12 billion on agency fees. The blockchain can also save money to financial institutions, cutting many traditional intermediaries involved in the financial sector, the expert added.
The modern financial accounting system requires participation of the entrusted third parties, independent auditors who check financial information of the company. Audit — an expensive and long action. With arrival of blockchain technology need for it will disappear.
According to specialists, the blockchain and other different technologies of the distributed register already began to extend widely outside financial and insurance companies - the market in which they appeared initially. Perspective projects are tested in the different industries in which there is a digital transformation: retail, consumer goods, to logistika, art, public services, entertainments, etc.
IBM predicts that by the end of 2020 about the two third banking activities will be performed by means of a blockchain.
According to experts, the transparency of a blockchain and also an opportunity cardinally to make transactions in real time will be able to transform many directions of the financial industry. For example, accounting will be able to be carried out by the principle not of double, but threefold record. The blockchain allows to perform complete and final check without participation of the confidential party. All financial statements can be stored in a blockchain where it is open for the general access.
Experts note that they initially of blockchain technology were used only by financial companies, however the potential of their application was almost boundless. Though the blockchain still is considered young technology, it is expected that it will be used especially actively in five largest areas.
The financial industry including financial and insurance services will use first of all a blockchain for carrying out the international payments, the stock trading and securities, storages of assets in the state and private markets. As the market capital of all world stock markets is equal to $73 trillion, even small cost reduction and increase in efficiency can make considerable profit for the companies using a blockchain.
2. Logistics and supply chain management
According to forecasts of IHS Markit, implementation of a blockchain will play an important role in strengthening of positions of this industry. The World Trade Organization (WTO) considers that reduction of obstacles on all supply chain can potentially increase the international gross internal product by 5%, and a business volume for 15%.
Depending on goods tsepoch deliveries can cover hundreds of stages, several geographical points, a set of invoices and payments; at the same time several persons and the organizations can be involved, and all process takes up to several months. The blockchain will simplify tracking of chains and will provide their transparency, and it, in turn, will transform the market.
3. Identity certificate
Digital identity - one of the very first and complex problems on the Internet. However the World Wide Web Consortium standardizes a format of digital signatures, and public will be able to provide to blockchain technology the decentralized registration and the public keys necessary for verification of digital signatures. This area of applications is used in many vertical markets. With increase in number brought and implemented into commercial operation a blockchain projects, by 2030 business cost in the sector of management by identification and accounts will reach $200 billion.
4. Retail and e-commerce
It is supposed that originally use of a blockchain will be stimulated in retail trade and e-commerce with sale of shares, the decentralized markets, payments, "smart" contracts, supply chains and other applications. With increase in number of blockchain technologies by 2030 the cost of this vertical market should be $164 billion.
Use of blockchain technologies in the sector of retail and e-commerce will promote a direct connection with buyers, and it will allow the companies to understand their requirements and behavior better. The blockchain and "smart" contracts will become tools in the markets of new generation which will allow to exist to the confidential trade transactions which are not needing the central broker company.
5. Health care
Blockchain technology in the health sector developments of drugs, complaint handling and accounts and also for medical researches will be used for management of medical data. Besides, it is supposed that the blockchain will minimize use of counterfeit drugs, will ensure safety of confidential data and at the same time will allow to create the uniform decentralized database. Thanks to it the benefit of the pharmaceutical and medical companies will be $134 billion
Deloitte: Only 8% open a blockchain startups remain afloat
According to Deloitte, from nearly 27 thousand a blockchain projects placed on the GitHub platform in 2016 actively are supported by developers a year of only 8% later. At the same time 92% of developments actually were the dead.
| ||Severe reality of projects open source such is that most of them ceased to develop or did not reach the essential size. Unfortunately, the blockchain is also not insured from it. Only we can call 8% of such projects active are that were updated at least once for the last six months — analysts of Deloitte report.|| |
Turning probability a blockchain projects is higher if they are created not by the companies: by October, 2017 15% of such projects developed in the organizations remained afloat whereas the share of like those in case of development by private users makes only 7%.
Most often projects close within the first six months after the beginning of work. Only 5% drive out of all copied projects ("forking" — copying of the project in a working environment), and average life expectancy a blockchain project makes 1.22 years, the report says.
By October, 2017 on GitHub about 86 thousand a blockchain projects, more than 9300 of which are created by the companies, research institutes and startups, were placed in total.
The most active on GitHub are developers of technologies for cryptocurrencies bitcoin: 627 people participate in their creation, and monitor a repository of nearly 12 thousand. Ethereum 149 people whose work constantly watches 5.6 thousand users of service are engaged in development of the official protocol on Go.
IDC: Honor market size in $1 billion
In 2017 world expenses on a solution blockchain made $945 million. Such assessment at the end of January, 2018 was provided by analysts of Research Firm IDC within the forecast for investments into technologies of the distributed register (distributed ledger technology, DLT) until 2021.
| ||Interest in blockchain technologies and the distributed register, also, as well as investments, promptly increase. Many technology companies and service providers cooperate in this sphere with consortia like Enterprise Ethereum Alliance and Hyperledger Projects, jointly developing the innovative solutions allowing to improve such processes as settlement and clearing transactions, tracking of loads in a supply chain and record of transactions for audit. Besides, regulators and the Central Banks highly appreciate potential a blockchain and DLT technologies worldwide that promotes acceleration of their implementation in regulated spheres - financial services and health care — Bill Fernli Jr. comments (Bill Fearnley, Jr.), the director of research of IDC in the area a blockchain.|| |
Supplementing the colleague, the analyst of IDC Stacey Soohoo noted that the 2017th was year of experiments for which the enterprises realized the advantages and difficulties connected in application of blockchain technology. In the 2018th the next, major stage will begin: the companies will pass from pilot projects to full-scale implementation.
The leader in respect of investments in blockchain technology and their uses specialists call the USA. "The second violin" is played by countries of Western Europe, and on the third place — China and the states of the Pacific Rim. It is expected that approximately same allocation of costs will remain throughout all considered period, up to 2021.
Frost & Sullivan: Investments in blockchain technology reached $500 million a year
During 2016 about $500 million were invested in a blockchain startups in the world. It is the highest rate for all history of similar investments. In 2015 investment volume was $495 million, in 2014 — $390 million, and in 2013 — $95 million.
Thus, in total since 2013 different the solution blockchain was collected by about $1.5 billion investments. During the same period developers took out more than 2.5 thousand patents for different technologies in the specified sphere. The analysts of Frost & Sullivan company who published results of the research Global Blockchain Startup Ecosystem 2017 came to such conclusion.
From the large funds investing in a blockchain in a research Union Square Ventures, Kleiner Perkins Caulfield & Byers, Andreesen Horowitz, CME Ventures, Goldman Sachs, Citi Ventures and Santander InnoVentures are mentioned. Emergence of funds which specialize only in investments into a blockchain, such as Boost VC, Digital Currency Group, Pantera Capital and Coinsilium was at the same time recorded.
Blockchain startups on the industries
Most of all blockchain startups, as well as investments into them, is in the IT industry. In total here 585 such startups were based, and most of them began the existence after 2013. In the financial industry quantity the blockchain startups reaches 429 at present. In the field of the consulting services concerning a blockchain and also in the field of Proof-of-Concept 62 startups work. Proof-of-Concept is understood as confirmation of real operability of this or that concept for the enterprise.
According to analysts of Frost & Sullivan, for implementation of a blockchain the medicine, power and the industry are extremely perspective. In these spheres exist near the 100th blockchain startups.
In power the blockchain can solve such problems as the organization of the systems of intellectual accounting at the enterprises and also creation of Peer-to-peer networks where data transmission is performed between equal participants. Power corporations like RWE Group, Siemens and GE already cooperate with such a blockchain startups as Slock.it and LO3 Energy.
In health care the blockchain is useful to maintaining electronic medical archives and remote monitoring a status of patients. The most remarkable companies in this area are HealthChain, BlockPharma, Hashed Health, Gem, Guardtime and Tierion.
Blockchain startups over the countries
Most of all blockchain startups at the moment exists in the USA and Great Britain — 341 and 136 companies respectively. Thus, 36.9% of all such startups in the world, and on a share of Great Britain — 14.8% fall to the share of the USA.
Frost & Sullivan notes the favorable conditions created for development of blockchain technologies in these countries. There the profile regulatory bodies controlling this segment work: The Financial Conduct Authority in Great Britain both Tax administration and the finance regulator of the State of New York (NYDFS) in the USA. Besides, in the specified countries there are development centers and programs of support for a blockchain startups. The example of the USA and Great Britain in this sphere is followed by Estonia and Switzerland.
The third place in rating is taken by Canada where the 42nd blockchain startup is based that makes 4.5% of their total quantity in the world. On the fourth line there is China — the 38th blockchain of startups, i.e. 4% works there. Further Germany where 26 startups, i.e. 2.8% are based follows. About 280 startups have no certain location: their employees work far off from different points of the globe.
As for Russia, in its territory there are less than 0.5% a blockchain startups that does not allow the country to enter even in top-20 leaders in this sphere. However at the same time Volostnov gives examples Russian a blockchain projects which should start in the near future. Their number includes a control system for providing the population with medicines which develop VEB together with the Government of the Novgorod region. The expert also notes implementation of a blockchain in city services for service of citizens and registration of the real estate. Rosreestr and the Government of Moscow are engaged in it.
Greenwich Associates: invest 1 billion dollars in 2016 in development of blockchain technology
The financial and technology companies invest 1 billion dollars in development of blockchain technology in 2016, aiming to bring this technology on the capital markets, follows from a research of Greenwich Associates company.
About 135 respondents called the main obstacle for wide use of this technology "mercenary interest" in the outdated systems. Among respondents of Greenwich Associates there were heads of banks, exchanges, asset managers funds and the technology companies.
| ||The financial sector will continue to have an impact on a blockchain this year. The blockchain begins to prove that it corresponds to the appointment in the capital markets, - the agency Bloomberg cites words of a word of the vice president for structure of the market and to Greenwich Associates technologies of Richard Johnson.|| |
"Now, in 2016, there is more rational discussion of a blockchain as market participants receive deeper understanding of technology and find out how it is better to adapt it for financial markets - it is noted in a research.
- ↑ US Military Is Falling Behind China, Russia in Blockchain Arms Race: IBM, Accenture
- ↑ Blockchain-as-a-Service (BaaS) Market Outlook to 2025: Growth, Trends, Companies - ResearchAndMarkets.com
- ↑ CB Insights says enterprise blockchain funding less than of 20% of cryptocurrencies. But is it?
- ↑ Chinese blockchain investments dropped by of 40% in 2019
- ↑ Enterprise blockchain in 2020: simplify, connect, transact
- ↑ How blockchain will kill fake news (and four other predictions for 2020)
- ↑ China dominates global blockchain patents
- ↑ Gartner: Eight ways blockchain can support governments
- ↑ of IDC: In the 2019th the market the blockchain will grow by 80%
- ↑ Deloitte: China Looking to Use Blockchain as a 'Strategic Weapon'
- ↑ 7 blockchain mistakes and how to avoid them
- ↑ BLOCKCHAIN & CRYPTOCURRENCIES REGULATION INDEX
- ↑ Blockchain’s Occam problem
- ↑ of Blockchain Market Shares, Market Strategies, and Market Forecasts, 2018 to 2024
- ↑ [https://www.idc.com/getdoc.jsp?containerId=prUS44898819&utm_medium=rss_feed&utm_source=Alert&utm_campaign=rss_syndication of Worldwide Blockchain Spending Forecast to Reach of $2.9 Billion in 2019, According to New IDC Spending Guide
- ↑ IDC: Investments of the companies of Europe in a blockchain will reach $3.5 billion in 2022
- ↑ In 2018 world expenses on a blockchain will double
- ↑ 2019 Trends: DataArt Predicts for Blockchain to Go far Beyond its Origins to Create Industries of the Future
- ↑ Gartner: the blockchain is overpriced
- ↑ The blockchain does not cause in the enterprises of enthusiasm yet
- ↑ Finance Industry Blockchain Market to Reach of $462 Billion by 2030, IHS Markit Says
- ↑ Blockchain Business Value to Reach of $2 Trillion by 2030, IHS Markit Says
- ↑ Evolution of blockchain technology
- ↑ New IDC Spending Guide Sees Worldwide Blockchain Spending Growing to of $9.2 Billion in 2021
- ↑ Investment in blockchain technology reached $500 million a year
- ↑ Experts: invest 1 billion dollars in 2016 in development of blockchain technology
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