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2020/07/30 13:16:24

COVID-19 coronavirus

Coronaviruses (CoV) represent big family of viruses which cause diseases, beginning for normal cold and finishing with more serious illness, such as Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) and heavy sharp respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV). The new coronavirus (nCoV) represents a new strain which was not identified at people earlier. The World Health Organization announced on March 11, 2020 the outbreak of a coronavirus of COVID-19 a pandemic.

Content

Coronavirus

From where the virus undertook

USA: The zero patient caught in biolaboratory in Wuhan

The coronavirus of new COVID-19 type arose in the Wuhan laboratory, her worker became "the zero patient", reported Fox News TV channel with reference to sources on April 15, 2020.

The laboratory in Wuhan was constructed in 2017 within the Chinese program of ensuring bio security and studying of viruses. Construction of bio laboratory in Wuhan went within the program of creation of network of bio laboratories (7 laboratories - institutes) on all mainland of China by 2025.

The national bio laboratory in Wuhan (Institute of virology) was the first in continental China which researched the majority of virus pathogens from a high risk.

The laboratory in Wuhan was certified as BSL-4 meeting standards and safe criterions.

The first BSL-4 laboratory, for example, in Japan, was constructed in 1981, but till 2015 did not work with pathogens because of an imperfect security system.

The laboratory in Wuhan cost 300 million yuans (US of $44 million) and its construction began in 2003. The laboratory was built on a wave of world epidemic of atypical pneumonia.

The Chinese staff-virologists of laboratory in Wuhan was engaged in the specialized researches of pathogens causing atypical pneumonia, Ebola virus and other viral diseases.

The Chinese staff of the Wuhan laboratory specialized in Lyon (France).

Researches on protection of the Chinese workers against viral diseases in Africa were a main objective of laboratory in Wuhan; carrying out research on protection and adaptation of viruses.

The laboratory paid special attention to researches of viruses which are transferred from animals to people.

In particular, the laboratory conducted researches on monkeys.

In 2007  the group of researchers from Ukhani together with the Australian laboratory conducted  a research with SARS, a SARS-like coronavirus and VICh-1. They decided to create a pseudo-virus in which, in fact, placed SARS-like CoV in a HIV cover.  And they infected with this virus bats.

At the beginning of May, 2020 Daily Telegraph published the file collected by intelligence agencies of the USA, Great Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand according to which the group of Shi Zhengli which worked in the Wuhan virksny laboratory specialized in a research of coronaviruses of bats.

Shi Zhengli

And here, a series of the puzzling coincidence:

2013: Shi Zhengli's group conducts a research of samples of excrements of bats in a cave in the Province of Yunnan. Samples of viruses for 96.2% match SARS-CoV-2

2015: The group makes experiments on synthesis of SARS-like coronaviruses to prove that they can be given from a bat to the person.

March, 2019: Shi Zhengli publishes scientific work "Coronaviruses of bats" where he tells about their high potential and a possibility of transfer to the person.

Meanwhile, in 2017 the international experts paid attention to the low level of security of the Chinese laboratories. In particular, they specified that from the Chinese laboratories for 2014-2017 there were several serious unauthorized leakages of a coronavirus of SARS.

In Wuhan and about risks wrote about laboratory in 2017 See article in Nature, PDF.

On April 13, 2020 reported to Washington Post that the American diplomats in China in 2018 allegedly sent two diplomatic telegrams to Washington after visit of laboratory in Wuhan in which expressed concern about soblyudeniye of safety conditions and professionalism of staff of laboratory. In one of telegrams it is said that the carried-out works on a coronavirus at bats and its potential transfer to the person pose a threat of flash of a new pandemic as atypical pneumonia.

The State Department of the USA after these telegrams did not take any actions.

The institute of virology is in 20 miles from the market of seafood. The employee of laboratory accidentally caught a coronavirus from a bat in laboratory, and then extended it among residents.

China: The first person caught from a bat directly or through other animal

COVID-19 is a zoonozny virus. The point of view is dominating among epidemiologists that bats were a source of a virus.

Then the virus — or directly, or through other animal — got to the person. It is necessary to tell that such transition happens extremely seldom, it happens to one of one million or even one billion viruses, the set of conditions for this purpose should match. However if it occurred that further process happens very actively: the immunity of the next carrier is not adapted for a virus, it can be much more pathogenic, cause serious complications and even death. Besides, it is quickly multiplied.

Most often from animals pass to people just coronaviruses. They are so called because on an electronic microphotograph or on a cut they remind a crown. This virus often causes cold and occurs among people rather often.

On initial stage sick COVID-19 as believe, caught generally from a zoonozny source in wholesale market of seafood in Hunana (China).

Intermediate - between a bat and the person - the owner (owners) of COVID-19 for the end of February, 2020 is not identified yet. In March, 2020 in China three projects which should allow to receive exact data on a reality of origin of flash in the near future are actively kept. These projects include early investigations of cases of infection with a coronavirus in Wuhan within December, 2019, separately in selection from Wholesale market of seafood (the fish market) in Hunana and other markets in this province and also researches on detection of COVID-19 at different bats, reptiles and marine animals in the southern provinces of China.

In library of the scientific works about a coronavirus published on the website of the National center of biotechnology information of the USA (NCBI) it was detected curious material which was published in the summer of 2019 by scientists from the South Korean university Hallima, the Shanghai university Fudan and the International Islamic university of Malaysia. The most interesting fragment of the report is lower:

"For the last decades we saw several epidemics of respiratory infections from new viruses which occurred from animals. Infections, including atypical pneumonia (SARS-CoV coronavirus), a Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV coronavirus) and swine flu seriously threatened world health care and global economy. Taking into account misuse of antibiotics and mass international travel distribution of gram-negative bacteria, steady against karbapenemaza, causes serious concerns. These infections with an epidemic and pandemic potential pose a huge threat to a public health in the Pacific Rim and require more effective system of prevention and control", said in scientific work "The developing respiratory infections threaten a public health of the Pacific Rim".

Scientists from medical school Duke-NUS in Singapore at the same time noted in the work "Viruses in bats and potential transfer to their animals and the person", presence of the viruses capable to generate epidemics which were transferred from bats. In particular, "it is about a coronavirus of SARS, the Hendra and Nipah viruses. Also bats can be the cause of spread of Ebola virus and coronavirus of MERS. They in general can be storage of a large number of the known and unknown viruses, many of which can be given to the person. Knowledge of biology and immunology of bats are limited, and scientists have no clear understanding of the pacing factors influencing transfer of viruses from bats".

In January, 2019 the Singapore scientists published the latest unrolled experimental data how bats can transmit viruses. Specialists from the University of Hong Kong noticed that bats are the most effective distributors of coronaviruses, and the South of China — the perfect place from where the global pandemic can begin. In their work "Global epidemiology of coronaviruses of bats" published on the website of NCBI in February, 2019 it is possible to read the following: "Bats — the second largest species of mammals and potential carriers of the most various viruses. They are the only group of the mammals capable to long flight that allows them to extend viruses and to increase the probability of trans-species transfer …

To epidemic of atypical pneumonia at the beginning of the 2000th years bats were not known as carriers of coronaviruses. For the last 15 years detected more than 30 coronaviruses with sekretirovanny complete genomes in them, and much more if in them there are no genomic sequences".

In numerous works the Chinese scientists pointed that the greatest danger to people is constituted by the markets of wild animals and restaurants in the Southern China where sell or prepare bats. Their existence leads to trans-species transfer of coronaviruses and can provoke the destructive global outbreaks of diseases, they consider.

During the international scientific cooperation in m2016 — 2017 in the southern provinces of China caught for researches of 1779 bats and 32 of them were carriers of coronaviruses.

"Two new alpha coronaviruses, a coronavirus of a bat of Rhinolophus sinicus HKU32 (Rs-BatCoV HKU32) and a coronavirus of a bat of Tylonycteris robustula HKU33 (Tr-BatCoV HKU33), were detected in the Chinese podkovonosy bats in Guangdong and big bamboo bats in the Province of Guizhou", said in work of virologists of the University of Hong Kong. — New alphacoronaviruses of bats confirm that the Chinese podkovonosy bats are, undoubtedly, the main potential storages of new coronaviruses".

In the summer of 2019 scientists from the South Korean university Hallima, the Shanghai university Fudan and the International Islamic university of Malaysia published detailed researches about possible geolocations of distribution of epidemics caused by a coronavirus of bats in human population. In particular, the following map is provided in work.

Geographical distribution of podkovonosy bats who carry coronaviruses. Illustration: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

The laboratory of special pathogens and biosecurity of Institute of virology in the Chinese city of Wuhan also actively studies coronaviruses and their transfer by bats. In 2019 on the basis of researches her specialists published several tens of works devoted to an infection and its distribution. And, for example, in one of works they announced detection of a new type of an alfakoronovirus with unique genomichesky lines in bats of Rhinolophus.

In the researches the Wuhan scientists pointed that a source of a coronavirus are the southern provinces of China.

Why the virus from China is so dangerous

As the virus works

What represents the Coronavirus of COVID-19 Alexey Semikhatov, the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences, the chief researcher of Physical institute of Lebedev RAHN together with Alexander Lukashev, the director of Institute of medical parasitology, tropical and inoculable diseases of the Sechenovsky university understand.

The virus in fact is the code in a fibrous casing. Unlike bacteria, he is not self-sufficient.

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This code evolved billions of years to subordinate to itself cages. The virus in itself is not viable, it for hundred percent depends on a cage
tells Alexander Lukashev
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The main objective of a virus — to bring the genetic code in a cage and to force it to produce own proteins. If the virus succeeds in this task, then as a result from only one cage not one virus, and up to 100,000 virus particles turns out. In fact, it creates the machine which copies him.

2019-nCoV

At the same time the virus is not universal, it should be "configured" under specific organisms and types of cages. For this purpose it should evolve. There is it just in the course of copying, by creation of inexact copies.

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The virus makes these mistakes purposely. It could make less mistakes, but it specially does them much to have the options adapted for different conditions. Yes, the most part of copies will be unsuccessful, but for a virus it is the admissible price because only one successful will provide it advantage or in the turned-out type of cages, or at other owner, or at the attack of the immune system.
explains Alexander
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In a cage there are no two identical viruses, they constantly change. The RNA-containing viruses in literal sense make one mistake on each subsequent genome. Therefore you should not be surprised that constantly there are unknown strains. So it turned out also with the coronavirus of 2019 which received official name 2019-nCoV.

COVID-19 in comparison with other viruses is how dangerous

To estimate danger of spread of this or that disease, scientists use a concept of basic reproductive number. In fact, it designates how many on average the person one diseased infects. If this number falls lower than unit, spread of a disease stops. For flu this number — 2, and for measles — 15. The virus of atypical pneumonia of 2003, SARS, had basic reproductive number 4. Received the same assessment and 2019-nCoV.

On video dynamics of distribution of COVID-19 in comparison with other viruses during the first 100 days is provided.

However, unlike a disease outbreak of 2003, this time the states show unprecedented openness and activity in fight against the enemy. The first genome of a virus was decrypted in only several days. For January 31, 2020 about 30 genomes at the person and 100 — at bats are already known.

The most destructive epidemics in the history of mankind for March 15, 2020

Knowledge of a genome helps at diagnosis of a disease, it allows to develop in 2-3 days the test for exact determination of a virus in blood. Such tests were quickly developed in the different countries of the world, including Russia. And here production of vaccine requires a long time frame — though for it to have the decrypted genome quite enough too. The problem is that vaccine should not only struggle with a disease, but also to be technological, safe and available at the price. For this reason development and production of vaccine on average takes not less than 6 months.

Virus mutations: three different COVID-19 types

As of April 10, 2020, the coronavirus mutated in process of distribution on the world. At this time three COVID-19 types work in the world. Researchers from Cambridge who analyzed "genetic history" of a coronavirus of new type came to such conclusion. Daily Mail reports about it. The team of scientists analyzed 160 complete genomes of a virus which are selected worldwide during the period from December 24, 2019 to March 4, 2020. Researchers revealed three different "options" COVID-19, having designated them as A, B and C. 

The analysis of strains showed that type A is an initial virus which was transmitted to people from bats through lizards – was not the most widespread in China. This variation usually meets in the USA and Australia. Type A, apparently, mutated in type B. According to a research of genotypes of a virus, epidemic in China was caused by type B. This option is characteristic generally of Asia, it did not promote far away from the region without further mutations. Type C, "a child strain" of type B, already arose outside China and meets generally at inhabitants of Europe

Results of a research showed that coronavirus epidemic to Great Britain, most likely, could come from Singapore, the Republic of Korea or Hong Kong, but not from China.

Scientists consider that the virus which is officially called by SARS-CoV-2 constantly mutates to overcome stability of the immune system in different populations. The research revealed a strange situation at which the original strain And extended on the Western coast of the USA in spite of the fact that it was not the most widespread strain in China, a strain of Century. Scientists emphasize that the coronavirus continues to mutate. Results of a research can help to predict future epicenters of spread of a disease. 

This article is published on the website of the "Trudy Natsionalnoy Akademii Nauk SSHA" magazine (PNAS). 

How it is possible to catch a coronavirus?

List of the most dangerous activities

By estimates for July, 2020. The table is made by Texas Medical Association for residents of the USA.

From animals to people

Coronaviruses are transmitted from animals to people. For 2020 several known coronaviruses circulate at animals who did not infect people yet.

In the airborne way and through the infected objects

Respiratory infections extend through drops of liquid of the different size: drops diameter> call 5-10 microns respiratory drops, <5 мкм относят к категории ядер капель (по размеру их можно отнести к аэрозольным частицам). Согласно имеющимся на конец марта 2020 г данным, вирус is transmitted drops by diameter of COVID-19 mainly through respiratory drops and also a contact way. In the publication on analysis results of 75,465 cases of infection of COVID-19 in China, an aerogenic way of transfer of this virus it is not announced.

Drop transfer happens at close contact (within 1 m) to the person who has respiratory symptoms (for example cough or sneezing), i.e. in cases when there is a risk of contact of mucous membranes of an oral cavity and nose or a conjunctiva of eyes with potentially infecting respiratory drops.

Transfer of a virus is possible also through the infected objects which were in close proximity to the infected person. It in the way, can lead direct contact with the infected people to COVID-19 broadcast and indirect contact with the surfaces which were in close proximity to the infected person or with objects to which it contacted.

Aerogenic transfer differs from transfer in a drop way as assumes presence of pathogenic microorganisms at cores of drops, i.e., according to the commonly accepted determination, in particles with a diameter of ≤5 microns which can remain in the form of an air suspension for a long time and be given more than 1 m at distance.

In relation to COVID-19 transfer can probably happen in the aerogenic way in certain conditions when holding procedures or the supporting therapy to formation of aerosols, for example at the endotrakhealny intubation, a bronchoscopy open for aspiration, inhalation, manual artificial ventilation of lungs to an intubation, turning of the patient on a stomach, detachment of the patient from the ventilator, noninvasive artificial ventilation of lungs to positive pressure, trakheostomiya and also at warm and pulmonary resuscitation.

Were suggested that in some cases it can be given in the fecal and oral way. However, it was not succeeded to fix such method of COVID-19 broadcast for February, 2020 yet.

According to the data obtained in the Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Sichuan respectively in 78% and 85% infection of COVID-19 occurred in families. Besides, in 3-10% of cases an established fact of double infection when it passed both in families, and at airborne contact with strangers.

​​ coronavirus life Term on different surfaces

Infection from money

On March 20, 2020 it became known that the coronavirus can catch from money. Transmission channel of a disease ATMs with function a cache-resayklinga are capable to become.

This function allows to perform receiving and delivery of cash using bank cards, passing collection and consequently, and processing. Collection and recalculation of notes are done by other organizations for the agreement. As a result nobody processes the banknote antibacterial solutions before their issue to other client. It is simply impossible, Izvestia with reference to the operating officer of Mail bank Elena Mokhnacheva writes.

Banks warned about a possibility of infection with a coronavirus from money from the ATM

Representatives of banks confirmed to the newspaper what to catch a coronavirus because of notes really more than really. In one of financial institution thought of installation in ATMs of the special equipment which will subject money of processing by ultraviolet or ozone. Nevertheless on it a lot of time and means, said in the publication will be required.

In the Central Bank of the Russian Federation by March 20, 2020 do not take any actions towards financial credit institutions against the background of spread of a coronavirus. The regulator relies on the recommendations of World Health Organization which does not urge to refuse use of cash, though recognizes that theoretically banknotes can be transmission channel of viruses.

Elena Mokhnachyova noted that  for an effective dezinfention of keyboards on which enter the PIN code it is required to process a surface after each transaction. It slozhnorealizuyemo. Besides, she added, in processing the risk exists an anti-septic tank to damage the device. According to  the World Health Organization (WHO), the coronavirus lives on paper carrier three-four days.[1]

Survival of a virus at low temperatures and risk of transfer through frozen goods

In June, 2020 the member of special commission of experts of the state committee on questions of health care of the People's Republic of China, the infectiologist Li Lanjuan said that COVID-19 virus is special and has capability to survive at low temperatures.

"At a temperature of-4 degrees Celsius he can survive for several months", - the expert provided data. She also added that at a temperature of-20 degrees the new coronavirus is capable to live and 20 years.

Li Lanjuan called not accidental that the coronavirus was detected several times in the markets where sea delicacies as there are a lot of cooled products are on sale. With respect thereto she stated a concern that the coronavirus can be transported together with the cooled or frozen goods.

The expert urged to perform measures of prevention and epidemiological control in the field of transportation of the frozen goods.

Rumors "Infection from stations 5G"

Base stations of a 5G in the Chinese Wuhan could provoke actually appearance of a coronavirus – this theory needs to be checked as one of the main. About it in an interview Oktagona was told by the scientist Oleg Grigoriev, the member of scientific and advisory committee of WHO who heads official scientific consolidation – the Russian national committee on protection against non-ionizing radiations[2].

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according to Grigoriev, feature of the standard under general name 5G – in a method of the organization of a signal: it is a high-amplitude high-gradient impulse; orientation of the main beam on the device (now 2G, 3G, 4G – the main beam disseminated in space); use of a broad spectrum of frequencies in "a pack of impulses".

It is experimentally checked in the 1980-1990th as this type of antennas and a signal used for search of effective methods of a radar-location, and also investigated bioeffects. It is partially published in our articles, in work of professor Svetlana Lukyanova ("An electromagnetic field of a very high frequency of range of non-thermal intensity as an irritant for central nervous system", 2015). ˂ … ˃ Reception for far field region is first of all skin receptors, the terminations of nervous system. Their reaction quite to itself clearly is reflected in a brain.

For simplification we recommend to remember medieval torture by a drop (to the immobilized person in the days without a break on the head water slowly drips. – τ.). ˂ … ˃ Yes, effect first of all for nervous system. But owing to specifics of antennas of the exchange service station the probability of oncology will increase, – Grigoriev says.

And an exit from this situation – a compromise for health – Grigoriev does not see yet:

The signal projected by a 5G cannot be correlated to the Russian maximum permissible levels (MPL), and the existing methods of measurement are inapplicable. I will never subscribe under security of a 5G in the provided type. I was 10 years the main thing on medicobiological tests of the special equipment, it is not a secret.

My signature costs under many documents permitting use of new technologies which can affect health.

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In April, 2020 residents of the British cities of Liverpool, Birmingham and Merseyside set fire to stations of cellular communication of a 5G, having been sure that they are the reason of a pandemic of a coronavirus. After their example citizens followed in the Netherlands. Read more here.

It became also known of mass receiving threats of physical violence and murder by the staff of telecommunication companies in Great Britain if they do not stop work on a 5G networks which, allegedly, lead to spread of a koronavirusny infection. [1]#.2A_.D0.9C.D0.B0.D1.82.2C_.D0.BF.D0.BB.D0.B5.D0.B2.D0.BA.D0.B8_.D0.B8_.D1.83.D0.B3.D1.80.D0.BE.D0.B7.D1.8B_.D1.83.D0.B1.D0.B8.D0.B9.D1.81.D1.82.D0.B2.D0.B0._.D0.92_.D0.BA.D0.B0.D0.BA.D0.B8.D1.85_.D1.83.D1.81.D0.BB.D0.BE.D0.B2.D0.B8.D1.8F.D1.85_.D0.B1.D1.80.D0.B8.D1.82.D0.B0.D0.BD.D1.81.D0.BA.D0.B8.D0.B5_.D0.B8.D0.BD.D0.B6.D0.B5.D0.BD.D0.B5.D1.80.D1.8B_.D1.80.D0.B0.D0.B7.D0.B2.D0.BE.D1.80.D0.B0.D1.87.D0.B8.D0.B2.D0.B0.D1.8E.D1.82_5G-.D1.81.D0.B5.D1.82.D0.B8 the Labor union of workers of communication which represents about 40 thousand engineers reported about it.

Who is in special risk group

In Russia average age of the infected 44-47 years

As of April 19, 2020, middle age infected in Russia - 47.9 years are at women and men have 44.7 years.

All are ill, die after 60 and of bad medicine more often

Statistics on lethal cases, end of March, 2020

In Korea young people, in Italy - old men are ill

One of basic reasons of huge discrepancies in coronavirus mortality between South Korea and Italy is an age structure of the diseased.

Distribution of the patients with a coronavirus by age: South Korea and Italy

In Korea 30% of the diseased are aged people of 20-29 years (which, according to the statistics, the easiest transfer a disease), plus is the second peak in the range of 50-59 (that too is still noncritical as far as statistics allows to understand). Elderly among the diseased it is not enough.

In Italy picture the return: nearly 60% of the diseased are aged people of 60 years for which the disease already constitutes serious danger.

Data on Italy. Characteristics of 3200 patients who died of COVID-19. Age structure. Data for March 22, 2020

China: in the main zone of risk old men and men

Representatives of bodies of health care of China published the first large report on a coronavirus at the end of February, 2020.

In the document it is said that the death rate gradually increases with age. And there were no death cases among children aged up to nine years at all.

Other output is in what men dies more, than women, - the mortality rate among men is 2.8% in comparison with 1.7% among women.

As of February 20, 2020 coronavirus mortality in China was 3.8% of infected. The death rate strongly fluctuates across territories – from 5.8% in Wuhan, up to 0.7% in other provinces of China.

The maximum growth of death rate in Wuhan – 17.3% - was recorded at the very beginning of flash from January 1 to January 10, 2020, and then decreased up to 0.7% after February 1. This circumstance does not demonstrate attenuation of a coronavirus. At the first stage those who already were in extremely difficult situation and saw a doctor only at the last stage of a course of disease died.

Death rate increases with age. The highest level – for persons more than 80 years – 21.9%. Mortality at men is 4.7% against 2.8% - at women. Among pensioners who in China treat the high-ranking officials to engineering employees aged, as a rule, in 70 years the death rate was 8.9%. Among the dead the share of persons with warmly vascular diseases has an indicator of 13.2%, with diabetes – 9.2%, for arterial hypertension – 8.4%.

Average time from an onset of the illness before recovery for clinical cases is two weeks, for patients with a serious illness – 3 - 6 weeks. The growing number of patients completely was recovered even after a heavy course of disease. Among the hard cases requiring connection of the ventilator 13.4% die. The others recover. The earlier the disease is identified, the treatment is more effective.

What diseases increase risk at a disease of a coronavirus

Pl to data for the beginning of March, 2020, for healthy people death rate at a disease of a coronavirus is less than 1%, but in the presence of associated diseases risks strongly increase.

Number 1 is cardiovascular diseases, mortality of 10.5% from the diseased. Then there are diabetes (7.3%), chronic respiratory diseases (6.3%), a hypertension (6%) and cancer (5.6%).

Data on Italy. Characteristics of 3200 patients who died of COVID-19 by March 22, 2020. Associated diseases. Heart troubles prevail.

Security measures

Quarantine

As the quarantine because of a coronavirus in the countries of the world was entered.

For the end of March, 2020

Social distancing

Why social distancing has the vital value

To stop spread of a coronavirus, social interactions are around the world limited. This infographics based on calculations of Robert A.J. Signer, associate professor of medicine in the University of California in San Diego shows how social distancing can reduce spread of a virus.

Without changes in social behavior one infected person on average will transmit a virus to 2.5 people within five days. In 30 days this digit will increase to 406 new infections. The number can be considerably reduced. At 50 percent reduction the number of the new infections caused by the average person in 30 days makes only 15 people. Change for 75 percent will lead to smaller number 2.5 of new cases that considerably will reduce load of medical authorities and if it is followed by all, will allow the country "smooth a curve" new infections.

Prevention

There are WHO recommendations which will help to reduce risk of infection with a virus:

  • regular wash hands with soap;
  • at cough and sneezing use a net napkin or cover a mouth and a nose with the bent elbow;
  • cook meat and eggs enough time;
  • avoid close contact with someone at whom such symptoms of a respiratory disease as cough and sneezing are observed;
  • at temperature increase and other disturbing symptoms immediately ask for medical care;
  • whenever possible avoid visit of the markets, especially in areas where now cases of appearance of a new coronavirus are observed;
  • air surely premises;
  • daily you carry out the current cleaning indoors.

Hygiene of hands

The most widespread method to catch is to touch people therefore it is necessary to wash hands often. The virus can live only on your hands, within 5-10 minutes. But in these 5-10 minutes there can be anything (you can rub hands of an eye or touch a nose).

Rinsing of a mouth and throat

In addition to frequent washing of hands you can rinse a throat Betadin to eliminate or minimize actions of microbes while those still are in a throat (before getting into lungs).

According to the new report of the Cardiff university in May, 2020, mouthwash can protect from COVID-19 infection, killing a coronavirus before that infects cells of the person.

Coronaviruses belong to the class of "viruses with a cover", so they are covered with a fatty (lipidic) layer which is vulnerable to certain chemicals. The fatty cover does not change at a mutirovaniye of viruses, being a universal target.

Researchers consider that mouthwash can destroy a virus cover, preventing its reproduction in a mouth and a throat. Some mouthwashes contain enough connections for impact on fats in similar viruses with a cover.

Ingredients of mouthwashes among which hlorgeksidin, tsetilpiridiniykhlorid, peroxide of hydrogen and povidone-iodine, are potentially capable to prevent infections.

Drink hot water

The virus of Wuhan is not heat-resistant and perishes at a temperature of 26-27 degrees. Therefore drink more hot water. Remain more often and longer under the sun. Hot water not medicine, is useful to health, is effective at all viruses.

Vaccine against COVID-19 coronavirus

Main article: Vaccine against COVID-19 coronavirus

Symptoms

Symptoms of COVID-19 are indefinite, and development of a disease can fluctuate from asymptomatic to heavy pneumonia and death. According to data of inspections of 55,924 patients in China (for the end of February, 2020), signs and symptoms include:

  • fever – 88%,
  • dry cough – 68%,
  • abundant otkharkivaniye of a phlegm – 33%,
  • heavy otdyshka – 19%,
  • mialgiya – 15%,
  • heavy quinsy – 14%,
  • severe headache – 14%,
  • vomiting – 5%,
  • severe diarrhea – 4%,
  • blood spitting – 1%.

The complexity consists in absence at COVID-19 of any specific sign inherent only to this disease. All marked signs can be shown in connection with diseases of the most different diseases including which are easily transferred by an organism.

People with COVID-19 feel symptoms on average during the period after 5-6 days after an infection at the range from 1 to 14 days. The vast majority infected with a coronavirus, including persons of advanced ages, or have a disease asymptomatically, or feel as an easy indisposition or recover without serious effects. According to laboratory researches, even persons of advanced ages approximately in 4/5 cases have either the asymptomatic, or moderately expressed form, including in the form of pneumonia. At the same time, 14% have the severe form of a disease requiring connection to the medical ventilator.

If you have a cold at cold, you cannot be the carrier of a koronavirusny infection. Koronavirusny pneumonia is a dry cough without cold. It is easiest way to define.

Doctor's advice on a coronavirus:

1. A virus rather big by the size (diameter of a cell is about 400-500 nanometers) therefore normal the mask in principle can filter honey. If infected sneezes before you or will pass at distance up to 3 meters from you, the decelerator a step the infection will just fall to the ground, will not be able to fly.

2. If the virus got on the surface of metal, he will live not less than 12 hours. Therefore if you adjoined to any metal surface, carefully wash up hands with soap.

3. The virus can remain active on fabric within 6-12 hours. Normal laundry detergent should kill a virus. Winter clothes, it is enough to dry in the sun to kill a virus.

About symptoms directly diseases - the pneumonia caused by a coronavirus:

1. After penetration into a throat there can be a dryness of a throat which meets at quinsy. 3-4 days will last

2. Then the virus will merge with nasal liquid, to get into a trachea, and then into lungs, will cause pneumonia. This process will take from 5 to 6 days.

3. At koronovirusny pneumonia high temperature and the complicated breath appears. The congestion of a nose is not similar to normal congestion, there is a feeling that you sink in water. In this case it is necessary to see a doctor immediately.

The general symptoms of an infection include:

  • respiratory symptoms,
  • fever,
  • dry cough,
  • the complicated breath,
  • short wind.

In more hard cases the infection can cause pneumonia, a heavy sharp respiratory syndrome, a renal failure and even death.

When it is necessary to show attentiveness?

According to WHO recommendations, special attention should be paid on a status in the following cases:

  • at heavy a sharp respiratory infection (fever, cough) if the person was in the city of Wuhan in 2 weeks prior to emergence of symptoms and also if suspicious symptoms appeared at the medical employee who worked in the environment where heavy sharp respiratory infections of an unknown etiology treat;
  • at any acute respiratory disease if the person contacted to the patient infected with a virus, worked or visited medical institution in 2 weeks prior to emergence of symptoms.

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"Understand that you got sick, it is possible on the following symptoms, they are similar to flu symptoms: the expressed intoxication, temperature increase, dry unproductive cough, quickly develops respiratory insufficiency. At emergence of these complaints it is necessary to see a doctor" — the infectiologist of JSC Meditsina (Clinic of the academician Roytberg) Olga Sinitsyna says.
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Tests for COVID-19 coronavirus

Main article: Tests for COVID-19 coronavirus

As pneumonia at a coronavirus proceeds

Oleg Rosenberg, the head of Laboratory of medical biotechnology of the Russian scientific center of radiology and surgical technologies of the academician A.M. Granov at the end of March, 2020 told about specifics of course of pneumonia at a coronavirus.

According to the specialist, the main feature of COVID-19 consists in the speed of penetration and damage of airways, causing pneumonia — pneumonia. At the same time the majority of infected have a normal acute viral disease, are treated by vitamins, febrifugal, expectorant drugs and recover.

Pneumonia at a coronavirus develops quicker, than at seasonal flu and at swine flu. The heavy course of a disease is characteristic, generally of risk groups: 60 years sick with such chronic diseases as the diabetes, chronic cardiovascular insufficiency, an obstructive pulmonary disease, system diseases leading to decrease in immunity are more senior than people. With such load of diseases it is much more difficult to cope with heavy pneumonia as these diseases force to work other bodies (kidneys, a liver, heart) to the limit.

Number of the diseased and death rate

Main article: Incidence and COVID-19 coronavirus mortality

Coronavirus medicine

Main article: COVID-19 coronavirus medicine

Antibodies to COVID-19 coronavirus

Recovery after a disease

COVID-19 coronavirus in Russia

Influence of a coronavirus of COVID-19 on economy

Use of new technologies in fight against epidemic

Use of drones

Main article: UAVs and drones in medicine

Use of robots

Main article: Robots in medicine

Smart points

Main article: Smart points

The software for fight against epidemic

Main article: The software for fight against COVID-19 epidemic

Chronicle of fight against a virus

2020

The citizen of Ukraine caught COVID-19 for the third time

At the end of July, 2020 it became known about three times the Ukrainian who caught a coronavirus COVID-19. About it, perhaps, a unique case the head of department of health care of administration of the Ternopil region (in this the region that infected patient lives) Vladimir Bogaychuk told.

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We should understand what even had a koronavirusny infection it does not protect from a repeated disease — he reported.
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Bogaychuk added that the situation in the Ternopil region worsens, and there is it because the population does not observe quarantine measures.

Earlier it was reported that in St. Petersburg the four-year-old child repeatedly caught a coronavirus. It had associated diseases connected with oncology. Both times of the kid cured and discharged from hospital.

The Ukrainian caught COVID-19 for the third time

The head of the laboratory in the Vektor center Ilnaz Imatdinov at the end of July, 2020 said that had a coronavirus benign can repeatedly catch. According to him, the immunity in this case is developed for only several months.

In Ministry of Health Russia said earlier that repeated infection of COVID-19 happens seldom, and features of the immune system of the specific person can be the cause of it.

At the same time at the end of May, 2020 the director of Research Center of epidemiology and microbiology of N.F. Gamalei Alexander Gintsburg reported that completely recovered person cannot get sick the second time with a koronavirusny infection.

He explained that he after the postponed disease of people can become the virus carrier that can be identical that he not completely recovered. Therefore already infected person can continue to be ill because of weakening of an organism.

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The possibility of his disease is connected with the fact that it not repeatedly caught, and just as a result of weakening of immune reactions of an organism continued to be ill — concluded Gintsburg.[3]
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Siemens AG founded fund for fight against COVID-19

On April 15, 2020 it became known that the board of Siemens AG made the decision on organization of fund for fight against COVID-19. Read more here.

Microsoft invests $20 million for fight against COVID-19 using AI

On April 9, 2020 Microsoft reported that it invests $20 million for fight against COVID-19 coronavirus within the AI for Health program, which purpose – to provide to the companies, non-profit organizations and scientists in the field of health care access to tools of artificial intelligence, cloud computing and other necessary resources. The company made the decision on expansion of the program to help those who are engaged in search of means for fight against one of the most important problems of the present – COVID-19 coronavirus. Read more here.

Intel selected 50 million dollars within a technology initiative of fight against a coronavirus

On April 7, 2020 it became known that the Intel company will select additional 50 million US dollars within a technology initiative of fight against a coronavirus which consists in acceleration of access to technologies in medical institutions, development of scientific research and also providing pupils and teachers with tools for online training. The expanded initiative includes additional fund of development of innovations for those cases where access to expert potential and resources of Intel is capable to provide instant effect. Measures are taken in addition to the donations announced earlier for the total amount of 10 million dollars, the regions of active presence selected for support in this critical time. Read more here.

Mindray will deliver 10 thousand medical devices to Italy for the help to sick COVID-19

On April 6, 2020 Zdrav.Expert became known that Mindray, the supplier of medical devices and solutions, received from the government of Italy the delivery contract about 10,000 medical devices for monitoring and treatment of patients with COVID-19. Read more here.

In the EU work on the standard for tracking of contacts with sick COVID-19

On April 2, 2020 it became known that the group of the European scientists and specialists in the field of digital technologies under the leadership of experts of Institute of Fraunhofer in telecommunications (Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute for telecoms, HHI) in Germany work on technology of tracking of close contacts with infected with COVID-19 which is not breaking laws of the European Union on data protection. Read more here.

Promobot provided terminals for prevention of a coronavirus

At the end of March, 2020 the Russian producer of Promobot robots  showed the Thermocontrol terminals helping with prevention of a coronavirus of COVID-19. The equipment takes temperature of the person to within 0.2 degrees. Read more here.

Telecom operators will transfer to EC location-based data within fight against COVID-19

On March 26, 2020 it became known that telecommunication the companies Vodafone Deutsche Telekom Orange Telefonica, Telecom Italia Telenor, Telia and A1 Telekom Austria agreed to provide European Commissions location-based data from mobile devices of the subscribers within fight against spread of a coronavirus.

For the purpose of protection of privacy the European Commission will obtain data in an anonymous form. As reported, these data will be used for coordination of measures for tracking of spread of a coronavirus. The EC is not going neither to centralize data from mobile devices, nor to violate the right of citizens to privacy and when crisis passes, all data will be deleted.

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The commission should define accurately what data set it wants to receive and to provide transparency for the public in order to avoid possible misunderstanding. Also it would be preferable to limit data access and to provide only it to authorized specialists in the field of geographical epidemiology, data protection and data analysis,
reported the European data protection inspector (European Data Protection Supervisor, EDPS) Wojciech Wiewiorowski
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However Vyevyorovsky also expressed concern that providing location-based data by telecommunication companies can become a normal rule and after completion of a quarantine.

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As emphasizes EDPS, similar measures usually do not provide failure from them after normalization of a situation. I would like to emphasize that such solution after all needs to be considered extraordinary,

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As earlier reported Securitylab, concerns concerning continuation of mass shadowing after completion of crisis were also expressed by Edward Snowden. According to the former employee of CIA, the temporary measures of fight against spread of a coronavirus including use of technologies of tracking can become constants.

For March, 2020 the governments of the different countries use information technologies for fight against spread of a coronavirus. For example, the Ministry of Health of Israel released the application allowing to reveal possible contacts with the infected people according to location-based data, and the authorities of Iran in large quantities monitor location of the citizens through the information supplement about COVID-19. U.S. authorities also consider the possibility of tracking movements of citizens for the purpose of monitoring of spread of a coronavirus[4].

In elevators holographic buttons appeared

At the end of March, 2020 the technology company Easpeed which is based near Shanghai received more than 100 orders for panels with holographic buttons for elevators. Thus the Chinese citizens try to reduce risk of transfer of a coronavirus in contact ways of transfer. Read more here.

As the coronavirus turns telemedicine into the main instrument of treatment

To the middle of March of March, 2020 of the Chief information officer in the field of health care try to expand use of telemedicine for problem solving, Covid-19 connected with fast-growing threat of a pandemic. Read more here.

The government of Israel approved an initiative to trace phones of citizens without bench warrant

On March 15, 2020 the government of Israel approved an initiative of the prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu of use of anti-terrorist measures for fight against spread of a coronavirus. As reported, the government agreed to permit service of counterintelligence the Shin Bet to trace in large quantities phones of citizens without bench warrant. The final decision on introduction of this measure will be made by subcommittee of the Knesset concerning intelligence agencies. Read more here.

Hospitals in Italy began to buy the devices printed on the 3D-printer

In the middle of March, 2020 hospitals in a northern part of Italy began to buy the devices printed on the 3D-printer to save patients with a coronavirus. Read more here.

WHO urges to pass to contactless payments because of a coronavirus

On March 5, 2020 it became known that the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends to consumers to avoid contacts with banknotes and to pass to contactless payments to prevent spread of a coronavirus of COVID-19.

WHO issued this recommendation after China and Korea began to separate the used banknotes which, as we know, are carriers of viruses and bacteria in a cash cash flow and to subject them to disinfection.

In 2017 as a result of studying of the used banknotes in New York on their surface 397 different types of bacteria were revealed.

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We know that money often passes from hand to hand and can collect various bacteria and viruses. We advise people to wash hands after the address with banknotes and to try not to concern their face. It is whenever possible reasonable to use contactless payments for reduction of risk of spread of an infection.[5]
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As the video surveillance system helped China to cope with epidemic quickly

China could create an effective system not only establishments of COVID-19 carriers, but also identifications of contact as a result of which the person got sick. For example, in Wuhan in February, 2020 more than 1800 teams of professional epidemiologists numbering at least five people everyone at the same time work, including at least two epidemiologists, the laboratory assistant-estimator and at least one representative of militia.

These commands visually offline and through the system of mobile observation monitor in Wuhan tens of thousands of contacts daily. After it is possible to set presence of a coronavirus at this or that citizen, the video surveillance system in the city allows not only to mark on video from all surveillance cameras of the patient in a few minutes, but also to identify contact persons. After establishment of contact persons members of commands, usually representatives of militia, address databases and find out the place of residence and also phones of the citizens contacting to the patient and warn them about need of self-isolation with visit in need of the doctor. According to the available data, to 5% of contactors with the diseased receive COVID-19 from 1%, and at an unspecified share of contacts of COVID-19 proceeds in an asymptomatic form.

Similar work is developed also in other regions of China. For example, in Shenzhena for 2842 infected all 100% of contactors were recognized. Thanks to it it was succeeded to establish that only 2.8% as a result of contacts were infected and COVID-19 ached. In the Province of Sichuan 99% of contacts are identified. At the same time, slightly less than 1% are infected as a result of contacts. In Guangdong all contacts of 9939 diseased were identified. In this province COVID-19 as a result of contacts of 4.8% ached.

The Chinese retailers of mass start robots couriers for delivery of orders because of a coronavirus

At the end of February, 2020 the Chinese retailers began to start in large quantities robots for delivery of orders to prevent spread of a killing coronavirus. Read more here.

As investigated COVID-19: people, mice, monkeys

On December 30, 2019 three bronkhoalvialny samples were received from the patient sick with pneumonia with an unknown etiology close to the virus set during flash of SARS 2002-2003 in the Wuhan hospital Dzhinuntan. Positive tests on the sir - a beta coronavirus were received. After work with tests the main sequences of a genome of this type of a virus were selected.

Bioinformatichesky researches specified that the selected virus has the features typical for family of coronaviruses, and Betakoronavirusov 2B of origin specifically belongs to a type. Studying of the complete sequence of a genome of COVID-19 and other available genomes of Betakoronavirus, showed that the selected virus is the closest to the virus of bats known as SARS BatCov RaTG13 coronavirus to identity of 96%.

Virus isolation was carried out by means of different cellular lines, including human epiteliotsit of airways of Vero E6 and Xa7. Tsitopatichesky effects were observed 96 hours later after an inoculation. Cellular invasive capability of the isolated viruses completely was neutralized by the serum collected from the recovering patients.

Transgene human mice of Ase2 and monkey Rhesus factors as a result of infection with the virus stated above got promptly developing multifocal pneumonia with interstitial hyper plasma. COVID-19 virus was detected and isolated afterwards in lungs and tissues of intestines of the specified animals.

The complete analysis of an ordered genome of 104 strains of COVID-19 received from different patients with manifestation of symptomatology between the end of December, 2019 and the middle of February, 2020 showed similarity of the samples taken from patients with compliance for 99.9% without considerable mutation.

The posthumous samples taken from the patient from Wuhan – the 50-year-old man were received from a lung, a liver and heart. Histologic examination showed double-sided diffusion alveolar damage with cellular fibroslizepodobny exudates. The lung showed obvious peeling of pnevmotsit and hyaline membrane formation that indicated a sharp respiratory disstress-syndrome (ARDS). Lung tissue also showed a cellular and fibroslizepodobny ekssudation, peeling of pnevmotsit and a pulmonary edema. In both lungs interstitial mononuclear inflammatory infiltrates were noticed. Multinuclear cages with the atypical increased pnevmotsita characterized by big cores amfifilny granular cytoplasm and visible kernels were identified in intraalveolyarny places, having shown virus as though tsitopatichesky changes.

No obvious intra nuclear or intratsitoplazmatichesky virus additional inclusions were identified.

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