Translated by
2020/07/03 15:09:32

Cancer (oncological diseases)

The steady trend of growth of oncological diseases, in Russia, for example, this indicator, as of 2019 is around the world observed, 1.5% annually increase. On the one hand, it is explained by more effective methods of early diagnostics, and on the other hand, a population postareniye, the ecological and economic reasons. Oncological diseases mortality is in the second place after cardiovascular with an explicit tendency to advancing of the last today. The scale-up problem of oncological diseases became world.


Causes of illness cancer

Main article: Causes of illness cancer

Number of cancer patients

In Russia

2019: Russian Ministry of Health: the cancer cases grew by 2.5%

According to the Russian Ministry of Health, in 2019 in Russia 640.4 thousand cases of malignant new growths are revealed that is a record. It for 2.5% exceeds result of 2018. The overall level of incidence made 436.3 cases on 100 thousand population.

The Arkhangelsk region became the leader among Russian regions in incidence at the end of 2019. There 566.2 cases on 100 thousand population are registered. Further go:

In 2019 most of all cancer patients are identified in the Arkhangelsk region
  • Bryansk region (556.2);
  • Sakhalin region (550.2);
  • Mordovia (548.6);
  • Penza region (548.1);
  • Oryol region (546.9);
  • Yaroslavl region (543.4);
  • Kursk region (537.7);
  • Ivanovo region (534.2);
  • Sevastopol (532).

On Chukotka and in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Area there are also cancer diseases less often – doctors recorded in these regions of 205 and 215 new cases on 100 thousand people. In St. Petersburg  this indicator was 506.5 cases on 100 thousand of the population, in  Moscow  — 385.3.

Growth of number for the first time of the revealed oncological diseases for the last year is connected with improvement of quality of diagnostics and access to medicine in the country, the chief non-staff oncologist  of the Ministry of Health, the CEO of Federal State Budgetary Institution NMITs radiologii, the academician  of RAS  Andrey Kaprin explained to RT TV channel.

He noted that in the Central and Volga, North Caucasian federal districts the incidence in five years grew by 10%.

Unfortunately, it is not only about "the healthy population", but also about the insufficient level of inspection of the population — the doctor said.

In the Arkhangelsk region it connected high number of new cases of cancer on 100 thousand people with work of a regional onkosluzhba and "the specifics of the region". Kaprin noted that in the region diagnostics is well developed, at the high level is helped on the profile "radiology", "chemotherapy".[1]


The Ministry of Health called regions with the greatest prevalence of cancer and number of the died patients

In June, 2019 the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation called regions with the highest prevalence of cancer and also number of the people who died of this disease.

According to department, in 2018 the greatest illness rate appeared cancer in Kursk region — 3331.1 cases  on 100 thousand people. The second place was taken by Mordovia (3292.1), and with a trace were located Krasnodar Krai (3235.2), Kaluga (3231.4) and the Pskov (3110.5) regions.

The highest rates of cancer cases in 2018 recorded in Kursk region

The minimum number of oncological diseases is revealed in Dagestan (887 cases on 100 thousand of the population), Tyva (993.1), Chechnya (1044), Ingushetia (1179.3) and the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (1244.8).

The average indicator of prevalence oncologists over the country in 2018 was 2562.1 cases on 100 thousand population. In 10 years it increased by 40%. However in the ministry connected it not only with growth of incidence, but also with improvement of a situation with setting of diagnoses. At the same time life expectancy of oncological patients increased.

According to the statistics of the Ministry of Health, in 2018 died from cancer more than 29 thousand residents of Russia who did not stay on the registry in oncological organizations. On everyone 100 patients who died of malignant new growths 10.7 did not stay on the registry. From them the diagnosis was set posthumously at 5.2 patients on 100 patients with for the first time in life the set diagnosis.

Besides, in the Ministry of Health speak about growth of the index of accumulation of the contingent of patients with malignant new growths in comparison with 2008 — from 5.7 to 6.9. This indicator in North Ossetia (8.4), Moscow (8), Leningrad (7.9) and Rostovskaya (7.9) areas, the lowest — in the Republic of Tyva (4.1), Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (4.7) and the Magadan region is highest (5).

The number of patients with cancer at the 4th stage increased in 2018 in 49 regions, in 52 regions equality in comparison with 2017 was observed.[2]

3.76 million cancer patients (+23% by 2008)

In 2018 in Russia 3.76 million patients with oncological diseases, i.e. 2.6% of the population of the country were registered, and from the 2008th the cancer cases grew by 23.7%. The non-staff oncologist of the Ministry of Health, the CEO of the National medical research center of radiology, the academician of RAS Andrey Kaprin told about it.

According to him, the death rate indicator on 100 thousand of the population as of 2017 was 197.9 people, and incidence — 425.4 cases on 100 thousand residents of the country.

Greasy food, alcohol, smoking and low-mobility increase risk of development of cancer

The highest death rate of cancer patients in 2018 is recorded in Siberian Federal District where 24.2% of patients with such diagnosis died. In the North Caucasian Federal District  indicators of one-year lethality also high — 22%.

The best results  were shown  by the Far Eastern Federal District – 28.7% of new cases were revealed thanks to increase in an onkonastorozhennost of doctors. On a detectability indicator at the first and second stages Central Federal District — 57.7% of cases is in the lead.

According to the Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Tatyana Golikova, in the first quarter 2019 death rate from malignant new growths decreased by 1.6%, and chemotherapeutic treatment  was received by about 135 thousand people.

The statistics is also provided by the compulsory health insurance Federal fund: in January-March, 2019 out-patient medical aid was received by 2.4 million patients with oncological diseases what 2.4 billion rubles were spent for. In the conditions of a day hospital 167.7 thousand cases (8.8 billion rubles), and a hospital – 268.2 thousand cases (19.8 billion rubles) are treated.

Andrey Karpin emphasized that the risk of development of cancer is increased by greasy food, abuse of alcohol, a slow-moving way of life and smoking. At the same time smoking from 30 to 50 times increases the probability of development of oncological diseases. It is not only about lung cancer. A cancerogenic factor also is obesity. [3]


3.63 million patients, five-year survival - only 40%

According to the official statistics on oncological diseases for 2017 prepared by the Moscow research oncological institute of P.A. Herzen for the end of 2017 in territorial oncological offices of Russia 3,630,567 patients stayed on the registry (2016 − 3,518,842). The cumulative indicator of prevalence was 2,472.4 on 100,000 population.

As of January, 2019, the level of five-year survival after diagnosis in the Russian Federation one of the lowest in Europe also makes 40%. In France, for example, more than 60%, and in the USA more than 80%. The reason – in Russia oncological diseases diagnose, as a rule, at the 3rd and 4th stages, and in Europe and the USA at the 1st or 2nd stage. According to different data in our country life expectancy of the oncological patient after diagnosis makes 2.5 - 4 while in Europe, the USA – 15 years.

Annually in Russia more than 500 thousand new cases of oncological diseases are diagnosed

Annually in Russia more than 500 thousand new cases of oncological diseases are diagnosed, - representatives of Medtronik company told in June, 2017. At about 2/3 of these patients primary cancer will extend to other bodies. First place on the frequency of developing of metastases is won by lungs (see Lung cancer), in the second place - a liver. Skeletal system takes the third place, and in all skeletal system the spine column is the most frequent localization of metastases[4].

In the world

In total in 2008 in the world about 12.7 million new cases of oncological diseases were registered.

Based on the research IARC in 2008 in the countries which index of human development (IHD) exceeds the average level 62 percent of all cases of cancer made tumors:

Specialists of IARC entering into structure of the World Health Organization (WHO) recorded that growth of socio-economic indexes in many countries is followed by decrease in incidence of infectious caused cancer and simultaneous growth of a share of tumors which development is connected with hormonal frustration and an unsatisfactory power supply[5].

Residents of the states with low indicators of IRChP suffered from malignant new growths of a neck of the uterus and also liver and breast more often.

At men most often revealed oncological tumors of a prostate, lungs and a liver. Breast cancer and a neck of the uterus was the most widespread among women.

Statistically (April, 2018), cancer of a bladder enters ten the most widespread types of cancer; more than 2.7 million people around the world suffer from it. Annually more than 430 thousand new cases and more than 165 thousand lethal outcomes are registered. At the same time 16 thousand new diagnoses of cancer of bladder a year are made in Russia, on average 6 thousand patients die.

Forecast of incidence

The number of the cases of cancer which are annually registered in the world will exceed 22.2 million by 2030. Such data were obtained during the research conducted by specialists of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Results of work are published in the The Lancet Oncology magazine (May, 2012).

Staff of IARC entering into structure of the World Health Organization (WHO) studied data on prevalence of oncological diseases in 2008. They also estimated dynamics of cancer cases at the period from 1988 to 2002 and, on the basis of these data, made the forecast for 2030.

The public persons who developed cancer

  • Former head of Accenture Pierre Nanterm. In 2016 diagnosed a colon cancer for it.
  • Cofounder of Apple Steve Jobs. In 2003 detected a pancreatic cancer in him. Diagnosed the rare form of a tumor of a pancreas known for Jobs as a neuroendocrine tumor of an insular cage.
  • Oleg Tinkov. To him diagnosed a blood cancer in October, 2019.

Prevention of cancer

2020: Aspirin  was called good prevention of cancer

In the middle of April, 2020 the Italian scientists published results of the research devoted to methods of prevention of tumors. One of outputs following: aspirin reduces risk of some types of cancer of gastrointestinal tract, including those that almost always become incurable and lead to a lethal outcome, for example, cancer of a liver or pancreas. 

According to a research, those who took aspirin twice a week, saw doctors with intestines cancer 36% less often 27% less often — with stomach cancer. Besides, the risk of development of malignant tumors of a pancreas and gullet respectively decreased by 22% and 33%.

The Italian scientists confirmed outputs that acceptance of aspirin is useful to prevention of tumors of bodies of a gastrointestinal tract

Scientists studied data of 113 researches devoted to studying of cancer including 45 works about 156 thousand cases of cancer of intestines. Also cancer diseases of the head and neck, gullet, stomach, liver, gall bladder, bilious channels and a pancreas were investigated.

The dose of aspirin from 75 to 100 mg a day is connected with 10 percent reduction of risk of development of cancer. At increase in a dose the risk of cancer decreases even stronger. However heavy doses of aspirin also increase the probability of developing of gastric bleedings — Christina Bozetti said.

According to her to use aspirin in the preventive purposes it is necessary to use only on doctor's orders which should pick up the correct dosage.

Earlier the Utah State University published results of the research which showed that after acceptance of aspirin in blood of healthy people and cancer cells the contents of the 2-gidroksiglutarat which is one of the main onkometabolit decrease. In total such decrease was 12-34%.

Scientists observed a metabolic profile of blood of 40 people who took aspirin within 60 days, and noticed that this medicine can be useful to warning of developing  of a colon cancer. [6]

Types of cancer

Skull, cancer-stricken bones

Rare forms of cancer

The Anaplastichesky krupnokletochny lymphoma connected with an implant of a mammary gland (BIA-ALCL)

On July 24, 2019 the Allergan company announced that it withdraws the textured implants of a breast of Biocell and fabric expanders from the market. As the reason of recall concerns concerning the rare form of cancer known as the anaplastichesky krupnokletochny lymphoma connected with an implant of a mammary gland (BIA-ALCL) served. Read more here.

Diagnosis of cancer

Main article: Diagnosis of cancer

Cancer cells at increase by 300 times

Cancer therapy

Main article: Cancer therapy

Death rate indicators


Cancer became the leading cause of death in the rich countries

At the beginning of September, 2019 researchers announced that cancer became the leading cause of death in the rich countries, having overtaken cardiovascular diseases. If the current trends do not change, in only several decades cancer can become the leading cause of death around the world.

Having published results of two large researches in the medical magazine The Lancet, scientists announced new global "epidemiological transition" between different types of chronic diseases. Though cardiovascular diseases remain a basic reason of death around the world among adults of middle age — 40% of all death fall to their share - this trend does not belong to the countries any more with the high level of income where cancer kills twice more people, than heart troubles.

Cancer became the leading cause of death in the rich countries

Cancer is the second most common cause of death rate in the world, 26% of all death are the share of it. But as indicators of cardiovascular diseases continue to fall, it is quite possible that cancer will become a basic reason of death around the world in only several decades.

About 70% of all cases of cardiovascular diseases and death are caused by upgradeable risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, high level of cholesterol, irrational power supply, smoking and other aspects of a way of life. In the countries with the high level of income treatment by the statins reducing cholesterol level, and hypotensive medicines allowed to reduce considerably the frequency of cardiovascular diseases for the last several decades. The team of researchers considers that higher level of death rate from cardiovascular diseases in the countries with the low level of income is mainly connected with low quality of health care in these regions.[7]

Cancer mortality in the USA decreases, but poor people dies more and more

On January 8, 2018 the American oncological society published the annual report according to which in 2019 in the USA 1.8 million new cases of cancer will be diagnosed, and it is expected that 606,880 Americans will die of this disease.

According to the statistics the death rate in the USA annually decreased from 1991 to 2016. In 1991 the number of death from oncology reached record level — 215.1 cases on 100  thousand people. However then this indicator was annually reduced approximately by 1.5%, and by 2016  only 156 cases of death from cancer were the share of 100 thousand people of the population of the USA. 

At the same time in poorer districts significant increase in death rate from cancer is observed. The disproportion is especially noticeable when it comes about lung cancer and cervical cancer. In comparison with the richest districts of the USA cancer mortality in the poorest areas is twice higher for cervical cancer and is 40% higher for lung cancer at men. Besides, prior to the beginning of the 1970th years mortality in the poor regions of the USA from cancer of a large intestine was 20% lower, than in secure, and in the 2016th it was 30% higher.

Dynamics of change of incidence and cancer mortality in the USA

For the beginning of 2019 the most widespread types of cancer diagnosed for men is a prostate cancer, easy and a colorectal cancer. Together they make 42% of all cases at men, and nearly 1 of 5 new cases is the share only of a prostate cancer. For women of 3 most widespread types of cancer: mammary gland, lungs and kolorektalny. Together they make a half of all cases, at the same time 30% of new cases are the share only of a breast cancer. A quarter of all cases of death of cancer is connected with lung cancer.

Indicators of new cases and cancer mortality are quite different among racial and ethnic groups. The highest rates - among the Afro-Americans, the lowest - among Asian Americans.

Racial and ethnic differences in incidence reflect several factors connected with the social and economic status. The people living in the poorest districts of the USA smoke more often and have obesity. Poverty is also connected with lower indicators of screening on cancer, late diagnostics and impossibility to receive good treatment.

Cancer is also the second most common cause of death among children aged from 1 up to 14 years in the USA after accidents. It is predicted that in 2019 it will be diagnosed approximately for 11,060 children in this age group.

According to a research of the American oncological society, cancer mortality in the USA decreased by 27% since 1991 when the record on number of such diseases was set

Every year researchers of the American oncological society turn on in the report the special section devoted to a problem of researches of cancer or delivery of health care. In 2019 the subject of elderly people at the age of 85 years is considered and is more senior. This age group is the most quickly growing in the USA. It is expected that its number will be tripled almost about 6.4 million in 2016 up to 19 million by 2060.

The risk of cancer increases with age, and quickly aging nation will increase demand for its treatment. Diagnostics and treatment in this case often are complicated by other diseases.

According to doctor Len Likhtenfeld from the American oncological society, fixed assets of fight against cancer are still the diet, physical exercises, screening and access to effective methods of treatment.[8][9]

2018: Poor people in the USA are ill and die from cancer more often

On October 5, 2018 article of researchers from Yale University was published in the JAMA Network Open magazine. They defined factors which promote high cancer mortality, comparing indicators among different regions of the USA. Researchers consider that distribution and cancer mortality are influenced by many socioeconomic and behavioural factors – in particular, poor people have more often cancer and die of it. Authors of a research hope that data retrieveds will help experts to designate in the field of public health care specific purposes for decline in mortality from cancer.

Though in the last decades cancer mortality in the USA decreased, indicators significantly differ between regions, and this difference becomes more and more. To reveal factors which can cause these distinctions the group of researchers of Yale University analyzed public data on patients with cancer in different regions, comparing them on a number of indicators. Statistics of lethal outcomes of the malignant new growths registered during the period from October 1, 2016 to July 31, 2017 was used. First of all researchers compared death rate in regions to the low, average and high level of income, and then tried to reveal the specific risk factors affecting these distinctions.

Researchers consider that distribution and cancer mortality are influenced by many socioeconomic and behavioural factors

The research group confirmed that between different regions of the USA really there is statistically significant difference in cancer mortality: in regions with high income the indicator was 186 lethal cases on 100,000 people, and in regions with low income – 204 lethal cases on 100,000 people. In regions with average income mortality was 230 cases on 100,000 people.

The analysis directed to identification of interrelation between independent variables showed that the majority of distinctions is explained by a number of key factors. According to the public researcher Jeremy O'Connor, the doctor of medical sciences, the most important of these factors is an irrational power supply owing to low income, smoking, a slow-moving way of life and low quality of the medical care provided in the region.

In total researchers revealed eight risk factors. Behavioural factors include obesity, smoking and low physical activity, factors of the organization of health care – unavailability of medical care, low quality of medical care and also lack of laws on smoking prohibition in public places, and social – inaccessibility of health insurance and food instability which is meant as impossibility regularly to buy food. As doctor O'Connor explained, uneven distribution of death rate from cancer is explained not by separate factors, but their set – socioeconomic factors are imposed on behavioural and mutually burden each other.

Within the methodology researchers also created the card to demonstrate an imbalance of death rate from cancer depending on the territory. They suggest specialists of health care not to spend forces for correction of all eight risk factors at the same time, and to be focused only on the most significant for their region. Such approach will allow officials to throw all funds for the solution of the specific problems which are available in the territory entrusted them.

Cancer mortality rate in the USA on 100 thousand inhabitants depending on the state

Researchers also emphasize that fact that though the general indicators of death rate from cancer depend on emergence of new methods of treatment, differences between regions are caused by the factors connected with prevention and social and economic development of the country.[10]

2017: Decline in mortality in the USA

At the end of March, 2017 the American oncological society (American Cancer Society, ACS) announced decline in mortality from cancer in the USA. Statistics was published in  the Journal of the National Cancer Institute edition.

According to results of the conducted research, from 2010 to 2014 the quantity of deaths of cancer patients in the USA decreased by 1.8% a year at men, for 1.4% at women and for 1.6% at children.

From 2010 to 2014 the quantity of deaths of cancer patients in the USA decreased by 1.8% a year at men, for 1.4% at women and for 1.6% at children

Reduction of death rate for the four-year period is recorded in a case with 11  of  16 most widespread malignant tumors at  men and  13  of  18  — at women,  including for lung cancer, thick and  a rectum, a breast and  a prostate gland. At the same time  liver cancer mortality (at  men and  women), a pancreas (at  men), a brain (at  men) and  a uterus increased.

During the period from 1999 to 2013 the number of new cancer diseases among men decreased, but at women stable dynamics is observed in this plan.

Authors of the report connected reduction of mortality percentage at cancer patients with reduction of tobacco smoking and also the fact that tumors began to reveal and treat more often at early stages. By 2017 the number of the smoking Americans is about 40 million, smoking remains the main cause of death from cancer.

The report contains the section devoted to percent of survival of people in whom malignant new growths are detected. In a case with some types of cancer patients began a thicket to recover both on early, and on late disease stages. At the same time indicators vary depending on racial and ethnic origin, a status of the patient and other factors. So, the general death rate from  all forms of cancer among the black  is 33% higher, than among the white population, and among Indians and  indigenous people of Alaska the indicator exceeds for 51%.

In comparison with the cases diagnosed in 1975-1977 the five-year survival at cancer for the period considerably improved 2006-2012 for all types of diseases, except cervical cancer and a uterus. The largest growth of survival (25% and more) was mentioned at a prostate cancer and kidneys and also a nekhodzhkinsky lymphoma, a myeloma and a leukosis.

Though the trends showing death rate most often serve as a measure of assessment of progress in fight against cancer, survival trends are also an important indicator for observation of progress at treatment of oncological diseases — the author of a research Ahmedin Jemal working in ACS told.

According to doctors, for identification of widespread types of oncological diseases, such as colon cancer, breasts and prostates, additional efforts and resources are required. Besides, doctors need to make more efforts for understanding of a trend of growth of cancer incidence of a uterus, a female mammary gland and a pancreas.

The director of the Centers for control and prevention of diseases of the USA (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Lisa Richardson considers that remain the most important strategy of prevention of oncological diseases fight against  smoking and  excess body weight.

 Cancer mortality in  the USA continues to decrease. Nevertheless, progress in  decline in mortality and  increase in survival for some forms of cancer is limited that speaks about  need of the strengthened work on  search of new strategy of prevention, early identification and  treatment  and also broad and equal use of preventive measures with  the proved efficiency, authors of the report summarized.

The American oncological society carries annually out collecting and data analysis on incidence and cancer mortality to the USA. In the research published in March, 2017 national data in 10 years — from 2000 to 2014 are analyzed.[11]

World day of fight against cancer

In 2000 by the International anticarcinogenic union (International Union Against Cancer, UICC) on February 4 it was announced in the World afternoon of campaign against cancer. The purpose of Day — to draw public attention to this global problem, to remind of that, oncological diseases are how dangerous and widespread now and to considerably reduce cancer mortality.


Annual losses of Russia from cancer are estimated at $8.1 billion

Economic losses of economy of Russia from premature death because of oncological diseases are estimated at $8.1 billion a year, said in the research conducted by specialists of NMITs of oncology of Petrov  of the Ministry of Health, the University of Tampere and the International agency on studying of cancer  of World Health Organization. Data are published at the beginning of August, 2019.

The greatest economic loss among men is caused by lung cancer ($1.2 billion annually), among women — a breast cancer ($0.64 billion). Besides, the economy suffered losses because of the stomach cancer mortality of men ($0.52 billion) and women — from cervical cancer ($0.34 billion).

Total amount of losses of economy because of premature cancer mortality in Russia is more than 0.2% of GDP.

It is predicted that economic losses as a result of cancer mortality will quicker grow at women (from $18.622 thousand to $22.386 thousand), than at men (from $25.064 thousand to $28.459 thousand). Researchers noted that because of oncological diseases the Russian women on average live 18 years less, men — for 15 years. 

Scientists consider that cancer mortality in Russia will decrease, and together with it and economic losses. So, in 2030 the loss in $7.5 billion is predicted.

At the same time losses will grow in result of death rate from cervical cancer at women (for $214 million every year), and cancer of a lip, a mouth and a throat at men (for $182 million every year).

Earlier in the Russian Ministry of Health called types of cancer which were most often diagnosed in 2018. So, on the first place  — skin cancer (except a melanoma). Such cases 78.5 thousand are recorded. The second place on incidence is held by a breast cancer (70.3 thousand cases). Also in department specified that cancer of a trachea, bronchial tubes and lungs (55.7 thousand cases), a prostate cancer (41.5 thousand) and cancer of an obodochny gut  — the main department of a thick gut (40.1 thousand) are widespread.[12]

The world's largest social network for cancer patients receives millions from investors

At the beginning of July, 2019 Belong.Life startup which is based in Tel Aviv with office New York and developing social network for cancer patients attracted $14 million investments. Taking into account this round of financing the company for the existence received from investors in total $30 million Read more here.