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2020/02/14 17:58:09

Corruption (fraud, bribes): Russia and world

Federal law of December 25, 2008 N 273-FZ "About anti-corruption": Corruption is "abuse of official position, bribery, taking of a bribe, abuse of authority, commercial bribery or other illegal use by the individual of the official capacity contrary to legitimate interests of society and state for the purpose of obtaining benefit in the form of money, values, other property or services of property character, other property rights for itself or for the third parties or illegal providing such benefit to the specified person by other individuals".

Content

2020

The RPF in 2019 received 338.6 million rubles the confiscated corruption means

The Government of the Russian Federation introduced in May, 2020 to the State Duma the performance report of budgets of the Pension fund (RPF), Fund of compulsory social insurance (Social Insurance Fund) and the Fund of Compulsory Health Insurance (FCHI) for 2019. According to the document, receipt in the budget of RPF of the confiscated money received as a result of commission of corruption offenses made 338.6 million rub[1].

According to the performance report of the budget of RPF (N962479-7), in 2019 receipts of the confiscated money received as a result of commission of corruption offenses made 338 million 639.7 thousand rubles.

Since January 1, 2019 became effective the law according to which in fund the confiscated funds received as a result of disclosure of corruption crimes and also money from implementation of the condemned property received as a result of commission of corruption offenses should be allocated. The forecast volume of receipts in 2019-2024 — 1.8 billion rubles.

The former head of Beltelekom confessed to bribes in hundreds of thousands of dollars

On March 10, 2020 the Supreme Court of Belarus began to consider criminal case on the numerous facts of receiving and bribery during deliveries to the republic of telecommunication equipment, the computer equipment and the software concerning 16 persons. Among them — former general Sergey Sivodedov of Beltelekom. He confessed to receiving more than $470 thousand and 15 thousand euros bribes during the period from 2013 to 2019. Read more here.

The creator of Telegram channel in Russia delayed for racketing 800 thousand rubles at the official

On February 13, 2020 it became known of detention of the blogger Dmitry Sviridov on suspicion of racketing of money at the representative of administration of the city situated near Moscow Korolyov. According to REN-TV TV channel, Sviridov was delayed in one of the Moscow cafes within the operational search action.

According to TASS with reference to a source in law enforcement agencies, the suspect — Dmitry Sviridov, the author of Telegram channel Channel of demon. According to the agency, he demanded money from the deputy head Korolyov of Ilya Konyshev for failure from the publication of a compromising evidence on the mayor Alexander Khodyrev.

It became known of detention of the blogger Dmitry Sviridov on suspicion of racketing of money at the representative of administration of the city situated near Moscow Korolyov

According to the press service of the Moscow region Ministry of Internal Affairs, the suspect demanded from the head of the city district Korolyov 800 thousand rubles. Otherwise threatened to publish a certain compromising evidence. By transfer of money the man was delayed by the staff of regional government of FSB.

Police investigators brought criminal case under the Article 163 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation Racketing. The suspect is defined under house arrest.

To the middle of February, 2020 on Channel of Demon signed a little more than one thousand people. Sviridov already several times published critical posts about the Korolyov's officials there. In one of the last he told that he is going to meet city administration for "direct and straight talk without censorship and standard excuses". Whether there will be in the channel a compromising evidence on 800,000 rubles now — it is unknown as in addition to house arrest Sviridova was prohibited to be gone on-line.

For attempt to earn from the journalistic investigations threatens the blogger from four to 15 years of imprisonment.

The similar case took place in 2018 in Sochi. Chief Editor of the local Internet platform "Blog. Sochi" Alexander Valov extorted 250,000 rubles from the deputy of the State Duma Yury Napso for not publication of the data discrediting his reputation.[2]

Rostelecom received the Certificate on public confirmation of observance of provisions of the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business

On January 31, 2020 Rostelecom announced completion of the procedure of "Public confirmation on accomplishment of provisions of the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business" with the highest assessment — 5 points from 5 possible. Rostelecom received the Certificate on public confirmation of observance of provisions of the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business which exempts the company from need of submission of the declaration on observance of provisions of the charter within five years after its receiving.

Rostelecom received the Certificate on public confirmation of observance of provisions of the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business

The president of RUIE Alexander Shokhin noted excellent assessment which Rostelecom received according to the results of complex check. Now the company can expect high-class assignment in the first national Anti-corruption rating of the Russian business which begins to form Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs among the largest companies since 2020 on the basis of the Russian and international standards of anti-corruption directorate.

Audit was booked on 183 indicators by highly skilled profile experts of NP Center of Development of the Corporate Relations and Resolution of Economic Disputes accredited by the Joint committee on implementation of the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business as authorized expert center.

Rostelecom received the Certificate on public confirmation of observance of provisions of the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business

Rostelecom joined the Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business in 2014 for implementation in the activity of measures for prevention and anti-corruption and creation of conditions for public condemnation and an unacceptance of corruption manifestations in interaction with the state officials, business partners and other persons.

Essence of the anti-corruption charter in commitment of its participants to high standards of business and implementation of special anti-corruption programs and the practician which concern not only situations in the company, but also partner relations on business and the state. The charter provides failure from preferences, purchases on the basis of open tenderings, financial control, training and work with personnel, assistance to law enforcement agencies and other measures.

The head of the Audit Chamber assessed damages from corruption in Russia

The damage from corruption in Russia can be measured by trillions rubles. Such assessment was given in an interview RIA Novosti by the head Accounts Chamber Alexey Kudrin.

«
And the most serious damage is suffered by not direct, but indirect character, Kudrin considers. "The question not only that someone gave rollback or some amount received illegally. It did it for some purpose: to receive a subsidy, the contract or the license or that someone did not receive another. So corruption distorts incentives in economy, and so we lose rates of economic growth, and with them and revenue growth of the population, investment, etc." — he explained.
»

«
The head of the Audit Chamber separately concerned a negative role of state corporations. "Including, when state corporations by administrative methods change a situation in the market, get some advantages, it is possible to assume, as the corruption component is present there" — Alexey Kudrin noted.
»

Earlier it was reported that the Accounts Chamber detected severe violations in work of Avtodor state company when checking its activity in 2018. As it was told in the report of the state auditor, "the facts of overestimate of cost of the accepted and paid works and also inefficient use of the resources created at the expense of means of the federal budget" were elicited. The total damage to the state, by estimates of Accounts Chamber, slightly exceeded 7 billion rubles.

2019

As Ericsson bribed officials worldwide and now will pay $1 billion

At the beginning of December, 2019 the exact amount which Ericsson will pay for a withdrawal of charges of corruption which were brought earlier by the American Ministry of Justice and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) became known. Under the terms of the agreement, Ericsson will pay $520.6 million for benefit of Ministry of Justice, $458.4 million are SEC and also $81.5 million as percent for pre-judicial settlement.

In Russia service for complaints of business to pressure of security officers is started

In November, 2019 in Russia earned service for complaints of business to pressure from law enforcement agencies. The ЗаБизнес.рф platform accepts the appeal to the State Office of Public Prosecutor, Investigative Committee, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and FSB. Read more here.

In the world only 13% of the organizations apply AI and machine learning to fight against fraud

On July 11, 2019 it became known that in only two years the artificial intelligence and machine learning will be used for counteraction to fraud three times more often than for July, 2019. Such data were obtained during joint survey of SAS company and Association of the certified specialists in investigation of plunders and fraud (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, ACFE). For July, 2019 such the antifraud tools is already used in 13% of the organizations which participated in poll and in another 25% said what one or two years are going them to implement during the next.

Counteraction to fraud

As it was reported, joint survey of SAS and ACFE was started in February, 2019, and its results are summed up at the end of June, 2019. Answers of 1055 members of ACFE working in the different countries of the world were for this purpose studied. According to the results of the interactive report was created. The questions asked experts concerned technologies and tools which are used in their organizations for fight against fraud.

As it became clear, for July, 2019 most the organizations most often use the preconfigured reports on key events of fraud using classical tools, for example, from Microsoft Office. It is the standard tool for 64% of the companies covered by a research. On the second most popular place automatic monitoring using expert business rules – it is used in 54% of the organizations. Visual examination given using BI tools closes the three – 35% fall to its share.

As for plans for development of the used technologies, in addition to growth of interest in AI, authors of a research revealed the following trends:

  • Wider circulation of biometrics is expected. For July, 2019 it is used approximately by every fourth organization, and another 16% of survey participants are going to implement till 2021.
  • Significantly more the attention to different tools and acceptances of data analysis is going to give. It is expected that by 2021 72% of the organizations will use for fight against fraud automatic monitoring of data, automatic detection of anomalies, etc.
  • The predictive analytics is going to be used in 52% of the organizations that is 22% higher than indicators of the previous research.
  • The rising trend on use of instruments of data visualization proceeds – 47% of the organizations (for July, 2019 try on 35%) are going to use or continue to use them.

One of the questions asked participants concerned the most often used analytical tools. It became clear that solutions of SAS are selected most often for solving of tasks of predictive analytics and modeling, for the analysis of social interrelations and application of graph analytics, for the deep analysis of text information.

«
As malefactors use modern technologies, applying them to creation of more and more perfect criminal schemes, professionals who counteract them, also should resort to the most advanced solutions. The answer to a question of the one who will come out the winner from this opposition depends on the choice of the most effective technologies and risk management tools.

Bruce Dorris, the president and the CEO of ACFE told
»

China disconnects artificial intelligence which too effectively looked for the corrupted officials

The authorities of China disconnect the computer system of Zero Trust created based on artificial intelligence and intended for fight against corruption among officials. It was developed and unrolled by Academy of Sciences of China and internal supervisory authorities of the Communist Party of China. A system is intended for monitoring, assessment, and if necessary both interventions in work and private life of government employees[3].

Some regional governments, including the autonomous area Manyang, the city district of Huaihua and the District of Li in the Province of Hunan stopped work of Zero Trust in the territory, having motivated it with the fact that government employees did not feel comfortable during its use. In some departments — for example, in the Commission on check of discipline of the Communist Party of China in Ninsyan — a system is still used, however officials are recognized that they are under huge pressure. About national start of Zero Trust the speech does not go.

Many officials, trying to obtain system prohibition, specified as the reason the fact that the artificial intelligence has no right to access to secret databases — this question is not regulated by the Chinese legislation in any way.

Russia fell by three places in the rating of perception of corruption

Russia at the end of 2018 took the 138th place in the rating of perception of corruption [4][5].

For a year of the Russian Federation lost three positions in rating. Shares the 138th place Russia with Guinea, Iran, Lebanon, Mexico and Papua New Guinea.

The index of perception of corruption in Russia makes 28 points of 100 (the maximum point means the minimum level of perception of corruption). In comparison with last year it decreased by one point.

Problems with corruption in the Russian Federation, Transparency International — Russia" notes ", are connected with the fact that "the operating institutes of democratic society often are substituted for their simulation".

In total the rating included 180 countries. First place is won by Denmark.

2018

The authorities of the Russian Federation were going to make "anti-money laundering compliance" obligatory for all companies

In November, 2018 it became known that Rosfinmonitoring suggests to oblige to take legal persons in the companies measures for warning of legalization of the income received in the criminal way, and for commission of transactions with participation of such income or property by them - to fine and seize the property.

The law "About Counteraction of Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism" is offered to be supplemented with article establishing that legal persons and their governing bodies including controlling his financial and economic activity are obliged to take measures for warning of commission by the legal person of transactions or financial transactions with money or other property which is obviously purchased in the criminal way. The source familiar with the course of discussion of the document reported about it to Interfax.

Cooperation with law enforcement agencies and with Rosfinmonitoring, implementation of procedures which would set conscientiousness of partners and also ensuring compliance with the anti-money laundering legislation and informing workers on the measures for warning of their involvement in laundering of criminal income taken by the legal person can belong to such measures.

If in interests or on behalf of the legal person transactions or financial transactions with money or other property which is obviously purchased in the criminal way were performed responsibility measures can be applied to it.

At the same time measures of responsibility can be applied also to the legal persons registered by the legislation of the foreign state and also to their branches and representations, foreign entities without education of the legal person if they committed offense outside the Russian Federation, but if their act is directed against the interests of the Russian Federation.

In case of acceptance the law can become effective in 30 days after day of its official publication.

But it is possible to mitigate

The Ministry of Economic Development supported the offer of Rosfinmonitoring. However the ministry suggested to mitigate article about the obligation of legal persons to perform warning measures to avoid unreasonably high requirements to the standard of their discretion, for recognition by fair. According to the ministry, it is necessary to specify that legal persons are obliged to accept "reasonable and available in the circumstances" measures.

The offered punishment

The Code of Administrative Offences is offered to be supplemented with article "Commission for the benefit of the Legal Person of Transactions or Financial Transactions with the Property Purchased in the Criminal Way". In it concerning legal persons, the penalty in the amount up to the triple cash amount or cost of other property which are a subject of administrative offense, but not less than 1 million rubles, or suspension of operations for a period of up to 9 days with confiscation is provided in interests or on behalf of which the transaction or financial transaction with money or the property purchased obviously for the person making them in the criminal way was carried out.

At the same time it is specified that the legal person is found guilty if offense from his name made the person authorized on the basis of the law, the legal act, the charter, the agreement or the power of attorney; and also if act is made obviously for the benefit of the legal person by the person holding a position in his governing bodies or bodies exercising control of its financial and economic activities.

Confiscations are subject the money and property which are an offense subject and also any income gained from transactions or financial transactions with this property except for property which returns to the owner as compensation of the done harm.

Anti-corruption information system

In the summer of 2018 the President Russia Vladimir Putin signed the decree on implementation of "The national plan of anti-corruption for 2018-2020". Some provisions of the plan instruct different departments to resort to the help of IT in fight against corruption among government employees[6].

In particular, it is about ensuring completeness and transparency of data on income and property of officials for the purpose of identification of such property which acquisition on legal income is not confirmed, and its addresses to income of the state. For improvement of this mechanism with participation of the Presidential Administration (PA), government and the interested state agencies it is ordered to security service of Russia to consider a question of a possibility of creation and implementation of a special information system.

Through this system interaction of the specified bodies in fight against corruption will be performed. A system will be implemented in AP and other state agencies. It will be created on the basis of the system of anti-corruption which is already used in AP. The report on execution of this point of the decree should be provided till October 1, 2018.

Measures in the field of state procurements and business

Also the decree provides use of IT for anti-corruption in the field of state procurements. It agrees to one of paragraphs, the government should consider a question of investment of the State Office of Public Prosecutor with powers to maintain a register of the legal entities made responsible 19.28 Administrative codes of Russia. Article prescribes punishment of officials for receiving illegal remuneration from legal entities.

The State Office of Public Prosecutor will have to define what data it is necessary to include in this register and in what order they will be placed in the unified information system in the field of purchases. The report on execution of this point of the decree should be provided till December 1, 2018.

In addition, the decree orders to the government to consider a question of creation of conditions under which the customer will be able to learn about a possible conflict of interest at state procurement implementation in time, including by means of information exchange between departments. The report on execution of this point should be submitted till July 1, 2019.

In Russia the online register of the officials dismissed for corruption will appear

In Russia there will be an online register of the persons dismissed from the positions because of loss of trust in connection with participation in corruption. The corresponding government decree No. 228 was signed and published on the official Internet portal of legal information[7].

According to the resolution, the register will be in open access on the official site of the Unified information system of management of the personnel structure of the public civil service of Russia to the address gossluzhba.gov.ru/reestr. The document will be submitted in the PDF format. The Russian Government's Department of Civil Service and Personnel will be responsible for its maintaining.

Creation of the mentioned register provides the law "About Making Changes in Separate Legal Acts of the Russian Federation regarding Placement in the State Information System in the field of Public Service of Data on Use of Collecting in the form of Dismissal in connection with Loss of Trust for Commission of Corruption Offences" which was signed by the President of Russia in July, 2017.

In the name of the law it is emphasized that it is about loss of trust in connection with corruption. The bill was prepared Ministry of Labor, its first option was placed on the regulation.gov.ru portal in January, 2015.

2017

The State Office of Public Prosecutor revealed the most corrupted division of security officers

Most of all crimes in the field of corruption in the system of law enforcement agencies of Russia for 2017 were committed by the staff of Department of Internal Affairs. Such data were provided by the First Deputy Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation Alexander Buksman. He was quoted by RIA Novosti[8].

From 1.3 thousand law enforcement authorities convicted of corruption 729 worked in law-enforcement bodies, Buksman emphasized.

Staff of the Federal Penitentiary Service (FPS) committed 191 similar crimes, 174 — employees of service of court ushers. 70 similar offenses belong to customs authorities, and 57 — to the National Guard of the Russian Federation.

According to the first Deputy Prosecutor General, the number of the corruption crimes committed by law enforcement officers only grows every year.

Despite the measures taken by law enforcement agencies directed to anti-corruption in own ranks for dveyat months of this year about 1.3 thousand law enforcement officers who committed corruption crimes — Alexander Buksman are set.

At the same time the total number of crimes in this sphere, on the contrary, decreases.

Even isolated cases of corruption in a system can cross out all efforts made by law enforcement authorities, Buksman considers. They negatively affect also trust to this work in the opinion of the population.

Since 2014, corrupt officials in Russia managed "earn" about 150 billion rubles. For the three-year period in the country 122 thousand crimes in this sphere are registered, and convictions took out to 45 thousand people.

The public list of the persons dismissed in connection with loss of trust

The Prosecutor General of the country Yury Chaika proposed in December, 2017 creation of the public list of the persons dismissed in connection with loss of trust. According to the Kommersant newspaper, an initiative will become effective since January 1, 2018. As Yury Chaika notes, in 2016 under this article 400 officials were dismissed, in 9 months 2017 is 2.3 times more – 926 people.

According to the Prosecutor General, rough corruption offenses can become the basis for application of such type of responsibility. It, for example, concealment of data on income and property or non-compliance with anti-corruption bans.

The UN called the annual volume of bribes in the world

Every year in the world 1 trillion dollars are spent for bribes. It is said in the statement of the United Nations (UN) published in honor of the International day of fight against corruption which was celebrated on December 9, 2017.

As a result of corruption of the state receive less 2.6 trillion dollars, the amount equivalent to 5% of world GDP. According to data of the Program of development of the UN, in developing countries the losses connected with corruption exceed volumes of official aid on the development purpose ten times.

"In the UN remind that bribery is a non-capital offense which undermines social and economic development of any society. Any country, any region are not insured from corruption", says the international organization. "These digits stun, but what lies behind these financial frauds surprises even more — the world of extreme poverty and inequality which is aggravated with distortions in income distribution and decisions on the public expenditures which corruption influences" — the head of department of the Peacebuilding Support Office of PROON Patrick Keulers noted.

He mentioned investigations of the Panama archives and emphasized that these materials of journalists showed the scale of all hidden world riches which disappear in offshores. He also refers to data of analysts of Oxfam International which counted that the African states annually lose about 14 billion dollars because of tax avoidance. Keulers specifies that this money could go to health care to save lives of 4 million children, or on education in order that each child in the African countries could study at school.

The barometer of global corruption of 2017 in the Pacific Rim which in November was released by Transparency International shows that 38% of the people who are living below the poverty line are forced to pay bribes for access to state services. Also authors of a research came to a conclusion that the high level of bribes is connected with the low level of literacy among youth.

The single database about property and accounts of Russians

The chairman of the Investigative Committee of Russia Alexander Bastrykin suggested to create in December, 2017 single databases about property and accounts which would allow to define quickly property of suspects of criminal activity.

Main article: The single database about property and accounts of Russians

The British authorities apply artificial intelligence to corruption disclosure

In February, 2017 it became known of use of the Ravn ACE system by the British authorities for corruption investigation. The technology was tested on the British producer of aircraft engines Rolls-Royce.

The British Bureau on fight against fraud in especially large sizes (SFO) for the first time applied the automated system of Ravn ACE intended for selection and indexing of documents and extraction of knowledge from them. Using the program, seven specialists processed 600 thousand documents a day. In total in the automatic mode about 30 million materials were analyzed. Earlier such information had to be processed manually. You watch Ravn ACE in more detail.

It will be confidentially possible to announce corruptionist colleagues

The Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation submitted on February 8[9] for public discussion the bill entering new measures for protection of such citizens. According to the document, the separate article "Messages about Corruption Offences and Measures of Protection of the Reported Persons" should be published in law No. 273-FZ.

Article directly obliges not only law enforcement agencies, but also the employer to react to messages about corruption. Besides, it enters protection not only for those who announced corruption, but also for those who help disclosure of corruption crimes in other ways. For example, provides to the investigation the additional information or discloses location of the person who is wanted for corruption crimes.

The main measure of protection which is entered by the bill is confidentiality. Concealment of a name of the informant guarantees it total absence of any prosecutions and even sidelong glances. However, It should be noted that in certain cases it will be quite difficult to save confidentiality. If it is about small collective or if knew the very few about crime – it is possible to calculate whistleblower. On this case all other measures of protection are also necessary.

The bill guarantees to informants free legal aid. It concerns not only preparation of addresses, as in law No. 324-FZ, and in general any problems connected with the message about corruption. At last, the right of informants to protection against wrongful discharge and infringements in the field of the labor schedule and compensation is stated in the bill. Within three years after the message about the fact of corruption of the informant it is possible to dismiss or transfer to other position at the initiative of the employer only according to the results of a meeting of certifying commission. During the meeting the employer will have to prove that staff movements are not connected with the message about corruption. The minutes are provided to the prosecutor.

At the same time in the bill it is especially noted that the specified measures of protection do not concern the persons who reported obviously false data. On the contrary, responsibility for slander or obviously false denunciation threatens with him. So to protect itself from office troubles, having stipulated colleagues, office intriguers will not manage.

The polygraph provides decrease in corruption risks at implementation of purchases in Moscow

Check on a polygraph became the effective instrument of counteraction and prevention of emergence of corruption risks in Moscow. More than six thousand government employees underwent testing since 2011. The Head of the Moscow Department for Competition Policy Gennady Dyogtev reported about it at the beginning of a year.

Government employees should undergo lie detector test in 2017 of 1.7 thousand.

"Nearly 90 percent were reached by a share of the employees who got according to the results of checks to the "green" zone excluding a possibility of corruption risks. In 2012 this indicator did not exceed 55 percent. Thus, positive dynamics of decrease in risk factors is obvious. Checks using a polygraph or the speech analyzer the K factor become one of effective instruments of counteraction to corruption manifestations in the field of purchases among employees, occupied, including, in the field of city purchases", - G. Dyogtev noted.

More than 1.7 thousand employees of Moscow underwent testing using a polygraph and the analyzer the K factor in 2016, Dyogtev noted.

"70 percent from 1.7 thousand tested employees work in the system of city purchases. Based on checks only at two percent inspected corruption risk factors are revealed. The previous year this indicator was six percent", - the head of department emphasized. Any head or the specialist of contract service and the member of the commission cannot be included in the Register of the public civil servants occupied in the field of purchases without passing of the procedure of a polygraph, G. Dyogtev told.
"The effect of application of a polygraph was estimated by heads of many state structures of Moscow which implemented inclusion of checks on a polygraph in the program for prevention of corruption in the field of purchases. The line of categories of the employees who are subject to obligatory check on a polygraph can be expanded. As 70 state unitary enterprises and the state enterprises of Moscow transferred the purchasing activity under regulation of the Law on a contract system from January 1, 2017, we recommend to heads to make the procedure of check on a polygraph obligatory for the staff of contract services. Along with it carrying out tests on a polygraph for those who are related to implementation of property through Uniform marketplace of Moscow would be reasonable", - G. Dyogtev emphasized.

Since 2016 in the capital uniform requirements to tendering concerning the property which is in property treasury of the city of Moscow assigned on the right of economic management or operational management to the unitary enterprises and city institutions of Moscow are introduced. Now all auctions for sale and real estate lease will take place on Uniform marketplace of the city of Moscow.

Effects of application of a polygraph estimated also commercial structures, the head of department of psychophysiological researches of State Budgetary Institution Service Center 44 Natalia Tkachyova told.

"Representatives of business companies even more often ask for the help in conducting checks on a polygraph. Those who repeatedly passed test on a polygraph treat each following check more quietly, understanding that the competent specialist polygraphologist will be able to distinguish quite explainable nervousness from manifestations of risk factors", - N. Tkachyova noted.

2016

Main trends:

  • Growth of a share of "sophisticated" schemes
  • Growth of a share of crimes at the level of board
  • Decrease in a share is accidental the revealed crimes
  • Reduction of average time of identification
  • Drift of accents from reaction to warning

Russia began to kill and take less bribes

In 2016 in comparison with 2015 in the country the number of the revealed crimes of economic orientation decreased by 3.3%. The quantity of the registered cases of taking of bribes decreased by 17.7%.

Infographics: L! FE

Transparency International - Index of perception of corruption (Corruption Perceptions Index)

The annual research "Index of Perception of Corruption" was published by the international organization of Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2016[10]. In rating where 176 countries enter, an assessment is given to corruption level in each of the states. The less points the country, the higher at it gained corruption perception level.

The best position in Prikaspiya was taken by Azerbaijan. At the country the 123rd place with 30 points (in 2015 - 29 points).

Russia together with Kazakhstan and Iran according to the results of the 2016th received 29 points. All these countries took 131 places. And if the position of Russia in a year did not change, then Kazakhstan and Iran grew up a little - from 28 and 27 points respectively.

Turkmenistan in rating gained 22 points and took the 154th place. Despite rather low position, the country made noticeable breakthrough, having improved the indicators on three points. So, last year Turkmenistan gained only 18 points.

New Zealand and Denmark separated the 1st place. At these countries on 90 points. In rating "tail" – the DPRK (12 points), Sudan (11 points) and Somalia (10 points).

Mean value of level of perception of corruption in the world – 43 points.

In general originators of rating note that significant changes in respect of the relation to corruption for last year are not observed – neither in Central Asia, nor in Europe.

Corruption Perceptions Index 2016
Corruption Perceptions Index 2016

To the Russian school students will impart "anti-corruption standards of behavior"

The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation submitted in December for public discussion the new version of the educational standard of high school in which there was a requirement to create "anti-corruption outlook" at pupils.

Anti-corruption school students will have to study Right of the subject "Social sciences" within the section. In addition to bases of legal thinking will have to pawn an item "anti-corruption standards of behavior".

The ministry suggested to add to point on formation of personal qualities of the pupil "capability to resist to ideology of extremism, nationalism, xenophobia, discrimination on social, religious, racial, national features and other negative social phenomena".

The offered changes also specify the maintenance of a course of mathematics and describe astronomy as an independent subject outside physics.

The offered changes in the educational standard are a part of the Program for anti-corruption education[11]which was approved in 2014. And the approval of new standards had to take place until the end of 2015, and in a year from the Ministry of Education and Science required to show the first results of monitoring.

1200 Kazakhstan officials are for life deprived of the right to work at public service

Their most part – for corruption crimes.

The vice-chairman of the Agency of Kazakhstan for public service and to anti-corruption Alik Shpekbayev reported about it, gives MIA "Kazinform" in December, 2016. Only in two last years 660 officials are sentenced to multiple penalties. Thanks to it more than 6 billion tenges came to the budget. Confiscations of property 924 officials involved for corruption crimes underwent, and more than 1200 are deprived of a life interest to work at public service, - Shpekbayev specified.

By the way, in the expiring year in Kazakhstan there were Representatives for ethics, the disciplinary commissions in state agencies and councils for ethics in regions. They monitor a moral and ethical appearance of government employees. In case of mismatch these bodies give to regulations the corresponding consultations and instructions. The disciplinary responsibility is as a last resort provided, up to dismissal from civil service.

In 9 months 2016 in production of ICR there were 24,766 criminal cases about crimes of corruption orientation

In December, 2016 the Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation (ICRF) reported[12]that in the first nine months 2016 in production of his investigators there were 24.8 thousand criminal corruption cases (about five thousand cases remained uninvestigated from last year). In their 2015 was slightly more — 25.3 thousand. If to judge by the published data, in 2016, as before, most often giving and taking of bribes, fraud, waste and abuse of office[13] became a reason for initiation of proceedings].

Investigators of ICR emphasize that among persons involved in corruption affairs there are not only officials, but also the persons having special legal status. In 2016 cases against 427 such persons were sent to courts, this is staff of bodies of internal affairs, the State Committee for Control Over the Illegal Trafficking of Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances, prosecutors, lawyers, judges, the staff of the ICR and also: 56 members of election commissions, 130 deputies of local government authorities, 116 heads of municipalities, 13 deputies of regulatory authorities.

Among accused of corruption, there are high-ranking former officials: governors of the Sakhalin region Alexandr Khoroshavin and Kirov region Nikita Belykh, Governor of the Komi Republic Vyacheslav Gayzer, Minister of Economic Development Alexey Ulyukaev, Vice Governor of St. Petersburg Marat Oganesyan and deputy governor of Chelyabinsk region Nikolay Sandakov, mayor of Pereslavl-Zalessky Denis Koshurnikov. Cases of the high-ranking police officer Dmitry Zakharchenko and the director of FPS of Russia Alexander Reymer are investigated.

Detailed statistics on corruption crimes by regions can be found on[2]the website "Portal of Legal Statistics", it is supervised by the State Office of Public Prosecutor of the Russian Federation:

According to the portal, from January to October, 2016 in Russia 5570 cases of taking of bribes were registered. Moscow (249 such crimes) became the leader in this area. The second place is taken by Krasnodar Krai (216 cases), the third – Zabaykalsky Krai (207). Further according to the list the Rostov region, Tatarstan, Bashkiria, the Volgograd region, the Voronezh region, Chelyabinsk region and Altai Krai follow. At the same time in the Jewish Autonomous Region and in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in a year did not record any case of taking of a bribe. Isolated cases of bribery managed to be revealed in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Murmansk region, Ingushetia, Yakutia, Kamchatka Krai, the Tambov region, in Karachay-Cherkessia, Kalmykia and the Republic of Tyva, Karelia and Sevastopol.

Bribery cases for the same time it was recorded a little less – 4593. The Volgograd region (221 cases) became the leader in this type of crime, besides Moscow (191), the Moscow region (179), Tatarstan, Sverdlovsk region, Perm Krai, the Rostov region, Stavropol Krai and St. Petersburg follow further. And again: in the Chukchi autonomous any case of bribery was not registered. Isolated cases of bribery are detected in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria and North Ossetia, Kamchatka Krai and the Republic of Khakassia, in the Republic of Tyva, Ingushetia and Jewish Autonomous Region.

The crimes connected with abuse of office it was registered 2037. Most of all they are revealed in Tatarstan (205 cases). Further with a big separation the Vologda region (100), Krasnodar Krai (98), the Republic of Crimea (65) and Moscow (61), Chelyabinsk region, Perm Krai, Dagestan, Bashkiria and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug follow. And on the contrary, such crimes seldom reveal in Altai Republic, the Smolensk, Yaroslavl and Kaliningrad regions, in Altai Krai, Tyva and the Pskov region. In Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Khakassia, the Oryol region, the Magadan region and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug recorded only in one case of abuse of office.

It is a lot of revealed corruption crimes at the same time and remain unsolved. According to the Portal of legal statistics, for October, 2016 unsolved 106 cases of taking of a bribe and 79 cases of bribery are registered; 78 cases of abuse of authority, from them 18 - in the Republic of Crimea and 8 in Sevastopol are considered as unsolved.

In the nearest future the concept of corruption can be essential is expanded. The ICR reminded again that department prepared a number of the bills concerning anti-corruption, and in particular abuses at privatization and withdrawal of capital for avoidance of taxes. The head of the Investigative Committee of Russia Alexander Bastrykin said more than once that he considers it necessary to recover in the Criminal code confiscation of property as an additional measure of punishment for crimes for profit, the relevant bill also waits for consideration in the Duma (today confiscation is a measure of criminal character, that property, money and values which are received can be confiscated or were used for crime commission).

So far according to ICR, the cost of a distrained property of accused of corruption crimes is only seven billion rubles, and persons involved in investigations indemnified loss for the amount about three billion rubles. For comparison: by estimates of the State Office of Public Prosecutor, the material damage from crimes of corruption orientation in 2015 was 43 billion rubles, and in the first half of this year — about 28.5 billion rubles.

2014

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)

Deloitte: How much do risks of implementation of fraudulent activity cost?

  • On average each organization loses 5% of revenue a year from fraudulent activity;
  • About one third of cases of fraudulent activity occurs in the field of corruption, average losses according to one scheme are $250.000;
  • The level of the power of the swindler – the more losses is higher. The average losses from fraud which arose because of exceeding of office powers of owners / the top management are estimated at $573.000 made by management – in $180.000 and made by employees – in $60.000.

The average extent of direct financial loss from fraud in the Russian Federation is about 5 times higher, than worldwide

2013: KPMG

  • Approximately every seventh fraud reveals absolutely accidentally (13%);
  • Every tenth crime is solved thanks to information of staff of the company for remuneration;
  • 14% of frauds were opened by means of anonymous informants;
  • 8% of the crimes were solved after receipt of complaints from clients and suppliers;
  • 6% made cases when violations were revealed as a result of requests from controlling organizations, banks, tax authorities, competitors or investors.

Anti-corruption charter of the Russian business

The charter assumes implementation in the policy of Corporation of anti-corruption programs, monitoring and assessment of their implementation, effective financial control, the principle of publicity of anti-corruption measures, failure from illegal obtaining advantages, participation in tenders on the basis of the principles of transparency and the competition, information anti-corruption and other measures.

According to Article 9 of the Federal law of December 25, 2008 No. 273-FZ "About anti-corruption", the public or municipal servant who announced the corruption facts "is under protection of the state in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation". This provision in the decree of the Russian President of April 2, 2013 No. 309 is concretized. The document says that it is possible to apply authority punishment only according to the results of a meeting of certifying commission to such government employee. Besides, the Federal law of November 21, 2011 No. 324-FZ "About free legal aid" guarantees to citizens the free help in preparation of addresses about corruption and also in preparation of messages about violation of their rights in connection with these addresses.

Anti-corruption legislation and best practice

Need of protection of the persons announcing corruption crimes is provided by the Convention of the UN against corruption. The convention was adopted in New York in 2003, and Russia ratified it in 2006[14].

The system of protection of so-called "informants" (whistleblowers, "blowing in a whistle") is developed in many countries, but first of all in the USA. There the special government organization Government Accountability Project is engaged in upholding of their interests. By the first whistleblower traditionally consider Benjamin Franklin who in 1773 divulged confidential letters. It was so proved that the governor of the State of Massachusetts misled parliament of Great Britain and achieved accumulation of military potential in the New World. It should be noted that whistleblower are understood as normal citizens who accidental knew of violation of the law, but not regular informers of law enforcement agencies.

  • The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s (Basel I, Basel II)
  • COSO (The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission)
  • Specification for an anti-bribery management system (ABMS)
  • Recommendations of the leading auditors (KPMG, Ernst&Young, Delloite, PriceWaterCoopers House)
  • The convention of the UN and the analyst of UNODC (divisions of the UN on fight against drugs and crime)
  • UK Bribery Act 2010
  • Methodical recommendations about development and acceptance by the organizations of measures for warning and anti-corruption, Ministry of Labor of 11/8/2013.
  • Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 147 of April 1, 2016 "About the national plan for anti-corruption for 2016-2017"

Stages of anti-corruption activity:

  • Warning
  • Identification
  • Reaction

The main measures undertaken in the largest companies and provided by state politicians of the leading countries:

  • Education and training
  • Hot lines and disturbing buttons
  • Analytical device
  • Regulatory framework

Principles of effective work of the Hot line:

  • Knowledge
  • Availability
  • Privacy
  • Anonymity
  • Protection of the informant
  • Option – remuneration for information

Problems of anti-corruption measures

  • Pretentiousness
  • Inertness, focus on next generation
  • Trend on bureaucratization
  • "Problem of the 20th article"
  • Overweight of reaction over warning (including at the level of algorithms)
  • White-collar mafia

Bribes and fraud in medicine

Main article: Bribes and other crimes in medicine


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  10. [1]
  11. Development and improvement of the legal base for the purpose of creation of conditions for increase in level of sense of justice of citizens and promoting of the anti-corruption standards of behavior based on knowledge of general rights and duties
  12. In Investigative Committee of the Russian Federation work in the field of anti-corruption in 9 months 2016 is generalized
  13. [http://www.gosvopros.ru/job/qualification/korruptsiya/ Corruption in digits
  14. it will be confidentially possible to Announce corruptionist colleagues