Translated by
2020/07/21 16:00:11

Digital economy of Russia

Digital economy - the system of the economic, social and cultural relations based on use of digital information and communication technologies. In article the events connected with development of digital economy in Russia are traced.


National program "Digital Economy"

Main article: National program Digital economy of the Russian Federation

Normative regulation

Main article: Normative regulation of Digital economy

Information infrastructure

Main article: Information infrastructure of digital economy of Russia

Information security

Main article: Information security of digital economy of Russia

Personnel and education

End-to-end technologies of digital economy

Main article: End-to-end technologies of digital economy

End-to-end technologies are key scientific and technical directions which have the most significant effect on development of the new markets.

Cooperation with other countries

Main article: Cooperation of Russia with other countries in development of digital economy

As the digital economy turns the middle class in prekariat

Main article: Prekariat

For 2018 the middle class which reached the peak of the power in the 1970th slowly but surely falls to a prekariat status. Also there are all premises for the fact that in the near future evolution of the proletariat in prekariat will continue and the last will become "nenuzhnoriaty".


Putin determined the purposes by digital transformation of the Russian Federation for 10 years

On July 21, 2020 the president Russia Vladimir Putin signed the decree on the national purposes of development of the country until 2030. It is directed to increase in population of the country, increase in the standard of living of citizens, creation of comfortable conditions for their accommodation and also disclosure of talent of each person, reported on the Kremlin website.

One of the national purposes determined by Putin for 10 years received the name "Digital Transformation". Within it the following tasks are set:

  • achievement of "digital maturity" of key industries of economy and social sphere, including health care and education and also public administration;
  • increase in a share of the mass socially important services available in electronic form, up to 95%;
  • growth of a share of households to which the possibility of broadband access to an information and telecommunications network the Internet, up to 97% is provided;
  • increase in investments in domestic solutions in the field of information technologies four times in comparison with an indicator of 2019.

Putin determined the purposes by digital transformation of Russia for 10 years

The Government of the Russian Federation should provide the plan for achievement of the national purposes till October 30, 2020. According to the assistant to the head of state, the former Minister of Economic Development Maxim Oreshkin, it is necessary to create conditions for digital transformation of economy, the social sphere, public administration.

Everywhere use of digital technologies is able to afford to move to qualitatively other level, to provide other level of efficiency — he added.

According to him, the government should complete preparation of amendments in three-months time, relying at the same time on provisions of the decree on the national purposes.

The Government of the Russian Federation assigned to the Ministry of Economic Development of function of monitoring and the analysis of implementation of the national projects and also risks assessment arising at their implementation.[1]

Putin urged to accelerate digitalization: If we sit in one place exactly, around us and the swamp will squelch

At a meeting of Council for strategic development and national projects which in the mode of video conference was held on July 13 by the president Vladimir Putin he noted that for digitalization, developer companies of the software it is necessary to create conditions and urged to act more resolutely.

It is necessary to work more resolutely, we should be globally competitive. There is nothing to be afraid. It is clear, there can be some loss of income of the budget, but, it seems to me, it is necessary to go on it more safely. Then we will expand the horizon of our development, we will solve the problems connected with performance improvement of work and with growth of economy in general, we will create new structure of our economy. But, if we sit in one place exactly, we will do nothing, then and the swamp around us will squelch. It is necessary to move here more actively, - Putin said during the meeting which broadcast was conducted online on RT channel.

Vladimir Putin held a meeting of Council for strategic development and national projects, sitting in the country residence "Novo-Ogaryovo" (a photo -

Putin gave such message in response to a performance at a meeting of Dmitry Chernyshenko who supervises in the government, including, digital economy and innovations. Chernyshenko noted that by 2030 key industries of economy should reach a digital maturity. To the same term to provide penetration of "all benefits and opportunities of digitalization", it is necessary that 95% of all socially important services should be available online. For this purpose almost all population – 97% of households of the country is necessary – to connect to broadband access.

Chernyshenko indicated also the need of new approach to digitalization of economy with providing tax benefits to the companies working in this sphere, and reduction of administrative loading and implementation of artificial intelligence technologies.

In the opening speech to a meeting Vladimir Putin also emphasized importance of "digit" and use of advantages of new technological solutions.

Here we also should be among world leaders. Here, practice of the last months showed that it is absolutely possible for us. We in general are ready to it. It is necessary just to target this direction of our work, to start powerful digital development in all spheres of life: in an education system, when receiving medical care, public services that is especially important – in the field of housing and public utilities and municipal economy. And of course, in promotion of the new business ideas for development of the case, - the president said.

He added that digital technologies so quickly go forward that here it is necessary to put reference points literally for every year, or perhaps also more often.

At the same time, the solution to correct national projects and to fix the purposes of national development until 2030 became important result of a meeting of Council for strategic development and national projects which, it seems, will mention also the Digital Economy national program.

The idea that adjustment of terms according to national projects would be reasonable at a meeting was stated, in particular, by the prime minister Mikhail Mishustin and the Deputy Prime Minister Tatyana Golikova, pointing to the new situation which developed because of influence of a pandemic. The time frames specified 2030 in relation to digitalization sounded also in Dmitry Chernyshenko's performance.

I ask Presidential Administration, of course, together with profile departments, with the government in general to prepare the draft of the decree in which the purposes of national development until 2030 will be enshrined as today colleagues also offered, - Vladimir Putin told. - I ask the government with the assistance of the State Council in three-months time to correct national projects. I understood today, there are offers on these adjustments. It is necessary to proceed from realities, he agrees with it.

Terms of implementation of a number of drafts of the Digital Economy national program can be changed

On May 19, 2020 it became known that terms of implementation of a number of drafts of the Digital Economy national program can be changed.

Such offer was made by specialists of the Russian Government Analytical Centre. For May, 2020 deadlines of implementation of trunk projects among which — development of communication networks of a 5G, creation of the state single cloud platform, the standard automated workplace of the government employee, venture fund of support of educational projects and other actions are skirted.

From 231 planned results of the national program in the first quarter 2020 is reached fully only 6. About 150 are in work with different degree of deviations from the planned terms, and are recognized 66 as outstanding, these are nearly 30% of a total quantity.

The greatest number of unrealized actions - from the federal project "Digital Public Administration" - 20 of 74.

In the Information security direction 13 actions, "Information infrastructure" - 11, "The personnel for digital economy" - 10, "Normative regulation" - 9 were not executed.

According to experts, at this conjuncture it is necessary to simplify a management structure, to book audit of actions of the program, to review priorities on the basis of already accumulated experience and the changed economic situation[2].


The first meeting of subgroup "Digital technologies of management of development of territories and urban policy"

On August 8, 2019 it became known that with assistance of ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika August 6, 2019 the first meeting of subgroup "Digital technologies of management of development of territories and urban policy" of the Working group on communication economy the Communications, Digital direction of the State Council took place. In more detail here.

Formation of the industry working group "Digital Transformation of the Oil and Gas Industry"

On July 26, 2019 it became known what Minenergetiki of the Russian Federation with the assistance of the key companies of an oil and gas complex (oil and gas company) created the industry working group (IWG) "Digital Transformation of the Oil and Gas Industry" which will become industry Competence Center within the departmental project "Digital energy" on the platform of ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika. It is expected that by October, 2019 ORG will approve the directions and basic scenarios of digital transformation of NTK. Read more here.

The supervisory board of "Digital economy" approved creation of the working groups on the digital industry, education and health care

The supervisory board of the Digital Economy organization which meeting took place on June 27, 2019 in Moscow, approved the decision on creation of the industry working groups (IWG) on the digital industry, digital education and digital health care, as well as selected candidates of their cochairmen from business. Read more here.

Handelsblatt: As Russia turns into the great IT power

On February 15, 2019 the German business newspaper Handelsblatt published article with the heading "As Russia Turns into the Great IT Power". Journalists paid special attention to "Yandex"Read more here.


The German business asks from Putin admission to digital economy of Russia

On November 1, 2018 the president Vladimir Putin accepted in the Kremlin of representatives of the largest German enterprises – an asset of East committee of the German economy. Among two tens German representatives at a meeting there were top managers of the largest companies, such as Siemens, Volkswagen, Knauf, Daimler and others.

During the meeting the President of Russia told them about the program of digital economy in Russia, and the German side, in turn, expressed interest in development of joint initiatives in this area.

Putin said that in Russia a lot of things become for dynamic technology development of the country. The Digital Economy program within which it is going to increase labor productivity by 30% by 2024 is started.

Of course, it is very ambitious goal, we perfectly give ourselves in it the report, - the president recognized. - But it is necessary to set such purposes if we want though chegonibud to try to obtain. We need to achieve that the innovation sectors of economy created more than 10% of the Russian GDP.

He added that the Russian side is ready to discuss in detail the subjects concerning the German colleagues, to consider specific proposals on activation of bilateral cooperation.

At a meeting with representatives of the German business community (a photo -
And of course, as always, it is important to us to know, hear your opinion, opinion of our German partners, on what so far complicates business in Russia. For certain such problems still remain. What additional support from the state, the Government of the Russian Federation is necessary for investors for work in Russia? – Vladimir of fishing seasons at Germans took an interest.

The chairman of East committee of the German economy Wolfgang Buechele who was present at a meeting noted that in Germany try to direct bridges with Russia. Therefore it is necessary to tell more about joint standards, certification, about simplification of customs and visa barriers, he considers.

It would be the first step on the long way to creation of joint economic space of the European Union and the Eurasian Economic Union. For the benefit of our descendants we hope that this perspective will become a reality once, – Byukhele said. - Eventually, we need to pass tests with which we are pushed together by digitalization of economy.

Wolfgang Buechele at the same time noted that Europeans concerning such subjects as artificial intelligence, a blockchain, self-driving transport, 3dpechat, supercomputers, biotechnologies, should put pressure urgently. He said that he worked in the Iksayt enterprise and noticed that projects on building of modern production of semiconductors are generally implemented in China and the USA and is very rare in Europe. China now in all spheres becomes the global competitor for us; The USA concentrates in return on strategy "America first of all", the chairman of East committee of the German economy noted.

The modern and innovation enterprises from the European Union and Russia should work on solutions which will provide to the whole Europe the worthy place in the competition for global markets together. I hope that we will take together a big step in this direction today, - Wolfgang Buechele expressed hopes.

He added that in the center of a meeting of the German side with the President of Russia there will be five subjects: development of cooperation in the field of health care, increase in efficiency and labor productivity.

We want to speak about further development of our power communications, joint initiatives of digitalization of economy and also about cooperation in the agrarian sector and the sector of production of food. We face big tasks, and our purposes stand any efforts, - Byukhele emphasized.

Finishing the performance, the German official stated several words about those alarms which it is necessary to face and which, according to him, can lead to problems. Reciprocal economic sanctions did not undergo kakikhto changes, in particular the American sanctions, to them it is necessary, to take seriously, he expressed a regret.

We should expect their further toughening. We are deeply disturbed by the fact that these sanctions are formulated very inaccurately and indistinctly so for the separate enterprises it is very difficult to understand, they will concern them or not, - Byukhele summarized. - Our trade grows, perspective the next months and the forecast the next months as I already told, however, sadden further sanctions. We hope that here we will be able to find the solution as to cope with them.

Medvedev: Changes which brought ICT are comparable to the crash of the USSR

The Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev published article in the "ekonomiki Voprosy" magazine "Russia-2024: Strategy of social and economic development"[3]. In article the problems of economic policy of Russia for 2018-2024 including concerning development of digital economy are discussed. In the context of trends and conditions which will define considerably the nature of global processes for the foreseeable future, the trajectory of disruptive scientific and technology and social and economic development of Russia is offered.

Dmitry Medvedev wrote article about problems of economic policy of Russia for the next years

According to the prime minister, for the last decade important trends and conditions which will define considerably development of global processes for the foreseeable future were created. It is important to consider them to understand the current state and ways of development of Russia, to create the action program of the government.

First of all, there was an unprecedented acceleration of technology updating that led to the explosive growth of innovations. At all seeming evidence of this thesis not all realize that we became contemporaries of quantum leap in dynamics of our life, Medvedev writes.

First, the world faces depth and complexity of innovations unprecedented earlier. New technologies generate high-quality changes of all aspects of life of society. The crises of the political systems developing for decades observed in recent years are caused including emergence of new technologies.

Secondly, the rate of changes became unprecedented. Case does not come down to a normal mantra about acceleration of technical progress. At economists it is accepted to speak about "the modern economic growth" when changes of living conditions and production happen over not centuries, but decades, i.e. for each new generation. But now such understanding becomes incorrect: the innovations changing human life occur for read years, within life of one generation. If this rate of updates remains, then it will be possible to speak about approach of a new phase of economic dynamics, significantly other than observed in the last 200 years, the prime minister considers.

We see that changes which brought the information and communication technologies (ICT) in a certain measure are comparable on intensity to the crash of the Soviet system. And this high-quality updating took place at least two stages. At first it was the Internet, and then — emergence of mobile devices (smartphones, tablets, notebooks) and new opportunities which they create. If it seemed earlier that life of my generation is divided into two stages — at a communistic system and at a system market, then now separation into an era "to the Internet" looks not less relevant (though it is less dramatic), "to the smartphone", the watershed "to artificial intelligence will become more relevant after a while", - Medvedev notes.

For practical political and economic work important that new technologies qualitatively transform all spheres of life activity of the person — to the politician and economy, science and education, business and mass media, medicine and culture. They raise sensitive issues of ethical character.

According to the head of the government, the new important phenomenon changing both reality, and traditional ideas of it is technology deflation. It is about fast reduction in cost (and respectively faster distribution) innovations — so fast that it can have an impact on traditional statistics of GDP. Moreover, separate products and services (for example, in the field of communication and information) not only become cheaper, but also are provided to consumers almost free of charge. Therefore some economists claim that indicators GDP loudspeakers and added value badly consider now a deposit of innovations to welfare that leads to underestimation of actual rates of development.

Therefore, in the analysis of economic dynamics it is important to consider not only quantitative, but also high-quality shifts, i.e. to treat quality of economic growth more attentively.

Problem, in principle, not new — at all stages of development of technologies and creations of new goods assessment of growth of quantity of the made goods and the loudspeaker of the price indexes did not consider high-quality changes in structure of production. However in the last decades owing to fast transition of a set of economic transaction to a digital medium (digitalization), avalanche emergence of the new goods substituting goods of "traditional" economy, this problem especially became aggravated, - Medvedev noted.

According to him, modern "electronic" goods, distribution of network technologies allow to reduce considerably cost of ownership of a usual set of the benefits and services for the consumer and to reduce costs for their providing for the producer. As a result when preserving the same or even higher level of consumption and quality of life of the individual the volume of the added value created in economy is reduced that can statistically lead to deceleration of growth rates (and even to decrease in level) GDP.

However, how to measure GDP and to treat a problem of technology deflation, the task to provide high rates of economic growth as bases of increase in welfare of citizens remains always and for all countries main, - he adds.

For the last decade difficult social problems of the developed countries were designated. On the one hand, growth of inequality and long stagnation of income of a considerable part of the population is available. On the other hand, the concern about employment perspectives in the conditions of the future, allegedly, of mass implementation of robots and artificial intelligence grows.

Apparently, labor market is expected by serious changes which impact will be felt in social, economic and political spheres for a long time. There is a labor market polarization: the quantity of jobs with high (intellectual, hi-tech) and with low requirements to qualification grows, and averages on quality jobs are reduced due to automation. We see also changes in demand pattern and in the nature of jobs with the advent of electronic trading or firms like Uber. To it it is necessary to be ready, our solutions should promote technology progress and growth of quality of life, but not to brake it. Lessons of the movement of luddites can be relevant and for modern information society, - the prime minister believes.

According to him, new technologies already began to integrate world economy, and potential which is born by a new technology wave, allows to note: the economy will become more and more global though the speed of this process can change.

Modern technologies ask about quality of public administration on the first place among all directions of institutional upgrade. The flexibility of modern technologies weakens a role of the price of work or natural resources at adoption of investment solutions. The quality, reliability and predictability of conditions of business become critical factors of investments and innovations. These factors in the global competition come to the forefront, Medvedev considers.

Our tasks if to formulate them in the concentrated type, consist in ensuring steady growth of welfare and competitiveness — as each person, each family, and all society and state. Ensuring welfare and competitiveness makes an essence of the national purposes and priority projects of program May (2018) of the decree of the President, - he notes.

The special place, according to the prime minister, is occupied by the national projects connected with strengthening of competitiveness of economy. These directions — labor productivity and support of employment, science, digital economy, a small and medium entrepreneurship and support of an individual entrepreneurial initiative, the international cooperation and export — should provide acceleration of technology development, promote creation of the high-performance export-oriented sector, implementation of digital technologies in economy and the social sphere (certainly, as well as national projects in the field of education and health care).

Especially it is necessary to tell about the digitalization of education allowing to align in many respects conditions of its receiving at all levels. Therefore development of available online resources and platforms, distance learning should become a norm in the Russian education system. However this problem has also other party: digitalization requires large-scale work on advanced training of teachers of schools and teachers of professional educational institutions. Otherwise our children who already grow during a digital era, will speak with the mentors different languages, - Medvedev considers.

As well as in the field of education, basic, and it is frequent and process of digitalization purchases the vital value in a health care system, the prime minister is sure.

Changes, medical records, necessary for use, %28emk%29 electronic medical records and providing telemedicine services are already made to our legislation. However real life application of digital technologies remains at a low level, regional distinctions on the level of implementation of technologies of digital health care are considerable. Meanwhile telemedicine is important, and sometimes and the only way to increase quality of medical services in remote and hard-to-reach spots. But also in megalopolises the online medicine gradually becomes demanded. Moreover, thanks to this technology there is a new market which volume, according to forecasts, in the next years will exceed $1 billion. But nevertheless social aspect here today the most important, - he believes.

Digitalization of economy will have a direct bearing also on the social sphere, the head of the government notes. The targeting assumes existence of the wide information platform which will allow to select more precisely the poor, to define the reasons of poverty of this or that social group and a separate household, to develop effective methods of its overcoming. Creation and commissioning of the Single State Information System of Social Security (SSISSS) became a real step in this direction, according to him.

Dmitry Medvedev notes that transition of the country to new quality of growth, the level of its competitiveness to a great extent depend on disruptive scientific technology development, permanent technology upgrade which will be profitable to business and will provide growth of national wellbeing. It is for this purpose insufficiently simple to set the target objective of intensity of the innovation activity, for example, at the enterprises of a public sector or without exception to implement universal standard solutions. As experience of previous years, the expense structure which developed in Russia on research and development in GDP in which about 70% make budgetary funds and 30% private showed, cannot be considered as acceptable. In the developed and some developing countries the return ratio is observed.

In the scientific and technology competition, according to him, leaves to accumulate capability for the forefront "Big Data" and to use them in creation of the platforms connecting business, citizens and the state. The state alone should not cope with this task. And technologies of work with "Big Data" and platforms become effective in terms of development, only if they make for the technology entrepreneur profit, and to the consumer of technology — quality improvement of life. It means that the most important function of the state consists not in direct increase in financing, and in creation of space of the advancing technology regulation, some kind of attractive technology offshore for implementation of the advanced solutions.

As for result, more precisely, than one of indicators of the movement in the right direction, in 2024 Russia on printing activity in the scientific and technical sphere can approach today's indicators of Great Britain and Germany, - the prime minister considers.

According to him, today all countries entered an era of digital transformation. Both chances of leadership, and risks of lag can be very serious here. For adequate idea of scales of this process it is necessary to recognize that digitalization is understood not as the separate industry or set of technologies, and as an algorithm of development of the relations in modern society and its cultural environment.

Today Russia takes quite good initial positions in this sphere. National digital infrastructure of broadband and mobile communication is created. According to the conclusion of the World Bank, in terms of use of ICT in the consumer sphere Russia outstripped EU countries and ASEAN, South Korea, Brazil and also practically created infrastructure for digital transformation in a number of areas (The World Bank, 2018). Nevertheless the level of use of appropriate technologies seriously differs both on the industries, and on Russian regions. In general in economy there is a gap between the enterprises — leaders of digitalization and other, very considerable, a part of business. The first lay a way, the second not always even try to use it. It can be explained with both limitation of means, and staff shortage. But the most probable cause — deficit of the market competition, hope for non-market, administrative, budget support, - Medvedev notes.

Leader capacity of Russia in digital transformation, and not only in it, can hardly be implemented if digitalization of a state administration does not develop, the public and municipal servants, heads of state institutions with the corresponding competences will not appear in enough, the prime minister is convinced. By some estimates, such workers only in a public sector there have to be not less than 1 million. It is necessary to retrain officials not only on federal, but also at the regional level, and then in such industries as transport, construction, health care, housing and public utilities. This process should affect both the judicial body, and legislature.

We should estimate also the expected risks. When implementing the national program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" it is necessary to answer a question of the fate of potentially released workers. Of course, increase in efficiency of economy is profitable to society in general. However social effects of digital transformation need to be discussed seriously. It is clear, that it opens new opportunities in labor market, shows new demand. But at the same time almost inevitably there is a gap between demand pattern and sentence structure. It is possible to avoid the solution of the specified problem, only trying to avoid the digitalization. Such approach would mean for us the accruing lag from the leading countries, would fix the existing gap in the level of efficiency of economy, - the head of the government reports.

He considers that technology upgrade belongs to key factors of an increase in labor productivity. The problem of its increase should be considered in terms of growth of production efficiency in general, and not just some specific enterprise. Otherwise, considering quite high level of monopolization of the Russian economy and a considerable share in it of public sector, there is a risk to appear in a peculiar trap when the small increase in labor productivity is provided with either reduction of workers, or excess increase in capital intensity that in the long term can turn back decrease in competitiveness.

Real performance improvement of work does not come down to acceleration of actions of the worker in a specific workplace or to providing it with multifunction gadgets. "Approval" of professional qualification of the worker of requirements of a modern and high-performance workplace first of all here is necessary. In wide and the most significant for us determination performance is an effective implementation of opportunities and disclosure of talent of the person across the nation, including setup of population, migration and social policy, compliance of an education system and labor market, - Medvedev considers.

Process of technology transformation and increase in efficiency, according to him, will be followed by structural changes in economy. So, speaking about import substitution, it is necessary that the products and services created in Russia successfully competed in foreign market. Non-oil export should be the indicator of success of import substitution. In 2017 — 2018 the Russian export came to growth trajectory, including deliveries of non-oil not power goods and services. The trend of commodity and geographical diversification of export was created. In particular, the share of the countries of the Asian region, including China and member states of EEU raised. There was a large number of new export positions, including products of mechanical engineering and HSC, the number of the export organizations, first of all at the expense of the small and medium enterprises increased. Export specialization of Russia in sectors, rather new to it, develops: in agro-industrial complex, petrochemistry, transport and agricultural mechanical engineering, ICT.

Use of digital platforms already allows to come, for example, for the new agromarkets. It is especially important that new technologies expand possibilities of foreign economic activity for the small and medium enterprises, - the prime minister notes

Summing up the result, Medvedev noted that Russia enters the new period of the development — very difficult, but extremely important. Results of our efforts in the forthcoming six years in many respects will define circuits of the future and, perhaps, "borders possible" — the capacity of the country, its place and a role in world economic and political system.

In the forthcoming six years it is necessary to create conditions for long-term sustainable development of Russia in qualitatively changing world. Our country should be the active participant of global economic and political processes, providing the high level of welfare and competitiveness of citizens, business and the state. Dividends, the developments gained on such trajectory, will allow to approach by 2024 with a wide arsenal of opportunities for future generations, - he added.

Control supervisory authorities will master Big Data

At the end of August, 2018 it became known that the Russian control and supervising (KND) bodies can begin to use technologies of Big Data (big data) for collecting and information analysis about objects of supervision. A system carries the working name "digital inspector", the Vedomosti newspaper with reference to the actions plan on a digital state administration writes — to the new direction of digital economy.

Supervisory authorities in Russia will use Big Data for conducting checks

It is supposed that "the digital inspector" will collect and analyze data on objects of supervision and on them to instruct normal inspectors. And for each type of the state supervision the data set, necessary for risks assessment will be defined, tells the informed edition source. According to him, it can be data of the state information systems (SIS) and departments, the reporting of the companies in a machine-readable form, data from sensors of Internet of Things and results of public control.

It is noted that federal bodies should not arm with special software for implementation of machine check, they just upgrade the systems. In turn, regional nadzorshchik will use modifed options of a standard cloud solution for bodies of KND. The relevant provision in April, 2018 was approved by the government. The standard solution should create automatically registers of the checked objects and actions plans according to them, to appropriate risk categories, to interact with others GIS.

By the end of August, 2018 "the digital inspector" is used in the test mode in Rosprirodnadzor and in the Federal Customs Service, told the newspaper in departments. And there is no contractor at a system yet. From scratch experts estimate creation of such technology at hundreds of millions rubles, and time expenditure — in two years.

Research of the export potential of domestic custodial services and data processing

As it became known on May 23, 2018, the technical project on a complex research of the export potential of domestic custodial services and data processing with determination of the stimulating measures for acceleration of development of infrastructure and the market of services of data centers is approved on May 18 at a meeting of the working group on the Information Infrastructure direction at ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika. The document is developed by Rostelecom company as competence center of the direction. Read more here.

The program of digital transformation of a system of a state administration from TsSR

The Centre for Strategic Research (CSR) of Alexey Kudrin submitted on May 4, 2018 the expanded programme of transformation of a system of a state administration. According to authors of the report "State as the platform" developed by experts of TsSR the existing system of a state administration, "is interested in preservation of the current status" for the longest term. Therefore transition from the developed methods of management to perspective — to the Gosudarstvo-kak-Platforma system (GKP) is necessary. This process should be coordinated and be supported at the highest level — for this purpose it will be required to enter a position of the Deputy Prime Minister for digital transformation acting as the main system architect, the report says.

Within the so-called "fourth industrial revolution" there is almost annual shift of technologies and business models in traditional branches of the economy, the whole new industries regularly appear. The Russian economy, in turn, is not capable to provide up to standard the innovation activity, domestic investment and consumer demand, is vitally dependent on import. At the same time, in export opportunities it is limited to the raw sector. The main reason of all these problems — imperfection and noncompetitiveness of a system of public administration, said in the report of TsSR. — For ensuring competitiveness of Russia in the long term the new system of public administration which will become a technology, normative and cultural basis of future development should be created. Gosudarstvo-kak-Platforma will be able to play a role of such basis.

Gosudarstvo-kak-Platforma, according to experts of TsSR, represents qualitatively new system of the organization and execution of functions of the public authorities (PA) of the Russian Federation constructed based on the integrated and tsifrovizirovanny processes and perspective technologies (a single system of collecting and data storage, digital infrastructure, the automated decision making, etc.).

Digital transformation: key changes

Gosudarstvo-kak-Platforma is target function of implementation of the idea wellbeing of citizens and assistance to the economic growth based on implementation of technologies. As it is specified in the report, "in focus of deployment of the platform there is a citizen in the conditions of new digital reality. The state should create conditions which will help the person to disclose the capabilities and to create the comfortable and safe environment for his life and implementation of potential and also for creation and implementation of the innovative technologies". To implement these principles, the system of public administration will have to work as the advanced IT corporation, experts of TsSR consider.

Among the key purposes of digital transformation are called:

  • Creation of the uniform architecture of the state digital platform overcoming separation of the departmental systems and which is based on uniform data array;
  • Transfer of all public services to an electronic form with the system of remote biometric identification, transfer to a digital format of control and supervising and allowing activity;
  • Formation of "digital doubles" of citizens, the organizations, objects and pro-active providing public services on the basis of development of "the digital double";
  • Creation of the ministry of digital transformation responsible for implementation of the listed changes.
  • Implementation of model of the service state — culture "the state for me" which means the pro-active offer the state of online services which will satisfy to needs of citizens and business;
  • Development in government employees of "digital mentality": adoption of digital reality, ability in it is effective to work, digital skills and personal development.

Upon transition to GKP the state will refuse providing point services for benefit of complete solutions of problems of citizens. One of measures which will allow to implement it — creation of the so-called digital double. From the moment of identification in the digital platform information on an object begins to get to the general "ocean of data" where there will be its "the digital double" who will be replenished further with new data. In return, different platform services of the state will actively offer the citizen the corresponding services (taxes, social security and so forth). For example, at the child's birth state services will automatically provide charge on the bank card of mother of all put payments, will send the certificate of birth to a residence address of parents, will carry out automatic correction of "the electronic register of residents" and will write the child in preschool institution.

During reform it is necessary to transfer all processes of interaction of the power with citizens to electronic platform, said in the report of TsSR. Decision making process is offered to be separated into two parts. A part of solutions of the operational level can be transferred to "intelligent agents" — the program systems working at a basis of artificial intelligence. They can undertake all routine work and also provide accomplishment of control and supervising functions, experts offer. As for more difficult tasks requiring political solutions or "human" approach specially prepared professionals should be engaged in them.

As a result the government ideally will turn into the small and highly professional service which is providing the most composite functions and professionally working with automated systems — experts note.

Experts of TsSR also suggest to create the Center of digital transformation of a state administration which the Deputy Prime Minister for digital transformation should direct (or the minister on condition of presence of the Deputy Prime Minister for reform of public administration). All budget which is selected for automation of authorities for the purpose of its concentration on problems of digital transformation should be transferred to the order of this management structure.

Besides, to provide state structures with the workers having digital competences it is offered to create the program of trainings and advanced training and also the system of motivation and stimulation for staff of the transformed public authorities.[4]

It is possible to study the text of the report "State as the platform" here.

Medvedev about transition from high-tech era by high-hume era

Speaking at a plenary session of the Gaidar forum on January 16, 2018, the prime minister Dmitry Medvedev spoke about technologies. According to the head of the government, there is a change of eras — from high-tech to high-hume.

Dmitry Medvedev noted that new technology way repeatedly raises the price and the value of an intellectual capital, and human potential — knowledge and creativity and also quality of public administration — purchases the increasing value in the global competition.

Dmitry Medvedev on the Gaidar forum
In these conditions of people becomes the main value and the main reference point at acceptance of management decisions. In Russia it occurs when developing any programs of development. As you know, the end of the last century was high-tech era, i.e. the period of development of high technologies in the industry, in agriculture. And now this era is integrated to high-hume era, i.e. high humanitarian technologies which are aimed at the maximum development and effective use of individual and collective opportunities of people — Medvedev told.

It expressed confidence that new technologies will not lead to rise in unemployment, and, on the contrary, will help to cope with deficit of labor resources. Robotization will increase labor productivity, the wage level and can reduce working time, the prime minister considers.

The word class of the prime minister was devoted to a blockchain. This technology based on which the cryptocurrency is created can rebuild all management system. However the cryptocurrency race can become a deadlock branch of cybernetic revolution and it is impossible to exclude repetitions of the scenario of the beginning of the 90th when thanks to the Internet there was a set of the IT companies, in the 2000th the years which stopped existence, Medvedev warned.

In the same way in several years can disappear and cryptocurrencies, and technology based on which these cryptocurrencies develop, I mean a blockchain, – it will become a part of daily reality. Such scenario is not excluded too, – Dmitry Medvedev considers.[5]


Internal costs on development of digital economy in Russia exceeded 3.3 trillion rubles

By estimates of Institute of statistical investigations and economies of knowledge of Higher School of Economics National Research University (ISIEZ of Higher School of Economics National Research University), internal costs on development of digital economy in 2017 made 3324.1 billion rubles, or 3.6% of GDP. Their volume is comparable to the public expenditures on health care and education, twice exceeds the public expenditures on road construction and by three and a half times — internal costs on research and development (fig. 1), reported in ISIEZ to Higher School of Economics National Research University on June 5, 2019.

Figure No. 1

As experts counted, more than a third (40.4%) of the total amount of internal costs for development of digital economy in 2017 fell on the organizations of a business sector; it is a little less — 36.4% — spent households (fig. 2).

Only the tenth part (10.8%) of all costs connected with development of digital economy fell on the organizations of public sector. Despite rather broad spectrum of distance educational programs, costs of the organizations of the sector of the higher education for implementation and use of digital technologies are rather small — 0.7% of the total amount of internal costs for development of digital economy.

Figure No. 2

The most powerful (35.0%) the cost item on development of digital economy — telecommunication payment of services, including Internet access (fig. 3). Its volume in 2017 was 1163.8 billion rubles. About a quarter of total cost was the share of acquisition of ADP equipment and telecommunication equipment (23.4%, 777.7 billion rubles), the tenth part — of purchase of software tools (9.5%, 315.4 billion rubles), about the same — of acquisition of e-books, movies, musical pieces, games and other digital content (11.3%, 375.1 billion rubles).

Figure No. 3

At the same time internal costs of the organizations on research and development in the field of digital technologies made only 81.4 billion rubles (only 2.4%). So low specific weight of costs for IR indirectly demonstrates that the Russian companies implement mainly foreign information technologies, researchers noted.

At the same time, costs of the organizations for the training of employees connected with development and use of ICT in 2017 made 7.6 billion rubles, or 0.2% of the total costs of development of digital economy. Economy on personnel training leads to reduction of cost efficiency of implementation of digital technologies and, therefore, reduces rates of implementation in practice of business activities of the advanced digital technologies, concluded Higher School of Economics National Research University in ISIEZ.

Meanwhile, as we know, development and universal use of digital technologies in Russia is one of priorities of state policy: for implementation of the national program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" in 2019-2024 it is going to select 1,837,696 million rubles (from them 1,099,589 million rubles — from the federal budget).[6]

Alexey Kudrin: Russia should join in technology revolution

Technology revolution - one of structural changes which are necessary to accelerate growth of the Russian economy. It follows from statements of the chairman Council of Centre for Strategic research, ex-Minister of Finance Russia Alexey Kudrin.

Russia should raise significantly the innovation level, join in technology revolution, - he said. - At us separate companies and the centers joined in it, but the innovation of economy, a share of the companies which carry out innovations does not change for 10 years, and time in 3-4 lags behind that in the leading countries.

Slide from Alexey Kudrin's presentation (a photo - TAdviser)

In the field of technical revolution a number of measures among which - digitalization of economy and performance improvement is necessary. For the last 17 years labor productivity rose by 55%, and in the next 17 years it is necessary for 100% to provide the due growth of economy. And it is necessary to do it due to technologies, but not labor power, Kudrin noted.

There is a purpose to increase a share of hi-tech products in economy, Kudrin added. In 2016 the share of Russia in the world market of hi-tech products, according to it, made only 0.25%, and a target indicator - at least 0.5% by 2024 and 1% by 2035.

It is necessary to increase at the same time investments into human development, he considers. With present methods of education, both school, and the highest Russia will not answer calls of technology revolution. Structure of specialists who prepare in Russia their skills do not correspond to what will be required in 5-10 years. Here serious conversions are necessary.

We are not ready in the field of education to calls of technology revolution today, - he concluded.

Medvedev expressed a concern that the artificial superintelligence will come to the power to nullify our brains

The chairman governments Dmitry Medvedev, speaking at a plenary session of the forum "Open Innovations" in October, 2017, to share some estimates and forecasts in the field of digital economy.

The digital economy is already a reality today, and not according to the order of the authorities or at the initiative of certain entrepreneurs, the prime minister is sure. It is what surrounds us in literal and figurative sense: smartphones, the mobile Internet, communication on social networks, e-commerce, electronic payments – all this a part of a modern way of life.

По мнению Медведева, в Russia is made much that digital culture became for the country usual, besides, that for Russia this task is more difficult, than for many other countries (a photo - theRunet)

The companies and the states which will learn to turn information arrays into useful solutions will win, and those who will miss these opportunities, will remain on site, Medvedev noted. It is right also in relation to separate companies, branches of the economy, and to the whole states.

The Prime Minister predicted increase in demand for specialists in the field of the analysis of Big Data, mathematical modeling, financial technologies, cyber security. Professions, on the other hand, which are connected with routine types of activity, processing of standard information can suffer most, and it is necessary to think how to help people to adapt to new conditions, he added.

In the next years there have to be many dynamic digital companies, the prime minister believes.

For this purpose there is a good potential. And it can achieve quickly at rather small costs. It is about transport and logistics services, health care, education, financial technologies, the "smart" urban environment, modern agrarian production and other directions, - he explained.

He promised that the state will continue to create conditions for the investment attraction to the hi-tech companies, for work of venture funds which are ready to support the Russian startups.

Medvedev also brought up a question whether business and the state are ready to digital transformation. Digitalization changes approaches to public administration and legal regulation. There is a number of problems in the field of the intellectual rights, the protection of personal, personal information connected with the cross-border nature of an absolute majority of services when occasionally it is impossible to trace jurisdiction and rules by which such companies work.

In process of development of technologies of Internet of Things there will be a question and whether our critical infrastructure and in general everyday life of people is ready in general – whether we are ready to that such activity was controlled from the outside, including due to use of foreign digital platforms. It is valid a problem for the state and for certain people, - the Prime Minister noted.

In completion of a discussion at a plenary session of a forum, Medvedev urged foreign partners to hurry with consolidation of efforts for creation of the new "digital world", otherwise the artificial intelligence will make it.

The governments around the world should hurry until the artificial superintelligence came to the power and changed to all of us bodies, and delete clicked to nullify our brains, - he told.

The Prime Minister also said that "we still can make something to set that atmosphere of trust about which (the prime minister of Luxembourg) Xavier Bettel just told".

Our task - to connect efforts in order that the mankind jump to the digital world after all was not bad prepared. And I am sure, we can do it. Just because we understand our responsibility today, - Dmitry Medvedev told.

As the Pension fund walks in digital economy

In October, 2017 at a conference TAdviser IT Government Day the department head information technologies Pension fund Russia (RPF) Dmitry Kuznetsov told about tasks and projects which are implemented by fund within transition to to digital economy and also problems which rise on this way. In more detail here.

McKinsey: Digitalization of economy will increase GDP of Russia by 2025 by 4.1-8.9 trillion rubles

In July, 2017 the consulting company McKinsey published a research "Digital Russia: new reality" about a role of digital technologies in national economy (to download the complete report in PDF). In it the analysis of a current status of development of digital economy in Russia, that number on the industries, its perspectives and also the forecast of impact which digitalization will have on the main spheres of life of the population and business is submitted.

By estimates of the company, potential economic effect of digitalization of economy of Russia will increase GDP of the country by 2025 by 4.1-8.9 trillion rubles (in the prices of 2015) that will make from 19 to 34% of the general expected GDP growth. In 2016, according to Rosstat, the total amount of GDP in Russia was about 86 trillion rubles.

Authors of the report connect such courageous economic forecasts not only with effect of automation of the existing processes, but also with implementation of essentially new, disruptive business models and technologies, it is specified in the report. Among them – digital platforms, digital ecosystems, profound analytics of data bulks, Industries 4.0 technologies, such, as 3D - printing, robotization, Internet of Things.

Potential economic effect of digitalization of the Russian economy till 2025 in 4.1-8.9 trillion rub (in the prices of 2015), or 19–34% of the general gain of GDP.
Economic and social benefits from digitalization of economy
Digitalization – a basis of economic growth

Russia already lives in a digital era, authors of a research note: by the number of Internet users it wins first place in Europe and the sixth – in the world. For the last three years of smartphones we had twice more – now 60% of the population have them. It is more, than in Brazil, India and countries of Eastern Europe. And the number of users of portals of the public and municipal services increased twice only in one 2016 and reached 40 million people.

Contribution of digital economy to GDP of Russia and it sostavlyayushch

in comparison with other countries]]

At the same time, Russia is not included into group of leaders of development of digital economy on many indicators yet – to the digitalization level, a share of digital economy in GDP, average delay in mastering of the technologies applied in the leading countries. The share of digital economy in GDP of Russia makes 3.9% that is 2-3 times lower, than at the leading countries. The share of the public expenditures and private investments in structure of GDP is also lower, than in the leading countries, and the export volume of digital technologies is four times less than import.

Access to digital services in Russia is developed, but lags behind the European Union countries

At the same time on digitalization level some industries approach world level (for example, ICT, education, finance), but in many key industries (extracting, the processing industries, the industry and transport) Russia lags behind the leading European countries so far.

Difference in digitalization level between Russia and Europe

A number of positive trends is noticeable. One of the major indicators – the volume of digital economy – promptly grows in recent years. For example, GDP of the country from 2011 to 2015 grew by 7%, and the volume of digital economy for the same period increased by 59% – for 1.2 trillion rub in the prices of 2015. It is 8.5 times faster, than growth of other sectors of economy of Russia.

Difficult, but achievable goal, according to McKinsey, – trebling of volume of digital economy from 3.2 trillion rubles in 2015 to 9.6 trillion rubles in 2025, in the prices of 2015 that will demand preserving of annual average growth rate of volumes of digital economy at the level of 12% which was observed in 2010-2015. These results will be equivalent to increase in a share of digital economy from the current 3.9% to 8–10% of GDP (depending on prices of oil and other macroeconomic parameters) that on average corresponds to today's level of the countries leading on the volume of digital economy: USA, China and Western Europe. Perspectives of growth of digital economy of Russia of this level till 2025 are given by improbable above, state in McKinsey.

The Russian banks accelerate digital transformation

Creation of digital bank requires process optimization, a new organization culture and flexible IT solutions supporting the speed of removal of products on the market and personalisation of the offer. 75% of respondents of TAdviser of TOP30 banks consider that problems of digitalization should be accumulated within a single platform (in more detail...).

The traffic of Runet passing through foreign servers will be reduced to 5%

The share of the Russian traffic passing through foreign servers will have to be reduced to 5% by 2025. Such indicator offers the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications in the Digital Economy project, Izvestia writes in May, 2017.

Now the share of such traffic makes 60%, is mentioned in the document. The main points of data exchange are Frankfurt, Stockholm and Amsterdam, the cost of connection to which is seven times lower, than in Russia, writes the edition. How it is going to resolve a financial issue, not specified.

The threshold in 5% is set because probably in some territories via foreign servers to do without transfer of traffic it will not turn out, for example, in Kaliningrad. Besides, the reserve route of transfer of traffic is necessary. According to specialists of Rostelecom, in general for the Russian providers implementation of this requirement will not become a big problem in view of insignificant finance costs.

Besides, in the Digital Economy project it is told about start of 5G network in eight Russian million-plus cities by 2020. By 2025 networks of fifth generation will be developed already in 15 cities.

Sberbank began to measure digitalization in Russia

In April, 2017 Sberbank started "The digital index of Ivanov" who will calculate the level of penetration of digital technologies into life of Russians.

Ivanov is the average Russian at the age of 14-64 years living in the city with the population more than 100,000 people.

The project created in Sberbank Investment Research (analysis department of corporate and investment division of Sberbank Sberbank CIB) is designed to estimate and predict dynamics of different sectors of "new economy" and also to define the most perspective directions of their further development. The index included five components: Internet access, human capital, use of the Internet, commercial services and electronic government.

Sberbank started "The digital index of Ivanov" who will calculate the level of penetration of digital technologies into life of Russians

The first value of "The digital index of Ivanov" is 51%. Sberbank Investment Research considers that this indicator reflects a turning point in penetration of digital technologies into Ivanov' life: on the one hand, many Russians have technical capabilities to try these or those digital products, on the other hand — there is a high potential of further growth and penetration of technologies.

The highest value in the index is recorded in the blocks "electronic government" (61%) and "Internet access" (58%), and the largest potential of growth – at the blocks "paid services" (40%) and "human capital" (45%). Ivanov' most has technical and financial capabilities to use digital services on the Internet. 85% of Ivanov use the Internet: 76% — wire, 63% — mobile, 54% both types.

According to forecasts of analysts, increase in intensity of use of the mobile Internet and mobile services and also gradual overflowing of different daily occupations in online and more active life online with growth of trust to a digital medium will be one of drivers of growth of the index and penetration of technologies into Ivanov' life.

What will be digital economy of Russia in 2024? The Deputy Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications Alexey Kozyrev gave the forecast for TAdviser SummIT

On a panel discussion within TAdviser Summit 2017 the Deputy Minister of Communications Alexey Kozyrev told what will be digital economy of Russia in 2024 about the vision. Its bases should become: competent IT regulation, the developed infrastructure, national Competence Centers and digital platforms.

Alexey Kozyrev: We should make so that the regulatory environment began to overtake a few technical capabilities of participants of economy on innovations already today

Alexey Kozyrev selected three segments of digital economy. The top level – specific programs and products where added value is created. Average – a layer of competences where platforms based on which there are products are created. There is research and development. And the third level is the basis consisting of infrastructure, qualified personnel and the regulatory environment which favors to transformation under digital technologies. In the developed Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications to the program of development the second and third levels are in detail considered.

One of important blocks in the base of digital economy is the block of the regulyatoriki devoted to a question how to describe the new entities arising in this economy how to configure relationship between participants. By 2024 we would like to have such jurisdiction in the country which on the one hand attracts investors in terms of technology innovations, and with another - protects intellectual property, interests and the rights of owners of data, supports turnover of data in the correct mode.

We should make so that the regulatory environment began to overtake a few technical capabilities of participants of economy on innovations already today. In the nearest future we should provide the mechanism of "sandboxes" in the legislation, or in advance to enter such regulations which allow at the moment when the technology appears, at once to begin its implementation, to be engaged in innovations, - Alexey Kozyrev told


In the field of training by 2024 in Russia there have to be enough IT specialists. Them it is necessary in 10 times more, than as of 2017 it is delivered by higher educational institutions. Traditional professions, considering transformation of branches of the economy, require an additional set of the competences connected with digital technologies. These competences will form in the mode of the obligatory educational program at schools and universities and also at career guidance, retraining.

By 2024 in the field of infrastructure in Russia digital inequality will be eliminated, in all hardly accessible regions of the country communication will appear. The situation with DPC will significantly change.

Now two largest Chinese DPCs on computing power exceed all capacities of the Russian Federation. We are going to create such development plan for DPCs which would be synchronized with electric infrastructure and with infrastructure of data transmission channels, - Alexey Kozyrev reported. - By 2024 infrastructure should be smart infrastructure. It is not just a set of separate elements, and the service platform which provides a set of digital semi-finished products based on which it is possible to create platforms. For example, service of electronic identification and authentication of physical persons and legal entities can be one of such services

One more component of the base of digital economy is a cyberstability and cyber security. The number of threats and complexity of the applied technologies will increase every year in this connection it is going to implement the solutions at the level of infrastructure protecting basic elements of this infrastructure from key threats.

At the average level one of key tasks - to provide closer interaction between research collectives, the large national companies, startups and financial institutions.

Competence Centers, the centers of a transfer of technologies which accumulate around themselves both researches, and financing, and national champions should be created in order that as soon as possible the new ideas turned into innovations and began to work really in economy, - Kozyrev told

Considering that in some industries the state has high influence on the market, it should act as the catalyst of processes of transformation. The program includes four industry directions within which they will work: health care, education, smart city, state administration.

By 2024 the basis for development of digital economy should be created. In key industries national leaders in the area who will become operators of digital platforms should result from transformation. Based on these platforms a certain system of interaction of participants will form. Within the platform participants will not be limited in creation of new methods of interaction with each other, in creation of added value.

These platforms should become the centers of gravity for development of the relevant sectors of economy, - Alexey Kozyrev summed up

[1] 400 IT heads of the large commercial and state organizations, top managers and experts of the IT companies took part in TAdviser SummIT 2017.

Шаблон:TAdviser Gallery 2017

During a plenary part and four sessions of an action about 50 reports were heard. In panel discussions participants of the summit exchanged views and forecasts on perspectives of development of technologies and information systems. The most outstanding achievements in the field of IT were mentioned by the TAdviser IT-PRIZE award founded by organizers.

Medvedev charged to study possibilities of a blockchain for application in digital economy

The prime minister Dmitry Medvedev in March, 2017 charged to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications and the Ministry of Economic Development to consider the possibility of application of blockchain technology in the system of a state administration and economy of the Russian Federation[7]. It is necessary to make it by preparation of the Digital Economy program which will be in a comprehensive plan of actions of the government in 2017-2025 Read more here.

The ROC sees threat in digital economy

In January, 2017 the patriarch of Moscow and all Russia Kirill announced that the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) is concerned by development of digital economy which can limit freedom of the person.

Undoubtedly, implementation of digital technologies will provide big efficiency of decision making process that, of course, is good. But the church has also other concept — security … The church is very concerned by the fact that modern technical means are capable is total to limit human freedom — he noted in a Christmas interview to Russia 1 TV channel.

Patriarch Kirill

The patriarch Kirill emphasized that it is not only about an opportunity "malicious people or forces to use digital technology" as "not only technology, but also spiritual level is important". He gave people who speak about need to refuse cash and to pass only to electronic cards as an example.

We have hotheads which with delight speak about need to liquidate cash and to pass only to electronic cards. It will provide transparency, control, well and all those arguments with which many are well familiar. And all this so. And if suddenly at some point of historical development access to these cards opens in response to your loyalty? — he explained.

The head of ROC cited as an example a certain European state where the person interested to obtain citizenship or the residence permit suggest to watch a video in which it is about country life, its customs and laws. According to the patriarch, the subject of LGBT, in particular, is brightly presented in this video.

And what if access to finance is limited here by such conditions? Here today the church speaks about these dangers at the top of the voice — the priest emphasized.

He added that implementation of digital technologies will provide big efficiency of decision making process, and it, according to him, well.[8]

See Also

Information technologies in the social sphere

Separate article - Information technologies in the social sphere