Translated by
2019/03/20 19:20:29

Domains

The domain — the selected zone in the field of specialized names of the Internet selected to the owner of this domain for ensuring access to the provided information. ".ru", ".su" or ".com" can be examples of domains. Each domain locates own name. The complete name of the domain consists of names of all domains which it enters, separated by points. Within one domain there cannot be more than one unique name. The domain level, the more hierarchical namespace is less.

. RU (domain). SU (domain). Russian Federation (domain). RUS (domain)

Content

Some countries regulate length of domain name, however the majority does not set restrictions. In particular, it is impossible to be included in the Guinness Book of Records thanks to length of such name as nikakizkh for this purpose efforts are not required. A domain zone is the set of all names of the set level entering the domain. For example, in the domain zone "itpedia.ru" (domain name of the second level), all names of the third level can enter: "domain.itpedia.ru" or "zone.itpedia.ru". With increase in number of active users also the number of persons interested to get own website or to organize Internet support of own project grows. Thus, the value of easily remembered names grows. Sale of domain names turned into serious business. It is possible to give the recent transaction as an example: the domain toys.com was sold for $5.1 million. For crisis time this sale for certain will be the largest. Though for 2008 such amounts were not fabulous. The domain vodka.com was sold at auction for $3 million, and the domain pizza.com for $3.6 million.

Regulation of a domain system

2018: The USA wants to return themselves control over a domain system

The national U.S. Administration on telecommunications and information (NTIA) is ready to review the decision on failure from responsible management of the IANA functions (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, or "Administration of an address space the Internet"). A question of whether it is necessary to make it and if yes, that how and if not, then why, NTIA was lifted for discussion of all concerned parties which will last till July 2, the center of the national domain of the Internet with reference to Domain Incite reported on June 6, 2018 Coordination. Read more here.

The largest transactions in the field of domain names

Zone.ru

  • The Game Media company purchased the domain Casino.ru for $250 thousand. It is the most large deal in a zone. RU for 2008.

Zone.com

$14.5 million

The domain sex.com was sold for $14.5 million Playboy company in October, 2006.

$11 million

As reported Online Domain on December 9, 2018, Elon Musk, the cofounder and the CEO of Tesla, at last disclosed the acquisition value of domain name of Tesla.com in February, 2016. As he wrote on twitter, on purchase of Tesla.com from it more than 10 years, 11 million dollars and the unimaginable number of efforts" left ". Read more here.

$9.99 million

The domain Fund.com was sold for $9,999,950 in 2008.

$4.7 million

Champion of 2013: the British financial company IG Group purchased at the Brazilian telecommunication firm IG the domain IG.com for 4.7 million dollars.

$3.85 million

The domain YP.com was sold for $3.85 million by LiveDeal company of Yellow Pages company in 2008.

$3.5 million

The domain Ice.com registered in 1990 was sold for $3.5 million in July, 2018. To the transaction it belonged to the company which is engaged in online trade in a jewelry. As of July 18, 2018 the domain Ice.com did not respond to the requests, and its record Whois is protected by confidentiality settings therefore it is impossible to call the current owner. Under assumptions of the domain blogger Konstantinos Zurnas, the InterContinental Exchange (ICE) financial company could become the buyer of the domain. As of July 19, in attempt to open the website Ice.com of the user redirects on the theice.com resource belonging to InterContinental Exchange (ICE).

$2.45 million

In the 2012th the largest amount in the zone.com was paid for the domain Investing.com – 2.45 million dollars.

$2.1 and $2.4 million

The three of the most expensive domain purchases in the zone.com in 2013 included the domains KK.com - $2,400,000 and 114.com - $2,100,000.

$1.76 million

The domain Fly.com was sold for $1,760,000 at the beginning of 2009 to Travelzoo company.

$1.75 million

In 2010 Dating.com was sold for $1.75 million.

$1.26 million

In 2010 Т-Shirts.com was sold for $1.26 million.

$1.2 million

In February, 2018 the domain Super.com replaced the owner for 1.2 million dollars. It is the most large deal performed on the platform NameJet for all history of its existence.

$1 million

In 2010 the domain Zip.com was sold more than for $1 million.

$900 thousand.

In February, 2018 the domain Great.com was sold for 900 thousand dollars.

Domain disputes

2018

An absolute record of complaints in 20 years: 3447

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) summed up the results of 2018. So, according to the report of VOIS, in 2018 the organization considered 3447 complaints within Uniform policy of permission of domain disputes (UDRP). It is 12% more than an indicator of previous year when 3074 complaints were considered. Moreover, this result is an absolute record in all 20 years of existence of policy of UDRP, reported on March 20, 2019 in the Coordination center of the domains RU/Russian Federation (CC).

At the same time the number of domain names, the become objects of trials within UDRP, not only did not grow, but even considerably decreased. In 2018 it made 5655 against 6370 the previous year.

«
It is necessary to understand that the stated above digits are not reflection of the broad picture. World Intellectual Property Organization — one of main, but not the only instance considering complaints to unfair use of domain names within the policy of UDRP — emphasized in CC.
»

The Guess company was convicted of a dishonest domain game

On April 5, 2018 there was information that the Forum (the former name — National arbitration forum) left without satisfaction the complaint of the famous producer of clothes — Guess company, G81.com submitted concerning the owner of domain name. The company accused the owner of the domain of cybersquatting on the ground that Guess has a model of G81 jeans. And there is it since 2001 whereas the domain was purchased by the current owner only in 2004. Read more here.

2017: Record number of complaints: 3074

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) reported that 2017 became record on number of the complaints considered within Uniform policy of permission of domain disputes of UDRP. Arbitrators of VOIS considered 3074 complaints – more, than ever before. This digit confirms a steady trend: the number of the complaints considered by VOIS within UDRP constantly grows, since 2013.

The report of VOIS for 2017 contains much curious statistics. For example, follows from it that in domain space the Philip Morris company most actively upholds the trademarks – in a year her lawyers sent 91 complaints to VOIS. Further Michelin (56 complaints) and AB Electrolux follow (51).

The greatest number of complaints is received in 2017 from the USA – 920. Also Russia is mentioned in the report: our country showed record-breaking high growth of number of complaints. Their number grew in 2017 by 537.5% at once. However, in absolute digits it corresponds to only 51 complaints in a year.

It is necessary to remind that VOIS is not the only instance considering domain disputes within UDRP. The same functions, are assigned, for example, and to the Forum (in the past – National arbitration forum) in the USA. However according to the data provided by the Giga.law resource, the number of the domain disputes considered by it also considerably grew. In 2017 the Forum published solutions on 1637 domain disputes – it is 13.6% more, than the previous year.

Events

2019

Domain. IO can disappear

On February 27, 2019 it became known that the International Court of Justice made the decision concerning the fate of Chagos Archipelago. The vast majority of voices (13 against 1) the court decided that Great Britain should without delay stop exercising control of islands of the archipelago. This event and also the response solution of Great Britain can affect the domain future. IO, believe in "The coordination center of the national domain of the Internet".

Website of a top-level domain. IO

As you know, Chagos Archipelago is located approximately on a half of a way from Africa to Indonesia and can be territorially carried to the islands belonging to Mauritius. But shortly before Mauritius found independence in 1968, Great Britain announced Chagos the British territory in the Indian Ocean (British Indian Ocean Territory, BIOT). It was made with the purpose to allow allies to create from the USA military base on the largest of islands of the archipelago — Diego Garcia. Within several years all indigenous people of islands was compulsorily moved to Mauritius or the Seychelles, and for February, 2019 the population of the archipelago is made by almost exclusively British and American military.

However Mauritius all this time did not stop fight for return of the sovereignty over the archipelago. The decision of the International Court of Justice became the final of this long-term fight also.

For last years the abbreviation of BIOT was officially recognized by ISO International Organization for Standardization, and the ICANN corporation on this basis delegated territories the national domain. IO. According to "The coordination center of the domains RU/Russian Federation", it enjoys considerable popularity at software developers and technology startups. So, according to data of Domain Incite, as of February 27 in a domain zone over 270 thousand names are registered.

The British authorities so far did not comment on the decision of the International Court of Justice in any way. But even if Great Britain is ready to accept it, the fate of the domain. IO all the same remains foggy, representatives of the administrator of national top-level domains consider . RU and . Russian Federation.

«
On the one hand, the national domain, obviously, cannot exist if stops the existence the country (in this case — the administrative territory) by which it is delegated. But on the other hand, there are no formal rules on this subject. The ICANN organization for support of national domains of ccNSO so far only develops official policy of removal for similar cases. There are several historical precedents. So, in due time to the Netherlands Antilles (to that moment — autonomies as a part of the Netherlands) the domain was delegated. AN. But in 2010 autonomy broke up, and 5 years later the domain was deleted from a root zone of DNS. At the same time, there are also return examples. As you know, the Soviet Union does not exist for a long time, however the domain . SU continues the existence and enjoys considerable popularity — noted in Coordination center.
»

Intelligence agencies send 831 appeals about blocking of domain names

To registrars intelligence agencies sent 831 appeals about removal of delegation of domain names — such data are published in the report of the Coordination center of the national domain of the Internet based on activity of the competent organizations for January, 2019. In comparison with January, 2018 the number of addresses grew more than twice, and on average in 2018 registrars received about 400 appeals of the competent organizations a month.

The analysis of domains violators as the revealed harmful activity in reporting period showed that the leading place belongs to the domain names connected with a phishing (416 addresses). Further controllers a bot networks (251 address), the resources used for distribution of the malicious software (151 address) and resources with pornographic material with participation of minors (1 address) follow. Also 12 addresses contained requests of the competent organizations to initiate verification of identification data of the administrator.

Distribution of domains by types of harmful activity (January, 2019)

For February 6, 2019 remain blocked 819 domain names (in 12 cases delegation was recovered according to the petition of the relevant competent organization after elimination of the reason of blocking).[1]

Results of processing of addresses about removal of delegation (January, 2019)

2018

Number of domains in the world — 348 million; record-breaking low growth by 3.7%

According to CENTR association, for the end of 2018 in the world 348 million domain names were registered. Thus, growth of the domain market for 2018 was record-breaking low and was only 3.7%, says "The coordination center of the national domain of the Internet" of March 14, 2019. According to the experts associations, the downward tendency of growth rates remains several years in a row, and any signs of its overcoming it is not visible yet.

The general top-level domain of.COM remains the market leader. According to CENTR, its market share was recorded at about 72%. At the same time the domain showed the small growth whereas other "old" general top-level domains showed decrease in number of the registered names — most likely, owing to the competition from new domains.

As for national domains of the European countries, their growth rates last year also were record-breaking low — only 2%. Nevertheless, national domains feel rather surely: statistics of CENTR demonstrates that 54% of all registration in the European countries fall to the share of national European domains.[2]

Number of the names registered in. By EU to the British addresses, it was reduced by 32,173

On February 6, 2019 it became known that the registry of EURid managing the uniform all-European domain. EU, published statistical data according to the results of last year. As of the end of December, 2018 in a domain zone 3,684,750 names were registered. It is 63,129 domains less at once, than was by the end of the third quarter 2018. Besides, it is absolutely the worst figure for the last 6 years. Last time smaller number of names in a domain zone. EU was recorded in September, 2012: then this indicator was 3,665,525.

Representatives of EURid explain such result with two circumstances. The first of them – gain of fight against illegal use of domain names. In the 4th quarter of last year for different violations 36,520 domains in a zone were blocked. EU. The second negative factor – so-called "Brexit", getting out of Great Britain of structure of the EU. Earlier the registry of EURid announced that the British registrants of domain names can lose the domains in May if the government of the country and the EU does not settle exit terms till March 29. So far such agreement is not reached that, naturally, cannot but disturb registrants. For the 4th quarter 2018 number of the names registered in the domain. By EU to the British addresses, it was reduced by 32,173[3].

In Europe began to block "bad" domains within 24 hours

Domain names. BE used in the fraudulent purposes will be blocked within a day now. It is said in the statement of the DNS Belgium company acting as registry of the national domain of Belgium. BE, reported on November 28, 2018 in "The coordination center of the domains RU/Russian Federation" with reference to the Domain Name Ware resource. The updated policy of the Belgian national registry becomes effective since December 1. Domain names can be deleted at the request of Federal public service on economy of Belgium (FPS Economy).

Illustration: gradea.ca

According to DNS Belgium, in a year in the domain. BE appears, at least, "several hundred" fraudulent websites. Nevertheless, before FPS Economy could not ask DNS Belgium about blocking of domain name only on the basis of existence on the website using this domain, illegal content. Operational blocking was performed only concerning the domain names which provided unreliable information about the administrator. For blocking of the domain on the basis of content it was necessary to submit the application to Royal prosecutor's office that took not less than two weeks. Now the given procedure can be performed within 24 hours.

At the same time will provide to the administrator of the blocked domain name two weeks on taking measures. Such domain name in 6 months will be removed completely from the register.[4]

According to "The coordination center of the domains RU/Russian Federation", such approach is applied not in all European countries. For example, registry of the national domain of Denmark. DK found out recently that fight against false information about owners of domain names led to liquidation of almost all websites used for counterfeit online stores.

For the Russian national domains . RU and. The Russian Federation practice of fight against phishing domains is not new, the administrator's representatives noted.

«
Fight against a phishing is one of the main specializations of many companies entering a pool of the competent organizations "The coordination center of domains. RU/.RF". The necessity as soon as possible to block phishing domains is caused, first of all, by the fact that the user who got on such website can lose considerable funds within only several minutes. The competent organizations quickly inform registrars of the domain on which the phishing site appeared, and thus stop its work — representatives of "The coordination center of the domains RU/Russian Federation" explained.
»

From the domain. EU will delete all Cyrillic names

The registry of EURid managing the national domain of the European Union. EU, announced that all Cyrillic domain names in this zone will be deleted on May 31, 2019. The solution relies on the recommendations of ICANN ordering to avoid mixing of signs of different alphabets in the internationalized domains as this practice creates threat of the so-called "homographic" attacks. This type of the attacks is understood as use, in particular, of letters of the cyrillic alphabet in latinoyazychny domain names for the purpose of creation of the false domains similar or similar in writing to domains of the known brands.

Domain Incite, reporting this news,[5] specifies[6]that the solution extends only to the Cyrillic names registered in the domain. EU, and does not mention its internationalized version at all. IT. It is worth reminding that the only European Union country using Cyrillics is Bulgaria.

Number of domains in a zone. UZ exceeded 60 thousand.

On June 12, 2018 the Uniform integrator on creation and support of the state information systems Uzinfocom performing functions of the administrator of the national domain of the Republic of Uzbekistan announced in the blog that the number of the registered names in a domain zone reached 60 thousand, from them 13,365 — new domains. 935 more domains expect registration.

For the beginning of 2018 number of the registered names in a zone. UZ made 51.8 thousand. Thus, for half a year the gain made more than 15%. At the same time 5349 domains were deleted.

. UZ was delegated by IANA on April 29, 1995. As result, on April 30 the national Uzbek domain was 23 years old.[7]

Number of domains in a zone. PT exceeded 1 million

The registry of DNS.PT managing the national domain of Portugal in March, 2018 announced on the official site that number of the names registered in a domain zone. PT, for the first time in the history exceeded 1 million.

In the message it is noted that the domain meckos.pt registered by the Portuguese industrial company Meckos making the equipment for textile production became "anniversary".

According to registry, 2017 DNS.PT completed with 976,370 registered domain names, and in 2018 could add even more than 23 thousand domains. So, in January in the domain. PT was registered 10,693 names – 30% more, than in January, 2017. As of March 15, in the national domain of Portugal 1,001,552 names are registered already.[8]

2010:. and.net - the most popular domain zones

The zone ".com" was the most popular domain zone on the Internet in 2010 - in it by the end of 2010 there were 88.8 million domains of the second level. On the second place in popularity of ".net" - 13.2 million. Domains in national zones of the different countries 79.2 million were gained.

Interesting Facts

  • According to Verisign company, for the end of 2012 in the world there were more than 252 million domain names. In the fourth quarter 2012 more than 6 million domain names were registered. In a year the number of registration of domain names grew by 11.8% worldwide, or by 26.6 million domain names.

Slightly less than a half of total number of domain names in the world make names in the domains.com and.net: now 121.1 million registered domain names are the share of these two domains. Growth in two domains which including are managed by Verisign in a year was 6.4 percent. Prolongation of domain names in.com and.net in the 4th quarter 2012 happened in 72.9% of cases.

Security of domains

2019: Because of vulnerability in the GoDaddy systems several thousands of domains are stolen

On January 23, 2019 it became known that vulnerability in the GoDaddy systems allowed malefactors "steal" foreign domains. It occurred in the middle of December, 2018 when users in the USA and Canada were covered by spam wave. Read more here.

Protection of domains

Loss of domain names can be this disaster therefore we will give 8 advice which to you will help to be protected from it:

  • Configure process of regular prolongation of your domain names. The easiest way lose domain name is to forget it to prolong in time. It is very simple to set regular updating: it is necessary to configure an organizer on a desktop that he could remind constantly in a month to you that the term of use of domain name expires. Many registrars allow to synchronize domains now, and the term of use of different domains can expire at the same time. It does management by them much more convenient, than earlier. You can update domain names everyone one, two, five or ten years, but be careful, selecting resuming is more rare, once a year, as you can just forget and not prolong domain name in time. You can select also automatic update, but remember that it will also increase your risks.

  • Regularly check contact information of your registrar of domain names. It should send the contact information on e-mail every time when it changes. Also it can contact you when there are, for example, problems with payments or when someone tries to transfer your domain name.

  • Safeguard your account. Any who will get access to your account on the website of the registrar can take away your domain name or re-register it on the new owner therefore security of your account is vital. You need to password-protect the account resistant and long which is not so simple for picking up to the hacker. You can use additional methods (for example, two-factor authentication using a token or the one-time code which goes by the SMS to phone). It is also important to change the password if the person responsible for management of domain names leaves your organization.

  • Use "the lock of the registrar". Some registrars offer function, under the name "lock of the registrar" ("the domain lock" or "the transfer lock") which can prevent that your domain was taken illegally away without your permission. This function will not protect your domain from all who have an access to your account, but it can protect from attempts of transfer of domain names by those who know your phone or e-mail.

  • Use domain privacy settings. For function of "privacy of the domain" some registrars charge the mezzanine board. It allows to protect your name, the address and contact information which contains in whois base. Thieves of domain name can use this information to transfer it to the new owner or to crack the password of the account.

  • Use the EPP protocol (Extensible Provisioning Protocol). It provides legal protection for your domain name if this function is supported by the registrar. It gives you the chance to select (or to you it will be appointed) the unique code of authorization (AIC) for each domain which should be provided to the new registrar before your domain is transferred to it. If your AIC is in security, it will allow to provide effective protection of domains. It is worth remembering that some registrars make these data available to those who visit under your account the website of the registrar.

  • Use the permanent addresses of e-mail. When you define your contact address e-mail, avoid use of a name which can be closed and transferred to other owner if you do not use it. If it happens, then the new owner can enter into a correspondence to your registrar or use the function "recover the password" at the registrar.

You are suspicious of e-mails allegedly from your registrar. Never respond to letters where ask that you became authorized on the website of the registrar and made changes of settings for domain name. This letter can bring you on the exact copy of the website of your registrar where data of the account can be taken away. That to avoid it, you always enter manually in an address bar the address of your registrar[9].

See Also

Notes