Translated by
2019/07/02 13:14:52

Electric vehicles

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Content

Models and news from car makers

World market of electric vehicles

Electrobuses

Electrocharging stations

Main article: Electrocharging stations

Systems of accumulation (storage) of energy (SNE)

Main article: Systems of accumulation (storage) of energy (SNE)

In Russia

2019: The price of the first Russian electric vehicle is set

On May 22, 2019 the price of the machine Zetta which in the company of the same name is set the first Russian electric vehicle became known. The basic version of the electric car with the front drive will cost 450 thousand rubles, RIA Novosti with reference to the CEO of Zetta Denis Shchurovsky reports. Read more here.

2018

Electric vehicles suggested to exempt from the parking charge

Owners of electric vehicles were suggested to be exempted from the parking charge. The draft of amendments in the law "About the Organization of Traffic in the Russian Federation and about Making Changes in Separate Legal Acts of the Russian Federation" is introduced to the State Duma

Opening of the first fast charging station for electric vehicles in Moscow area

The First Deputy Minister of Energy of the Russian Federation Teksler Alexey Leonidovich participated in a ceremony of opening of the first fast charging station for electric vehicles in the Moscow region.

The Minister of Energy of the Moscow region Leonid Neganov, the First Deputy CEO of TD "Neftmagistral" Kirill Malinin, the Deputy CEO of JSC KRET Maxim Motorin, the Deputy CEO - the Chief engineer of JSC International Airport Sheremetyevo Denis Maslov participated in an action.

«
"This significant event for development of charging infrastructure in the Moscow region. It is important that we open a fast charging station of domestic production which almost for 100% consists of domestic components", - Alexey Teksler noted.
»

According to him in spite of the fact that so far there is not a lot of electric vehicles in Russia, their essential gain is annually observed and there is a question of development of charging infrastructure.

«
"The government pays attention to this question, in particular, development of the electric transport was included into the strategy of development of automotive industry approved by the Government in April", - added the deputy minister.
»

Alexey Teksler also told that in Moscow area 10 fast charging sets will be until the end of the year installed. Their specifics are that for half an hour it is possible to lift a charge from 0 to 80% of battery capacity, therefore, charging will be more comfortable for the consumer.

Introduced the draft about release of owners of electric vehicles from a tax to the State Duma

The group of deputies from LDPR introduced in May, 2018 to the State Duma the bill of release for 2019-2024 of owners of electric vehicles from payment of a transport tax[1].

The document establishes that during this period cars with electric draft (electric vehicles) irrespective of engine capacity will not be subject to taxation by a transport tax.

"Providing privileges on a transport tax will have the additional stimulating character for market development of eco-friendly cars" — developers explain.

They pay attention that similar privileges are already entered in a number of regions, including in St. Petersburg and Moscow. "However at the same time it should be noted that introduction of a privilege on a transport tax is the right, but not the duty of the region, and in each specific region stimulation of demand for electric vehicles will depend on tax policy of the authorities of the subject of the Russian Federation" — authors of the legislative initiative remind.

Referring to information of traffic police, they specify that at the moment in the territory of the subjects of the Russian Federation only 2016 vehicles equipped with electric motors that makes 1% of a target indicator are registered. At the same time the majority of the existing privileges for owners of electric vehicles extends only to the capital region as more than 35% of electric vehicles in Russia are registered in Moscow. "It is possible to observe and the return pattern — the set privileges stimulate growth of number of electric vehicles" — liberal democrats note.

Sales of electric vehicles in Russia since the beginning of year jumped up to 16 pieces

In Russia in the first quarter 2018 sales of new electric vehicles considerably grew. The analytical[2] reports about it[3].

The agency agrees, from January to March, 2018 the volume of the Russian market of new electric vehicles was 16 units. These are 23% or is 3 machines more, than for the same period of last year.

The most popular electric car in Russia is Nissan Leaf – for the first three months of this year Russians purchased nine cars. Remained 7 of the implemented electric vehicles fall on the brand of Tesla, including 5 Model X crossovers and 2 Model S sedans.

For the reporting period of 7 electric cars was it is sold in Moscow and Moscow area, 3 – in Primorsky Krai. On one electric vehicle residents of Krasnodar Krai, Yakutia and also the Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Tyumen and Pskov regions purchased.

2017

Mosgortrans will buy 300 electrobuss

At the end of 2017 the authorities of Moscow on behalf of SUE Mosgortrans officially relied on development of electric public transport: competition on delivery of 300 electrobuss (with service maintenance within 15 years) and the systems of exercises for them is announced. According to the deputy mayor on transport Maxim Liksutov, all there will take place three auctions on 100 machines (with the starting cost of 10.5 billion rubles everyone). Producers are also obliged to deliver 98 ultrafast charging stations. And it only the beginning: about 300 machines in a year are going to purchase annually, and since 2021 Moscow will begin to buy only electrobuss. The capital already refuses traditional trolleybuses: in the downtown they are removed from routes[4].

Minpromtorg supported the idea of Moscow and will continue subsidizing of producers of the electric transport (in 2018 1.5 billion rubles, in 2017 — 900 million rubles are selected for it). According to in the ministry, development of a segment is provided in the project of strategy of automotive industry till 2025 (it is still not accepted). "The national consortium" on the electric transport is created, KAMAZ, Sollers and Federal State Unitary Enterprise NAMI enter it.

Ministry of Transport adds that developed the draft of the strategy of development of the motor and city electric transport till 2030, it was discussed with profile associations and in general is approved by industry coordination council at the end of 2016. But, specify in the ministry, regions "define the directions of development of different types of passenger transport". In Tula, for example, already a part of trolleybuses has the long autonomous course, they in day pass more than 100 km in the electrobus mode. There are electrobuss in Novosibirsk, interest in them is expressed also by other regions, note in Ministry of Transport.

Sales of electric vehicles in the Russian Federation in 11 months grew by 30%, up to 82 machines

Sales of new electric vehicles in the Russian Federation in January-November, 2017 grew by 30%, up to 82 machines, reported on the website of the analytical agency "Avtostat".

"In January-November, 2017 the size of the market of new passenger electric vehicles in Russia was 82 units that is 30% more, than the previous year (63 pieces)", the statement says.

At the same time the most popular electric car in the Russian Federation is Tesla to which share nearly 70% of the total amount of the market fall. In eleven months Russians purchased 56 Tesla electric cars, including 42 Model X crossovers and 14 Model S sedans, transfers the Prime (news agency).

Besides, in the Russian Federation 22 Nissan Leaf electric cars, three new Renault Twizy and one Mitsubishi i-MiEV were sold.

In traffic regulations the concept "electric vehicle" appeared

The prime minister Dmitry Medvedev signed the resolution on making changes in traffic regulations in July, 2017. According to the document, in rules the concepts "electric vehicle" and "hybrid car" appear.

Speaks the website of the Government of the Russian Federation that innovations are necessary in connection with the accelerated development of environmentally friendly transport. In addition to introduction of determinations of the electric vehicle and the hybrid car also creation of road signs with designation of charging stations is supposed.

Also zones restrictions of an ecological class of cars are introduced.

The made decisions are directed to increase in safety of pedestrians, cyclists, route vehicles. These changes will allow public authorities and local government to regulate the mode of driving through the territory of localities of vehicles with the high level of emissions of harmful substances, including providing preferences for environmentally friendly vehicles[5].

Polytech Solar Electric vehicle

The first electric vehicle working on solar batteries will be created in our country. It will be able to gather speed to 150 kilometers per hour. Batteries will be installed on a machine roof. The idea of creation of such car was already supported in Minpromtorg. You watch Polytech Solar the Electric vehicle SOL in more detail.

The Russia's first plant of electric vehicles

In Primorye construction of the Russia's first plant of electric vehicles will begin spring of 2018. The message about it is published on the official site of administration of the region. The project is implemented jointly by the Russian holding "Sumotori" and the Japanese corporation Arai Shoji Co. Ltd. The enterprise will become the resident of TOR "Nadezhdinskaya"[6].

At the first stage the plant will produce up to 5 thousand cars a year. They are going to be exported to India and Thailand and also to sell in the territory of Russia. The CEO of Sumotori holding Vitaly Verkeenko reported about it in November of last year, wrote the Primamedia agency. Then it became known that investments into the project will make 500 million rubles.

What is interesting, for production of electric vehicles will begin to use bodies of the Japanese malolitazhny cars. "In Japan some requirements for vehicle scrappage changed. There was an opportunity to take very good cars of a small class practically at the zero cost which can be converted into electric cars" — Vitaly Verkeenko explained such solution earlier.

In turn, electric motors and accumulators for machines will produce at the Russian plants. Other component parts — to import from the same Japan and the USA.

In the world

2019

CB Insights: That prevents electric cars to take the market

The number of electric vehicles grows worldwide, and China remains one of the markets which are most violently developing in this plan. So, in 2017 residents of Celestial Empire purchased more than a half of all electric cars sold around the world (about 1.1 million machines). For comparison: the European sales by the little exceeded 400 thousand machines, and sales in the USA fell short also of this level. Among obvious advantages of electric vehicles there is an environmental friendliness — in the same China the problem of decrease in level of air pollution is particularly acute extremely. However prior to a victory on roads to the new type of transport, it seems, it is still far: at least, today around the world only every 250th car has the electric motor. Analysts research CB Insights company see three key barriers which the new industry in order that electric vehicles became really mass[7] should overcome].


Price and once again price

The price remains one of the main barriers upon purchase of the electric car in comparison with the traditional car today, consider in CB Insights and also service cost. Even in 2017 two of three most sold models of electric vehicles cost more than $80,000 that much more exceeded the budget of potential owners. According to a research from UBS company in which about 10,000 people in 6 largest markets of the world participated families with income from $300,000 a year are ready to purchase electric vehicles (even in the USA this group makes only 3% of the population). Moreover, 60% of buyers are not ready to pay high price for the electric vehicle, it was noted in poll of McKinsey company in 2018. And 30% of respondents said at all that electric vehicles should be cheaper than normal machines.

Meanwhile the prices of electric cars become more competitive, mainly due to improvement of rechargeable batteries. Since 2010 the prices of accumulators fell more than by 80%: from $1000 for capacity kilowatt-hour up to $209. If in 2015 the accumulator made more than 57% of the total cost of the average sedan in the USA, then in 2019 this digit will make about 33%. As note in CB Insights, by 2025 the cost of the rechargeable battery will be only 20% of the electric vehicle price.

If to estimate such indicator as total ownership cost the electric vehicle, then and it becomes less today. So, according to the University of Michigan of 2018, electric vehicles cost to owners twice cheaper of machines with traditional engines. It can become very essential factor for purchase of the electric car, consider in CB Insights. On extremely measure, in poll of Consumer Reports company of 66% of potential buyers said that long-term economy of costs will influence their decision on purchase.

Far you will not leave

The price label — not the only reason for which buyers refuse ownership of the electric vehicle. So far in the market there are serious doubts concerning as far as in principle it is practical to own such transport and whether electric vehicles are ready to correspond to daily needs of the driver.

Concerns concern first of all operating time of the accumulator and speed of charging. The typical sedan using fuel can pass 400-600 miles before refueling which besides takes about 10 minutes. The average run for electric vehicles in the USA in 2018 without recharge makes only 125 miles, at the same time for charging it will be required of 30 minutes till 20 o'clock, depending on type of the charger and the battery.

However, these limits are gradually lifted — so, the average run of electric vehicles without recharge from 2011 to 2017 grew by 56%, and as of 2019 in the market 8 models of electric vehicles which can pass also more than 200 miles are already provided. Moreover, according to forecasts of CleanTechnica company, the run of electric vehicles in the USA by 2028 will average 400 miles. It is expected that also time of battery charging of electric cars will be reduced — by 2025 for achievement of 80% of a charge only about half an hour will be required.

There is not enough infrastructure The catastrophic shortage of infrastructure remains the most important problem interfering more active development of the electric transport. So, more than a half of the residents of the USA polled by the American Association of Motorists (AAM) told that they are not ready to purchase the electric vehicle because of the shortage of infrastructure for recharge.

This barrier looks the most difficult surmountable, business is simply not ready to invest in development of charging stations until on roads the sufficient number of electric cars appears. It simply too expensive — so, by estimates of Goldman Sachs, for development of necessary infrastructure is required about $6 trillion. As a result so far in the world there are about 632,000 public charging stations which service about 5 million electric vehicles, and about a half of them are located in China. The International Energy Agency predicts that by 2030 service of passenger vehicles will require about 30 million public chargers worldwide.

Europe obliged electric vehicles to rustle on roads

On July 1, 2019 in Europe became effective the rules obliging producers to install noise generators on electric cars. It becomes in order that machines on electric draft were audible on the road and are safe for pedestrians.

The system of the acoustic notification of the car (Acoustic Vehicle Alerting System, AVAS) which since July 1 should be set on each new completely electric and hybrid motor transport in the EU, automatically generates a sound at a speed from 20 km/h and below.

In the European Union became effective the law obliging producers to equip new models of electric and hybrid cars with the system publishing noise during the movement at a low speed
In the European Union became effective the law obliging producers to equip new models of electric and hybrid cars with the system publishing noise during the movement at a low speed

If the car is equipped with the internal combustion engine (it belongs to hybrids), the AVAS system can not make a sound at the specified speeds if it is made by the engine. The noise generator should be equipped with the switch of the mode which the driver of the vehicle can use. At start of the AVAS car should join automatically.

The law does not oblige to imitate sounds of the internal combustion engine, but imposes requirements to system volume. At a speed of 20 km/h it should make not less than 56 decibels and no more than 75 decibels. Besides, the frequency of a sound should change at change of speed, and the backing should be followed by a separate sound.

The silent engine is one of features of electric vehicles. Guide Dogs charitable organization which complained that electric cars it is not heard, considers that sound signaling should be used at the movement with any speed.

The minister of highways Michael Ellis said that the government wants to inform of advantages of electric transport all people and understands problems with which people face visual impairment. Ellis emphasized that new requirements "will give to pedestrians of confidence upon transition across the road".[8]

On public roads pilotless electrotrucks appeared

On May 15, 2019 the logistics provider DB Schenker and the Swedish startup Einride began, according to the companies, the first-ever regular cargo transportation with the help pilotless electric vehicles on public roads. In more detail here.

Bosch announced mass production of hydrogen fuel elements

On April 29, 2019 Bosch announced the beginning of mass production of hydrogen fuel elements. With their help the stock of the course of electric vehicles will grow, and freight vehicles will become less harmful to the environment. Read more here.

Electric vehicles in Norway began to be on sale more, than normal machines

At the beginning of April, 2019 it became known of a milestone event in the history of the Norwegian market. 58.4% of the new cars sold in the country in March were electric vehicles. Read more here.

Earned the first-ever wireless battery chargers for the electrotaxi

From the middle of March, 2019 Norway started the project on installation of the wireless systems of charging for electric taxi. Oslo will become the first city in the world where similar will be set charging. Norway started this initiative in hope to do exercises rather fast and effective as soon as possible to start the park of environmentally friendly taxi. Read more here.

2018

As Norway with large reserves of oil became the leader in sales of electric vehicles

About 30% of sales of new machines in Norway are come to the end of 2018 on electric vehicles. For comparison, in general across Europe this indicator does not exceed 2%, and in the USA makes about 1-2%.

According to the The New York Times edition (NYT), a key factor of success of electric vehicles in Norway are big subsidies and privileges for acquisition of this motor transport. To stimulate sales, the Norwegian government cancelled duties on import of cars with electric motors and also taxes on their registration and sale to buyers. Owners free of charge go on paid roads, use ferries, discounts for the parking and bus bands in the overloaded centers of the cities. It is planned that by 2025 in Norway only cars with zero level of emissions of harmful substances will be on sale.

Thanks to support of the government in Norway electric vehicles are strongly widespread
Thanks to support of the government in Norway electric vehicles are strongly widespread

The government of Norway successfully managed to increase the number of electric vehicles on roads at the expense of the economy rich thanks to oil production. According to the report of OPEC, as of 2016 Norway took the 13th place in the rating of the countries on oil production.

Privileges which in 2018 cost the government almost $1 billion will be gradually reduced by 2021 though fare on paid roads for owners of electric vehicles all the same will be a half of that amount which will be levied from cars with the petrol engine. It is gradually going to replace subsidies for electric vehicles with higher taxes with traditional cars.

Use of taxes as an incentive for transition to more net energy for cars can be difficult case for the government. In spite of the fact that in the country the high level of income, the price is here too higher, than in general across Europe.

«
Purchase of model of Tesla of X is not much more expensive, than purchase of the bonus Volvo SUV because petrol cars are assessed with high taxes, - the secretary general of the Norwegian association of owners of electric vehicles Christina Bu notes.
»

The Tesla Model X SUV which is selected by the wealthy ecologo-focused Norwegians costs about 900,000 kroner (7 million rubles). At the same time the bonus Volvo XC90 SUV costs in Norway 919,000 kroner (7.3 million rubles), and in the USA - $47,700.

For the end of 2018 thanks to bigger battery life Tesla dominates in a segment of elite family electric vehicles, but the market is entered by more and more bonus brands, such as Audi with the e-tron model. Demand still exceeds the offer, and Norwegians should wait about one year to catch the new electric vehicle.

By 2030 Norway undertook to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 40% in comparison with the level of 1990. At the country is what to work on: by 2017 emissions grew by 3% in comparison with basic level of 1990. Reduction of emissions from the motor transport will allow Norway to reduce the amount which it will spend for acquisition of certificates on emissions at other European countries for achievement of the purpose. Economy is calculated by billions that potentially counterbalances expenses on subsidizing of electric vehicles.

However, according to experts that sales of electric vehicles continued to grow, the market should develop. For the end of 2018 service life of the battery averages 5-10 years, and its replacement potentially can repeatedly exceed the cost of the new car. Stations of fast accumulator charging work more slowly in comparison with gas stations, and at mountain roads of Norway which often are empty, they are economically unprofitable, despite government subsidies for private companies which set them. Even in the centers of the cities construction of such points does not keep up with sales so owners are forced to wait in queues to load with the electric vehicle.[9][10]

As electric vehicles turn from niche products into the fact that "people want to purchase"

In December, 2018 the executive analyst of Kelley Blue Book Rebecca Lindland said in an interview to CNBC TV channel that the situation in the market of cars begins to change, and "we, at last, can see products which people want to buy". And though the share of electric vehicles makes less than 2% of monthly number of the sold new cars so far, this value will grow, she is sure.

Electric vehicles stop being niche products
Electric vehicles stop being niche products

In November, 2018 Tesla Motors sold about 20,500 cars. According to the Clean Technica portal, it gave the chance of the company to occupy 27% of the market of luxury cars while BMW had 22%, and Mercedes-Benz has 20%. Itself Lindland held testing of the new electric vehicle e-tron from Audi recently.

«
It is the car which, at last, normal, - she told. - It is similar to the normal machine even when you brake. Often regenerative brake - a brake which return energy to the accumulator - really quickly works; it is similar to sharp breakthrough. Here it was absolutely smooth.
»

The cost of e-tron begins from $74,800, and deliveries start in the second quarter 2019. Lindland noticed that electric vehicles are not only in a luxury price segment. The cost of Chevrolet Bolt 2019 of model year begins from $36,620, and Nissan Leaf - from $29,990.

However, by words Lindland, a problem is in how the federal and regional stimulating programs are arranged. By the end of December, 2018 the subsidy in the amount up to $7,500 is provided to buyers of electric vehicles in the USA. But when the producer sells 200,000 electric vehicles, privileges stop working.

One-time tax benefits in the amount of $3500 up to $7500 were entered into the USA in 2010 for sales promotion of electric vehicles. During this time Tesla already reached that boundary when the tax allowance fell up to $3750. Since July 1, 2019 it will be reduced to $1875, and since December 31, 2019 - is completely cancelled.

«
We stimulate not those people: the first who are ready to run risks, and who has money, - Lindland says. - All of them will equally buy these cars, and the discount in $7500 for them is only a small bonus.[11][12]
»

The problem of a small stock of the course of electric vehicles is solved

In April, 2018 the head of alliance Renault Nissan Carlos Ghosn said that the problem of short driving of electric vehicles without recharge which disturbed many years potential buyers is solved, and now car makers Nissan Motor, Renault and Mitsubishi Motors focused on reduction in cost of such type transport.

«
We noticed that consumers do not speak about a stock of the course or autonomy any more while driving more than on 300 km is guaranteed to them, – Ghosn in a conversation with journalists in Hong Kong said.
»

According to him, carmakers came to a conclusion that the indicator of "range" in 300 km is an important milestone as drivers on average pass about 50 km a day.

«
It was impossible to guess it based on researches. Presence of 500 thousand electric cars in the world was required to understand that consumers do not turn on a course stock any more in the list of the main problems when pass 300 km, – the head of Renault Nissan noted.
»

In a model range of the French-Japanese alliance there are electric vehicles capable to pass more than 300 km without connection to chargers. Among them – the compact city Zoe EV hatchback. Besides, Nissan Leaf 2019 of model year at which the stock of the course exceeds 360 km is announced.

Carlos Ghosn says that, selecting the electrical machine, people first of all look at functionality and cost of ownership, but not at technologies. Nissan she intends to rely not inexpensive electric cars – at least, in China, where as Ghosn noted, also very available machines are on sale "very much". Nissan returns to the Chinese market of electric vehicles, having released the version of the Kwid crossover created within joint venture with Dongfeng Motor Group.[13]

Sweden constructs the road for recharge of electric vehicles

The government of Sweden is going to build network of highways which allow to load electric cars directly in way, without stopping.[14] reports about it in April, 2018].

The innovation roads are equipped with "the charged section" in which the contact rail is laid, as in the subway. It can load the car through a tough wire which contacts to a rail. Transport management of Sweden submitted video which shows the principle of work of the road. And in a roller not the passenger electromachine, but the DAF truck is shown.

Such roads will be able to make electric cars more demanded as they will solve a problem of long recharge – now it takes several hours that does electric cars unsuitable for long distances.

Until Swedes laid only 2 kilometers of "the charged road". The cost of 1 kilometer of such electrification is 1 million euros that does that not too laid on – in Europe the cost of kilometer of roads is about 6 million euros. For Russia costs would be almost imperceptible as kilometer cost at us, as a rule, exceeds 15 million euros.

Car makers already invested more than $90 billion in electric vehicles

In comparison with all automobile market this amount can seem small, but it is worth reminding that electric vehicles are so far only 1% of those 90 million cars that are on sale annually in the world. And in terms of this percent the amount of investments looks much more impressively, Reuters[15] writes [16].

Investments into creation of electric cars which the largest car makers announced were distributed as follows:

  • $19 billion are the share of the companies from the USA,
  • from China — $21 billion,
  • from Germany — $52 billion.

Car makers confirm that such wave of investments arose because of formation of favorable conditions. At the same time, Reuters writes, the most part of these investments is directed to the Chinese market: the American and European automobile companies see the most large market of electric vehicles in this country.

The statement of the chairman of the board of directors of Ford Bill Ford that the company will spend $11 billion for electrification of the lineup became the latest news from the world of investments into electric vehicles. The company promised that by 2022 40 electric and hybrid models among which there will be also a full-fledged electric SUV will be produced.

Before in Ford already said that invest in development of electric transport, but the amounts and scales were less. It was reported that in the future the company will provide 13 new models of electric vehicles and invests in it $4.5 billion. Later the producer told about 7 new models in which production he is going to be engaged. Entered this list: new completely electric SUV which on one charge of the accumulator can pass about 480 kilometers (without the name), the hybrid F-150 SUV and the Mustang sports car, the connected hybrid Transit Custom minivan and two new electric vehicles for police; the hybrid unmanned vehicle which Ford is going to make by 2021 became the seventh innovation.

In a race of investments also Daimler got involved. The German company is going to invest the similar amount — $11.7 billion. In the future we should see 10 completely electric Mercedes and 40 hybrids: from the smallest cars to large trucks for business. Also Daimler invests $1 billion in production of electric vehicles and accumulators in the USA. Car makers do big rates on electric cars, but all the same eventually the client will solve. So far it is hard to say whether there will be sufficient demand for electric vehicles in the future. But analysts predict that, for example, in the USA by 2030 15-20% of the sold cars will be electric.

Electric vehicles cost twice cheaper traditional machines

On January 11, 2018 Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle from the University of Michigan published results of the research of fuel costs according to which electric vehicles cost twice cheaper traditional analogs. So the average cost of operation of the electric vehicle in the USA is $485 a year, and the car with the petrol or diesel engine — $1117.

In this research only fuel costs were estimated, however service of electric vehicles is cheaper in general as in them there are less mobile and wearing parts, and they do not need such powerful cooling system or air filters, cogged belts and spark plugs.

Электромобиль <!--LINK 0:128-->
Электромобиль Tesla Model S

Though depending on the region the difference in fuel cost can significantly vary, service of the electric vehicle is always cheaper, than at normal motor transport.

The former U.S. President Barack Obama tried to limit by law consumption of combustible fuel, being going to bring for several years standards of economy to the level of 54.5 miles on gallon (about 4.3 liters of fuel on 100 kilometers of a run). These measures were directed to that traditional autoproduction did not fail under the pressure of promptly developing electric vehicles and could compete adequately in the market with environmentally friendly motor transport. However in 2017 the new head of state Donald Trump supported canceling of this law, having explained it with desire to return to Detroit a rank of "the capital of the automobile world".

However the emphasis on inefficient traditional cars will hardly allow Detroit to achieve this goal. Electric vehicles still make only 1% of motor transport in the USA (5% in California), but sales grow, and availability of chargers and a stock of the course of the new type of transport are not a problem any more.[17]

All public transport of Shenzhen became electric

Shenzhen, megalopolis in the southeast of China from 12 million population, completed transfer of land public transport to electric draft – any city bus does not contaminate air now[18].

Reform of public transport in Shenzhen was complete to the planned terms and all 16,359 buses go by electricity now, but not by diesel fuel – considerable achievement for so large city. Shenzhen is considered Silicon Valley of China – the headquarters of the large Internet companies, a set of startups and representative office of the producer of the electric transport, largest in China, – BYD is located here.

Now in a year buses of Shenzhen will save 345 thousand tons of fuel and will reduce issue of a carbon dioxide gas by 1.35 million tons. Electric taxi will allow to save 116 thousand more tons of fuel a year and will reduce emission of CO2 by 454 tons.

Implementation of the pilot program for transition to net public transport began in 2009 when Shenzhen was selected from number of thirteen participating cities. Since then the megalopolis undertook active measures for electrification bus and a taxi pool. In 2017 city authorities selected subsidies for purchase of electrobuss and stations of charging in the amount of $430 million.

Such considerable park of electrobuss requires extensive infrastructure. Now in Shenzhen 510 stations of charging with the total number of zaryadochny points equal 8000 so at the same time the city can load nearly a half of the electrobuss work. On filling the accumulator, about 2 hours leave, in a day one such point can service up to 300 electrobuss, reports Gas2.

China prolongs privileges for electric vehicles

China prolonged tax benefits for electric vehicles which validity period came to an end this December. Now the grace period is prolonged till 2020 for electric vehicles, hybrids, the connected hybrids and cars on fuel elements[19].

Prolongation of privileges should motivate producers as much as possible to expand a line of electric vehicles in the Chinese market. Also the toughening of requirements to ecology of the vehicles which are on sale in the territory of China approaching in 2019 was the reason.

The market of hybrids and electric vehicles grows in China very well. Sales increased from January to November, 2017 by 51.4% that contrasts with sales in general which just in 2017 decreased a little. According to some information, for all last year in China about 700,000 "eco-friendly" vehicles are sold.

Users of electric vehicles do not want to buy them

For the beginning of 2018 electric vehicles make only 1% of the world market, and in the USA this digit is even less. According to data of Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF), the American drivers do not buy, and lease nearly 80% of electric vehicles and 55% of the connected hybrids.

The rental rate for all vehicle fleet in the USA fluctuates around 30%. However in the general data there is a space as the Tesla company does not disclose as many cars undertake in leasing and as the producer sells the cars directly, but not through dealers, it is not possible to learn exact digit.

80% of owners of electric cars in the USA take these cars in leasing, but do not buy them
80% of owners of electric cars in the USA take these cars in leasing, but do not buy them

The uneven preference of leasing is partly caused by poor demand for electric vehicles in secondary market and also the widespread assumptions of what future models of electric vehicles considerably will exceed present on the benefit and opportunities. A problem also in what nobody, including engineers of cars, knows actually it will be how good to grow old this first wave of electric vehicles.

«
When there are new technologies, appear so quickly, and are continuously improved, usually people want to rent them only — the vice president of American Honda Motor Co told. Steve Center in an interview on New York Auto Show 2017.
»

The rate on rapid improvement makes sense: according to these BNEF, during the period from 2013 to 2018 the prices of batteries fell on average for 20% a year as the plants extend, and engineers improve packaging of fuel elements. According to the automobile analytical agency Black Book, compact electric vehicles which were sold in 2014 at the beginning of 2018 cost only 23% of their initial price label while for cars with the internal combustion engine this indicator is 41%.[20]

2017

Germany will not be able to pass to electric vehicles by 2030 because of a lack of raw materials for accumulators

On December 14, 2017 the representative in Germany of the automobile association of BDI announced the shortage of the main raw materials for rechargeable batteries. It, in turn, interferes with complete transition to electric vehicles by 2030 which the country declared earlier, Clean Technica writes[21].

Germany repeatedly declared the determination to pass completely to electric vehicles in the next 10 years in spite of the fact that so far there is a number of obstacles in a way to this purpose. Earlier the country even sent to the European Union the resolution with a request to impose a ban on sale of new cars with petrol and diesel engines since 2030. However the automotive industry of Germany met unexpected difficulty: in the world there are just not enough raw materials for production of rechargeable batteries.

Rechargeable batteries (2017)
Rechargeable batteries (2017)

Volkswagen aims to provide long-term contracts on supply of rare raw materials. The concern intends to invest $41 billion in electric vehicles by 2022 to throw down a challenge to Tesla. Other producers also have big plans for technology: Mercedes Daimler is going to create elekroversiya of each of the existing models, and BMW promises to pass to mass production of machines by 2025.

The wave of the growing demand for raw materials will help to earn to the companies on processing of waste.

According to the Korean edition Etnews which are quoted by Engadget, start of Gigafactory of Elon Musk led to a lack of the resources necessary for production of normal finger-type batteries. So, they became already more difficult to be purchased in Japan.

«
"Demand for raw materials grows quicker, than production capacities. Without sufficient reserves of cobalt, graphite, lithium and manganese in Germany there will be no new technologies".

Matthias Vakhter, head of the raw BDI direction
»

Taiwan is going to pass to electric vehicles completely

The Minister of Economics of Taiwan said in the fall of 2017 that the region is going to pass completely in the next years to electric vehicles. The first will transfer motorcycles which enjoy wide popularity in the province to electric traction, and they will be followed by cars. The Taiwan startups already began to master the new direction and to develop electromotorcycles counting upon future growth of the market[22].

The authorities of the province decided to follow an example of France and Great Britain which in 2040 will impose a ban on car sale with DVS. But, as the minister explained, Taiwan is going to pass to the electric transport not only for the sake of improvement of ecology, but also for priming of economy. "We use this opportunity for development of the industry" — quotes the minister of Nikkei Asian Review.

Till 2030 will pass to electric traction Taiwan motorcycles. Cars should follow them though exact terms of transition are not set yet.

The Taiwan startups already began to release electrobikes and electroscooters, and some even managed to achieve success. So, Gogoro startup since 2011 attracted nearly $500 million from investors and also started service of rolling of electromopeds in several countries. In May the company released the Gogoro 2 electroscooter with the maximum speed of 90 km/h and a stock of the course of 110 km. In November other Taiwan startup, Otto, provided the compact city electromotorcycle with the big color display and the configured frame.

The population of Taiwan makes only 23 million, at the same time in its territory more than 13 million units of motor-transport are registered. In total in 2016 in the province it was registered 21,000 electrobikes — twice more, than the previous year. It is expected that in 2017 the number of motorcycles on electric traction will be already 40,000, and in 2021 — 200,000. The authorities of Taiwan hope that production of electroscooters and other small transport will turn into the profitable export industry.

The province also stakes on development of electric vehicles. Recently Taiwanese company of Xing Mobility provided the Miss R supercar which on speed on the tenth fraction of a second exceeds Tesla Roadster. The car will be released with a limited circulation of 2019. It is expected that it will cost $1 million.

Electric vehicles are more eco-friendly than the diesel even taking into account "dirty" electricity

Electric vehicles even if they receive the electric power for recharge of accumulators from the coal power stations which are most polluting the environment, all the same put harm of ecology less, than normal cars with diesel engines. The Belgian research organization[23] came to such conclusion][24].

Many developers of electrical machines are sure that this type of transport will allow to improve an ecological situation in the world thanks to lack of emissions of harmful substances which are characteristic of cars with internal combustion engines.

At the same time some experts believe that mass transition to the electric transport can potentially do bigger harm to ecology, than cars with internal combustion engines. In particular, specialists believe that increase in number of electric vehicles will lead to increase in load of power plants most of which part uses gas, coal and oil.

Increase in load of power plants will lead to increase in volumes of emissions of harmful substances, including soot, a carbon dioxide gas and sulfuric connections. Besides, opponents of the electric transport consider that the li-ion cells used in electric vehicles are not eco-friendly in production at all, and after utilization they can poison the soil.

Researchers from Transport & Environment studied data on emissions of power plants in several European Union countries, on production of electric vehicles and their elements and also data on emissions of cars with diesel engines. Diesel engines from all internal combustion engines on cars are considered as the least eco-friendly because of emissions of soot and sulfuric and lead connections.

Sulfur and lead in this or that type are always present at diesel fuel; their concentration can decrease depending on the applied technology of cleaning, but is not zero. Compounds of these substances in large numbers can cause poisoning. The soot which is thrown out by diesel engines can provoke a serious pulmonary illness.

According to the results of the analysis researchers came to a conclusion that for the entire period of the existence, beginning with production and finishing with utilization, electric vehicles in Poland, the country with the share of thermal power stations, greatest in the European Union, will give all the same nearly 25 percent less harmful emissions.

According to calculations of researchers, for all the lifecycle the diesel car throws out on average 206.1 grams of a carbon dioxide gas on kilometer of a way. For comparison, emissions of the electric vehicle in Poland for the same period will make 159.1 grams per kilometer, and in Sweden — only 30 grams per kilometer. On average in the European Union the electric vehicle for the lifecycle will throw out 89.1 grams of a carbon dioxide gas on kilometer.

It should be noted that the research conducted by Transport & Environment concerns only emissions of a carbon dioxide gas by power plants, diesel cars and electric vehicles. The carbon dioxide gas is considered one of pacing factors of global warming. The Belgian research does not take into account hit in the atmosphere of other harmful substances.

Honda electric cars will be loaded in 15 minutes

At the beginning of November, 2017 the Japanese carmaker Honda Motor announced intention to solve one of the main problems preventing mass implementation of electric vehicles. By 2022 the company is going to release electric cars for which charge of accumulators there will be enough only 15 minutes, Nikkei tells.[25] Read more here.

China will prohibit cars with petrol and diesel engines

China is going to refuse production and sale in the territory of the country of the cars equipped with exclusively petrol or diesel engines[26].

Exact Date of Introduction of prohibition is discussed in the government, the deputy minister of the industry and information technologies of China Xin Guobin said in September, 2017.

According to the deputy minister, prohibition of the cars equipped only with petrol and diesel engines will have a considerable impact on the environment and development of the Chinese automobile industry. Xin Guobin did not begin to call any approximate terms of introduction of the ban.

In Germany trucks will become trolleybuses

Tests of section of eHighway
Tests of section of eHighway

The German company Siemens received the contract of the authorities of the German state of Hesse for creation of the electric contact line for cargo electric and hybrid cars. According to the message [27], the agreement means creation of a contact chain on federal Autobahn A5 between Frankfurt and Darmstadt[28].

You watch in more detail than Siemens eHighway Electric vehicles

Great Britain will prohibit machines on gasoline and the diesel

In Great Britain car sales on diesel fuel and gasoline will be prohibited since 2040. Learned about it the The Times and BBC newspaper. Afterwards the official declaration was made by the minister of affairs of the environment of Great Britain Michael Gov, Reuters and RBC[29] reports [30].

Deliveries of hybrid cars which have both an electric motor, and the diesel or petrol engine, will also be stopped. However, meanwhile less than 1% of the new cars sold in Great Britain work only at the electric power.

"Drivers of diesel cars are not guilty, and to help them to switch to more net vehicles, the government will hold consultations on the target scheme of utilization that is one of a number of measures of support of motorists" — the representative of the ministry of the environment told The Times. The minister Gov in turn said that in some most contaminated areas use of diesel cars can be forbidden even before 2040.

2016: Will lock registration of transport with internal combustion engines in Germany since 2030

In October, 2016 the authorities of Germany decided to impose a ban on registration of new cars with the internal combustion engines used directly for traffic. Prohibition will begin to work since 2030. Until then the authorities intend to prepare road infrastructure for transition to electric transport.

2011

For November, 2011 in the world on city routes about 40 models of electrobuss are used, since 2012 more than twenty models of electric vehicles will be put in serial production. The market of the electric transport grows more than for 30% a year. It is predicted that in 2011 about 1.5 million units of the electric transport, and by 2015 – already about 5 million units will be implemented.

2009: Advantages of electric vehicles

Click on the image to increase[31]

Electric motors

Modern cars become more and more convenient: when clicking only one button windows, the hatch on a roof or a luggage carrier door silently open, window wipers turn on, provision of seats, a wheel and rear-view mirrors is configured, optimal temperature in salon is created. All these functions are provided by little assistants – electric motors (electric drives) of different power of which existence the motorist occasionally also does not think. Meanwhile, in each car from 10 to 115 electric drives work. Easy, compact, motors operate quickly and silently. The Bosch company as the developer and the innovator in the area electricians and electronic engineers for cars, makes more than 100 years electric drives for a broad spectrum of vehicles, from sports models to heavy special equipment. They are set in passenger, trucks, minibuses, luxury models. Electric motors of Bosch equip also such eco-friendly vehicles as eScooters and eBikes.

Thanks to the compact sizes and small weight electric motors of Bosch are effectively used for providing the high level of comfort in the car. For the last five years all innovations connected about comfort electronics went in the direction of weight reduction, dimensions of electric drives and increase in efficiency of their work. So, for example, the fan of the motor developed in 2013 is 70% more effective than the previous model, and the drive for opening of a luggage carrier put in production in 2014 is 1 kg easier than the predecessor.

Electric drives for ensuring comfort and climate comfort

Modern electric drives of comfort and climate control have the compact amount, small weight, the low level of noise and vibrations. Besides, they are reliable and economic therefore they are widely used for deliveries to pipelines of car makers.

 

Electric drives of the fan of a saloon microclimate have high efficiency. They are steady against environmental activity, have compact design, expanded diagnostic functions and the improved power density. The module of a climatic system is equipped with the integral unit of management and conforms to requirements of the EU for energy efficiency.

 


The systems of a stekloochistka of Bosch provide overview clearness under any weather conditions that promotes increase in safety of driving. Electric drives of window wipers are intended for the different sizes of a windshield. Bosch is also one of the leading producers of brushes of window wipers that allows to propose complete solutions.

The reversible electric drive of brushes belongs to the last generation of motors. It has individual preferences of a reverse and profiles of speed, regulates the frequency of work of brushes depending on the motion speed of the car and weather conditions. Provides the maximum area of cleaning, decrease in noise level. The drive of brushes of the window wiper of back glass differs in the compact amount, the low level of noise, convenience of installation in limited space.

Electric drives of the cooling engine systems

Fans with an electric motor of Bosch are introduced into the cooling engine system, providing timely cooling of engines of passenger and sports cars. Easy and compact, these electric motors have high efficiency and environmental friendliness, helping to save fuel and reducing emissions of exhaust gases. Electric pumps of cooling liquid are widely used when installing additional heaters of salon.


Cargo program

Cargo transport imposes special requirements to reliability of components. Electric motors of Bosch are serially applied both to ventilation systems and heating of salon, and to the engine cooling system. Most car makers of the heavy-load equipment, such as MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Volvo, Scania, install products of Bosch on the cars. At repair and replacement of component parts it is very important to use original spare parts of Bosch. They have long term of service and allow to avoid the expenses connected with expensive repeated dismantling of salon for replacement of components. At the same time components of Bosch differ from original in the affordable prices, giving the chance of the choice of a new part instead of installation of a cheap second-hand component.

Electric vehicles



Robotics



  1. In the State Duma introduced the draft about release of owners of electric vehicles from a tax
  2. [https://www.autostat.ru/news/33942/ Market of New Electric Vehicles agency "Avtostat" in Russia
  3. continues to grow]
  4. Electrobuss do not reach to regions
  5. About changes in Traffic regulations
  6. In Primorye will construct the Russia's first plant of electric vehicles
  7. [https://www.if24.ru/chto-meshaet-elektrokaram/ That prevents electric cars to take the market
  8. New electric cars in Europe have to make artificial noises
  9. Norway Sees Boom in Electric Cars, Fueled by the Government OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin 2017
  10. [1]
  11. How electric cars are slowly moving from niche to something 'people want to buy'
  12. Here's Which Automakers Will Suffer If Trump Ends Electric Car Tax Credits
  13. Electric car range issue has been solved, says Ghosn
  14. [https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/apr/12/worlds-first-electrified-road-for-charging-vehicles-opens-in-sweden The The Guardian World's first electrified road for charging vehicles opens in Sweden newspaper
  15. [https://www.ruscable.ru/news/2018/01/17/Avtoproizvoditeli_uzhe_investirovali_v_elektromobi/ Car makers already
  16. invested more than $90 billion in electric vehicles]
  17. Electric Vehicles Cost Less Than Half As Much To Drive
  18. All public transport of Shenzhen became electric
  19. China prolongs privileges for electric vehicles
  20. Electric Car Drivers Are Too Smart to Own Electric Cars
  21. the German automotive industry will not be able to start the production only electric vehicles
  22. Taiwan is going to pass to electric vehicles completely
  23. [https://www.transportenvironment.org/publications/electric-vehicle-life-cycle-analysis-and-raw-material-availability of Transport & Environment Electric vehicle life cycle analysis and raw material availability
  24. Electric vehicles were more eco-friendly than the diesel even taking into account "dirty" electricity
  25. Honda to halve electric cars' charging time to 15 minutes
  26. China will prohibit cars with petrol and diesel engines
  27. [компании=MO&content [] =Corp Siemens builds eHighway in Germany]
  28. In Germany trucks will become trolleybuses
  29. [http://www.rbc.ru/society/26/07/2017/59783e9d9a7947af71748eae In Great Britain
  30. will prohibit machines on gasoline and the diesel]
  31. the Electric vehicle Nissan Leaf it is provided in Russia