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2020/01/29 14:18:01

Electronic cigarettes

Electronic cigarette — the device creating steam intended for inhalation. It can be used both as the nicotine delivery system, and for inhalation of the flavored steam without nicotine.

Content

Main article: Smoking

2020

Greek scientists: upon transition to electronic cigarettes harm for the cardiovascular system of smokers decreases

At the end of April, 2020 in the Food and Chemical Toxicology magazine there was article based on a research of influence of electronic and normal cigarettes on blood vessels and platelets of smokers. As authors the group of the Greek scientists of "The Athenian national university of Kapodistriya" under the leadership of the doctor of medicine Ignatios Ikonomidis acted.

At the same time it is known that Greece – one of the smokers of the countries of Europe. The share of the smoking adults in Greece is comparable to similar indicators of Russia. Besides, it is the worst than Greece in Europe it is possible to observe prohibition on smoking in public places.

40 full age smokers volunteers participated in a research. One half of participants had to continue to smoke within four months normal cigarettes, the second half – to pass for the period of the research to electronic. According to the statement of authors of a research, all examinees were in advance inspected and completely healthy. Results moderately encourage – upon transition to electronic cigarettes in 4 months trombotsitarny function was left without changes while at the examinees smoking normal cigarettes it continued to worsen. Upon transition to electronic cigarettes the rigidity of walls of arterial vessels and an oxidizing stress also considerably decreases.

Researchers point to importance of data retrieveds for prevention of diseases of a cardiovascular system. Authors connect positive effect of transition to electronic cigarettes with monoxide of carbon (CO). Participants have researches which for 4 months switched to electronic cigarettes, the amount of the exhaled CO carbon monoxide was significantly reduced. Scientists assume that smoking can potentially lead to chronic malfunction of platelets, owing to long impact on them of the circulating CO in an organism. However, upon transition from traditional cigarettes to electronic further deterioration in function of platelets as in this case the number of the exhaled SO considerably is reduced stops. Therefore at the participants using electronic cigarettes, trombotsitarny function saved stability.

Level of low-new dialdehyde (MDA) became an important indicator in a research also. Level of this substance in an organism is a marker for identification of different pathological changes (for example, coronary heart disease, psoriasis and others). Participants have researches which for 4 months switched to electronic cigarettes from traditional smoking, there was a decrease in the MDA level while at those participants who continued to smoke traditional cigarettes the MDA level still increased.

Also MDA is a marker of one more process – an oxidizing stress which leads to loss of elasticity of arterial vessels. Process of accumulation of tough collagenic fibers in walls of arteries is capable to lead to a hypertension, diseases of kidneys and a stroke. The research of the Greek scientists revealed that after 4 months the participants using electronic cigarettes had a recovery of elasticity of walls of arterial vessels. At the participants smoking traditional cigarettes, the elasticity of arterial vessels continued to decrease.

Increase in rigidity of walls of large arteries is in turn connected with such diseases as atherosclerosis and other risk factors that is shown in epidemiological and clinical trials.

Thus, having analyzed all received results, the Greek scientists came to a conclusion that when preserving a habit of traditional smoking, such important medical indicators as markers of trombotsitarny function and elasticity of vessels continue to worsen that involves development of different cardiovascular diseases. At the same participants who also did not refuse smoking, but passed to the electronic delivery modes of nicotine specified earlier indicators have positive dynamics.

Researchers emphasize that impact of electronic cigarettes on function of platelets did not become a subject of clinical trials earlier; the known works were limited to pilot studies or the researches in vitro. To the beginnings of 2020 a certain data array, allowing to judge carefully that electronic cigarettes can be considered as safer alternative to traditional tobacco smoking is saved up. For example, in such countries as Australia and Great Britain, the electronic systems of delivery of nicotine consider as a failure method from smoking.

At the Russian teenager in a mouth the electronic cigarette blew up

At the end of January, 2020 it became known of the next case of explosion of an electronic cigarette in Russia. An incident occurred with the 17-year-old teenager from the city of Atkarsk of the Saratov region.

According to Saratov Version, on January 25, 2020 the young man at whom the electronic cigarette blew up directly in a mouth was in a serious condition brought to surgical department. The blast wave was such force that beat out to the guy teeth and strongly disfigured the person.

It became known of the next case of explosion of an electronic cigarette in Russia
«
I found this electronic cigarette. Even I do not know what it firms. Decided to check how it works then there was an explosion — the school student told the edition.
»

Provided to the victim medical care, to him try to recover a jaw. Further the young man will be sent to Saratov for treatment continuation.

The Ombudsman for Children in the Saratov region Tatyana Zagorodnyaya placed information that the atkarsky school student will need performing plastic surgery on the page on Facebook.

According to the narcologist Roman Smolin, only the accumulator — because of overheating can explode in an electronic cigarette.

«
It depends on quality of the device than the model is cheaper or is purchased already second-hand, that the risk is higher. And from leaving, of course. Vapes need to be cleaned regularly. During smoking - or as speak, "soaring" — liquid which can leak to the accumulator is formed and put it out of action — he reported.
»

Smolin strongly recommended not to use an electronic cigarette which overheats as "the sure sign of the fact that the power source knocks — can jerk it".

In September, 2019 at the 20-year-old resident of Perm in hands the electronic cigarette when he repaired the device blew up. The problem was in the rechargeable battery. Because of a spark on the young man the clothes lit up, he got 5% of burn of a body.[1]

The producer of the electronic Juul cigarettes received 2.6 thousand complaints to problems with health

To the middle of January, 2020 the producer of the electronic Juul Labs cigarettes received about 2600 complaints to adverse effects of vaping for health. Clients refer to such problems as feeling of burning in lungs, blisters on lips and development of vomiting. Read more here.

2019

Electronic cigarettes cause a rare popkornovy pulmonary disease

At the end of December, 2019 the report on a clinical case of the "popkornovy" pulmonary disease which developed against the background of vaping was published in the magazine of the Canadian medical association.

Obliterating bronkhiolit, also known as "the popkornovy pulmonary disease" is a chronic inflammatory disease of lungs which affects bronchioles and is characterized by persistent cough and short wind. Earlier this disease occurred only in the working plants on production of popcorn or ground coffee. This rare and life-threatening disease was revealed at the Canadian young man of 17 years after vaping of the flavored liquids. In the report it is in detail told about in what this case differs from other types of injury of the lungs tied with vaping.

The report on a clinical case of the "popkornovy" pulmonary disease which developed against the background of vaping was published in the Magazine of the Canadian medical association

The patient worked in fast food of cafe and was not connected with production of popcorn or coffee. According to the report, it asked for medical care because of the expressed persistent cough, a general malaise, nausea and short wind. The patient claimed that he did not take alcohol and did not smoke normal cigarettes, but within five months to the address to the doctor actively used electronic cigarettes. This case is considered the first indirect proof connecting this chronic pulmonary disease with vaping.

«
This case of development of the sharp, life-threatening bronkhiolit which in the future can lead to permanent chronic obstruction of airways at earlier healthy young man, emphasizes need of further researches in the field of vaping and also estimates of short-term and long-term risks — researchers consider.
»

Despite treatment, the symptomatology remained, and as a result the patient was transferred to extracorporal membrane oxygenation. After further assessment and correction of treatment the status of the patient improved, and he was written out home.[2]

Medvedev equated electronic cigarettes to normal

At the end of November, 2019 the prime minister Russia Dmitry Medvedev signed the new antismoking concept until 2035. It equalizes electronic delivery systems of nicotine with normal cigarettes.

Thus, consumers up to 18 years will not be able to purchase electronic cigarettes, and their smoking in public places will be regulated the same as in a case with normal tobacco.

The Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed the new antismoking concept until 2035. It equalizes electronic delivery systems of nicotine with normal cigarettes

Besides, will prohibit advertizing of electronic cigarettes and evaporators. At the same time can return smoking-rooms at the airports where it will be possible to smoke both normal cigarettes, and all types of electronic.

It will be still forbidden to smoke electronic and other cigarettes in hospitals, cafe, schools, in organizations of a social security, on landings, stops of transport and some other places.

«
The purpose of the concept is decrease in prevalence of consumption of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products and also the subsequent consideration of a possibility of a step-by-step output of tobacco and other nicotine-containing products from civil circulation in the territory of the Russian Federation for achievement of the maximum reduction of indicators of incidence and the diseases mortality connected with tobacco consumption, the document says.
»

According to plans of authors of an initiative, by 2035 the share of adult smokers will decrease to 21%, children's — to 1%. Also retail sale of cigarettes should be reduced by one person which by the end of 2018 made 1.6 thousand pieces. By 2035 the country should reach an indicator of 1 thousand pieces.

The All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center (ARPORC) conducted survey which showed that about a third of Russians (27%) consume electronic cigarettes, vapes and devices for tobacco heating. More than a half of the smoking Russians – 59% – are convinced that regulation of sales and consumption of normal and electronic cigarettes should be different.[3]

Share of smokers in the countries of the world using e-cigarettes

Data for 2019.

The State Duma approved excises on all electronic cigarettes

On September 19, 2019 the State Duma in the third reading adopted the law on excises on all electronic cigarettes and vapes. Since 2020 the excise on such devices will make 50 rubles then will annually raise for 2 rub.

Also the bill raises an excise rate on liquid to 13 rubles in 2020 with annual increase on 1 rubles.

On the tobacco and tobacco products intended for consumption by heating, the rate will be 6040 rubles for kilogram in 2020. In 2021  and 2022 cost will grow to 6282 rubles and 6534 rubles respectively. 

Innovations directly will affect the price of devices. The antismoking strategy of the state means systematic decrease in smoking of electronic cigarettes on an equal basis with traditional tobacco products. Will try to obtain it including using price increase. 

Introduction of a new excise can lead to  the fact that smokers of electronic cigarettes should pay it twice  — and  for  the device and  for  tobacco to  it. According to experts, the initiative  of deputies can motivate many smokers to return to  "harmful" traditional cigarettes.[4]

Prohibition in India

On September 18, 2019 in India announced prohibition of electronic cigarettes which are recognized in the country unhealthy young people. The production, import, export, transportation, storage and advertizing connected with these products are prohibited, the Minister of Finance and for corporations Nirmala Sitaraman said.

«
This decision is made taking into account that impact which electronic cigarettes have on today's youth — she reported.
»

Nirmala Sitkharaman provided data according to which growth of use of electronic cigarettes among pupils of high schools in the USA was 48.5%.

India announced prohibition of electronic cigarettes which are recognized in the country unhealthy young people

In case of the first violation of the new law the court can appoint imprisonment for a period of up to one year and a fine of 100 thousand rupees ($1404). Punishment for further violation is enhanced up to three years of prison and 500 thousand rupees of a penalty.

By September, 2019 1.35 billion people from whom 106 million are the adults smoking cigarettes live in India data of World Health Organization testify. The country takes the second place on number of smokers after China.

Annually in India more than 900 thousand people die of the diseases connected with smoking. At the same time traditional cigarettes, unlike electronic, in the country are not prohibited.

Vapes and electronic cigarettes in India do not enjoy special popularity. Their sales in the country at the end of 2018 made about $57 million, and by 2022 this market can grow by 60% (data of Euromonitor International).

By 2019 the popularity of vapes promptly grew. From 2011 to 2018 the number of users of electronic cigarettes in the world increased from 7 to 41 million people. According to Euromonitor, by 2021 this digit will grow to 55 million.

In September, 2019 the National commission for the control of tobacco products of Indonesia stated that the government should prohibit electronic cigarettes.[5]

The USA began to prohibit the flavored electronic cigarettes

At the beginning of September, 2019 the authorities of the American State of Michigan prohibited sale of all flavored electronic cigarettes in the state. Thus Michigan became the first state where a ban on these products was imposed though similar restrictions work in the city of San Francisco since 2018.

The flavored products for electronic cigarettes for many years drew attention of legislators. Eventually more and more researchers began to speak about dependence on the flavored additives, and among children and teenagers vaping growth was observed. The research published in 2018 showed that chemicals in fragrances of electronic cigarettes react with other substances which are contained in liquid and lead to formation of the new products capable to irritate lungs. The centers for control and prevention of diseases continue to investigate mysterious diseases of lungs which affect people after the use of electronic cigarettes. The origin of a disease is not clear, but 215 cases in 25 states, including Michigan are investigated in total.

The government of the State of Michigan prohibited sale of all flavored electronic cigarettes

Prohibition becomes effective immediately and will work within the next six months until legislators of the State of Michigan work on introduction of more permanent restrictions. Prohibition covers all sales in the state as online, and in shops. Dealers were given 30 days on accomplishment of the order.

The ban imposed in Michigan covers all flavored additives of electronic cigarettes, including mint and menthol that does it to more comprehensive, than the restrictions introduced in 2018 by regulatory bodies of the USA. According to their recommendations, sale of the majority of the flavored products is prohibited in places where children can purchase them and teenagers are younger than 18 years. However prohibition did not limit sale of electronic cigarettes with aromas of mint and menthol.[6]

Prophesy to the Russian market of electronic cigarettes growth by 400%

The volume of the Russian market of nicotine-containing products — the electronic systems of delivery of nicotine, the systems of heating of tobacco and vapes — in 2023 will grow by 411.1% concerning the 2018th and will reach $3.7 billion. It is expected in consulting company Euromonitor International (data are published at the beginning of September, 2019).

According to experts, the relative novelty of the market of electronic cigarettes and the growing interest in new types of smoking allow to increase annually sales of such devices at least for 30%. It is the most fast-growing segment of the Russian tobacco market. However its rates will decrease in process of demand saturation: for 2019 — 2020 growth will be 41.6%, and in 2023 growth by a year will be already 32.5%.

Prophesy to the Russian market of electronic cigarettes growth

By September, 2019 most of smokers in Russia prefer normal cigarettes. However state policy of fight against smoking and annual growth of an excise negatively affect the tobacco market. Euromonitor predicted drop in sales of normal cigarettes for 30.6% by 2023 though due to growth of an excise in terms of money the market will continue small growth, approximately for 10% in five years.

The market of electronic cigarettes can suffer if the state decides to regulate it on an equal basis with traditional. For example, such brands as IQOS, glo and Juul Labs, will not be able to advertize and sell products online any more, analysts consider.

Also a ban on use of such products in public places can be imposed. Probability of such outcome as writes RBC, is quite high, regulation of the address of electronic cigarettes, vapes and the systems of heating of tobacco on an equal basis with normal cigarettes is supported, in particular, by the Russian Ministry of Health. In the new antismoking concept the ministry paid special attention to control of turnover of electronic delivery systems of nicotine.[7]

The first death from electronic cigarettes is recorded

At the end of August, 2019 the first official case of death as a result of the disease caused by smoking of electronic cigarettes was registered. It occurred in Illinois, reports Department of health care of the staff (IDPH).

According to department, the patient died after a serious respiratory illness. It was caused by smoking of the vape.

The department specified that for several days the number of patients vapers with respiratory diseases doubled. The similar disease was diagnosed for 22 people aged from 17 up to 38 years.

It became known of the first death from electronic cigarettes

In total in the USA 94 cases of pulmonary diseases among young consumers of electronic cigarettes, and 30 of them in Wisconsin were recorded from June 28 to August 15.

Patients with complaints to short wind, fatigue, pains in a breast, the increased temperature addressed to hospitals of a number of states – California, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota. Generally the disease affects young people. Some patients were recognized that they smoked mixes of own production, including with cannabis adding.

«
Even if cases look equally, not clearly whether have these cases the general reason or these are different diseases with similar symptoms, says IDPH.
»

However the director of IDPH Ngozi Ezike considers that the disease which is diagnosed for patients with complaints to pains in a breast or the complicated breath is connected with use of electronic cigarettes or vapes.

Department, seeing gravity of a situation, called group of the Center for control and prevention of diseases (TsKZ), experts arrived in the state and started investigation of cases.

Earlier in 2019 the head of department of sanitary inspection for quality of foodstuff and medicines (FDA) Scott Gottlieb said that vapes can prohibit if in a year the number of the smoking teenagers increases.[8]

Electronic cigarettes harm vessels

At the end of August, 2019 scientists from the University of Pennsylvania published results of a research according to which the smoking of electronic cigarettes which is also called by vaping can harm blood a vessel even if devices are completely deprived of nicotine.

To study short-term impact of vaping, researchers carried out MRT-inspection of 30 healthy, non-smoking adult volunteers before vaping of an electronic cigarette without nicotine. Comparing data of MRT, researchers came to a conclusion that even the only smoked electronic cigarette reduces a blood-groove and the endoteliya in a femoral artery breaks functions. It is normal of endoteliya, covering vessels, supports their function, and at its damage the wall of arteries is thickened, sklerozirutsya and becomes brittle that can lead to a stroke or a heart attack.

The smoking of electronic cigarettes which is also called by vaping can harm blood a vessel even if devices are completely deprived of nicotine.

Though liquid for electronic cigarettes is considered rather harmless, process of evaporation can turn some molecules - first of all propylene glycol and glycerin - into toxic substances, the head of a research professor Felix V. Verli considers (Felix W. Wehrli). Despite the lack of nicotine, vaping has a direct impact on blood vessels and can potentially lead to the serious, though delayed effects.

Researchers noted that diameter of a femoral artery after vaping grew on average by 34% that led to reduction of a peak blood-groove for 17.5% and to decrease in saturation of blood oxygen for 20%. Results of long-term researches will not be received yet, it is difficult to claim for certain about an adverse effect of vaping. However researchers assume that electronic cigarettes can be much more dangerous, than was considered earlier, and urge young people to treat with care this popular entertainment.[9]

In electronic cigarettes the system of face recognition appeared

In the middle of August, 2019 the producer of the electronic Juul Labs cigarettes provided a product with the system of face recognition. Read more here.

Prohibition in San Francisco

On June 26, 2019 it became known of prohibition of electronic cigarettes and vapes in San Francisco. The supervisory board unanimously approved this restriction.

Online sales with the goods delivery to the addresses in San Francisco fall under operation of the decree as implementation of the electronic and flavored cigarettes in normal shops, and.  Punishment for violation of the resolution includes an administrative penalty at the rate to $1 thousand. Prohibition will become effective at the beginning of 2020.

The authorities of San Francisco the first in the USA prohibited electronic cigarettes

Normal cigarettes and other tobacco products and also medical marijuana in San Francisco will remain legal are legal.

As notes the Gizmodo edition, in San Francisco there is a headquarters of the world's largest producer of the electronic Juul Labs cigarettes therefore it is curious that this city entered prohibition on sale of such products — besides the first in the USA. Juul does not see anything good in restrictions.

The total ban will force the former smokers who passed to  vaporous products, to return to  cigarettes. Also the law will contribute to the development of the black market"  — consider in the company.

Prohibition of electronic cigarettes the mayor of San Francisco approved London Brid. She said the following:

«
We should take measures to protect health of youth of San Francisco and to save future generations of citizens from this harmful addiction.
»

According to a research of the University of Michigan, in 2018 electronic cigarettes were smoked by about 21% of the American seniors that it is twice more, than the previous year.[10] 

If in the USA began to prohibit electronic cigarettes, then in Russia, on the contrary, they are given "green light". On June 3, 2019 the head of the Federation Council Committee for Social Policy Valery Ryazansky said that the Government of the Russian Federation  approved  prohibition on smoking of electronic cigarettes, vapes and hookahs in public places.

2018: Prohibition in Hong Kong

In October, 2018 the authorities of Hong Kong completely prohibited electronic cigarettes after 27 other countries which imposed similar ban according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Restrictions of sale and use concern all electronic devices using tobacco, including those which allow smokeless smoking. 

«
Undoubtedly, the tobacco industry is strong in lobbying. But we should do what is correct for health of young people — the head of administration of Hong Kong  Carrie Lam said, having added that in 2018 she received about 3 thousand letters in support of prohibition of electronic cigarettes.
»

In Hong Kong prohibited electronic cigarettes

The decision of the government of Hong Kong to remove electronic cigarettes from the market followed four months later after the authorities announced intentions legislatively to register regulation of the market of electronic smoking devices, including prohibition of sale to minors and advertizing.  With and without nicotine the Ministry of Health supported a total ban of electronic evaporators since 2016.

According to Lahm, active distribution of electronic cigarettes created new risks and  calls for  health: such devices are positioned as less harmful substitutes of tobacco, however often lead to smoking of normal cigarettes at youth.[11]

The tobacco industry such decision of the authorities upset. As   the representative of the industry Coalition on Tobacco Affairs group Christine Hou noted in an interview to the South China Morning Post newspaper, such step will only lead to growth in sales of illegal products in the black market and will not protect youth in any way.

«
We were disappointed by the decision of the government which selectively and blindly accepted the views expressed by separate groups and ignored opinion of the industry and scientific data of foreign researches — she said.
»

Notes