Translated by
2019/07/07 13:49:28

Industrial Internet of Things - IIoT Industrial Internet of Things

Industrial Internet of Things is the multi-layer system including the sensors and controllers installed on nodes and units of an industrial facility, the transmission medium of the collected data and their visualization, powerful analytical instruments of interpretation of the obtained information and many other components. Article is included into the overview of TAdviser Internet of Things


Internet of Things of Internet of Things

What is Industrial Internet of Things

Commonly accepted terminology

Internet of Things (IoT, Internet of Things) is the system of the integrated computer networks and the connected physical entities (things) with the built-in sensors and software for collecting and data exchange, with a possibility of remote control and management in the automated mode, without participation of the person.

Industrial (often Industrial) Internet of Things (Industrial Internet of Things, IIoT) – Internet of Things for corporate / industry application - the system of the integrated computer networks and the connected industrial (production) facilities with the built-in sensors and software for collecting and data exchange, with a possibility of remote control and management in the automated mode, without participation of the person.

In industrial application the term "Industrial Internet" is used. Further in the text for simplification of perception instead of writing "industrial Internet of Things" is used the term Internet of Things in this context.

Industrial Internet of IIoT (Industrial IoT)

As industrial Internet of Things works

The principle of work of technology consists in the following: originally sensors, actuators, controllers and human-computer interfaces on key parts of the equipment then collection of information which allows the company to purchase afterwards objective and exact state-of-health data of the enterprise is performed are installed. The processed data are brought to all departments of the enterprise that helps to establish cooperation between the staff of different divisions and to make reasoned decisions.

In addition, the companies can replace quickly outdate paper documentation and also accumulate expert knowledge of specialists[1].

The acquired information can be used for prevention of unplanned idle times, breakdowns of the equipment, reduction of unscheduled maintenance and failures in supply chain management, thereby allowing the enterprise to function more effectively.

When processing a huge array of unstructured data their filtering and adequate interpretation is a priority task for the enterprises. In this context the special importance is purchased by correct information representation in a type clear to the user for what today the advanced analytical platforms intended for collecting, storage and data analysis about technology processes and events in real time are presented at the market.

According to a research of consulting company IDC, in 2011 by mankind it was generated 1.8 zettabyte of information. In 2012 the volume of the valuable data increased almost twice and was 2.8 zettabyte. By 2020 this digit will reach the 40th zettabyte. Such large volumes of data require processing to be used in decision making process.

In order to avoid idle times and preserving of security at the enterprise requires implementation of the technologies allowing to detect and predict risks. Continuous pro-active monitoring of key indicators gives the chance to define a problem and to take necessary measures for its solution. For convenience of operators the modern systems allow to visualize conditions of course of technology processes and to reveal the factors having an impact on them by means of any web browser. The operational analysis helps users to find the reasons of malfunctions quicker.

Thanks to such solutions production data turn into useful information which is necessary for safe and rational enterprise management.

Implementation of such technologies gives the chance to the enterprises from different branches of the economy to get certain advantages: increase efficiency of use of production assets by 10% due to reduction of number of unplanned idle times; reduce costs for maintenance for 10%, having improved procedures of forecasting and prevention of catastrophic failures of the equipment and revealing inefficient transactions; increase performance by 10%, increase the level of energy efficiency and cut down operating costs for 10% due to more effective use of energy.

Thus, new technologies allow the enterprises of different industries to achieve essential competitive advantages.

As industrial Internet of Things transforms economy

New approaches and models

Industrial Internet of Things "the supplier – the consumer" cardinally changes all business case of interaction. It allows:

  • automate process of monitoring and management of lifecycle of the equipment;
  • organize effective selfoptimizing chains from the enterprises – suppliers to the companies – end consumers;
  • pass to models "sharing economies" and many other things.

In the most advanced cases industrial Internet of Things allows not only to increase quality of technical support of the equipment using the developed means of telemetry, but also to provide transition to a new business model of its operation when the equipment is paid by the customer upon use of its functions.

Implementation of network interaction between machines, the equipment, buildings and information systems, opportunity to perform monitoring and the analysis of the environment, a production process and own status in real time, a peredavacha of control function and decision making to intelligent systems lead to change of the "paradigm" of technology development called also by "the fourth industrial revolution".

Foreign experts recognize Internet of Things technology which enters irreversible transformation to the organization modern production and business processes and generates new business models.

For example, information on actual state of the equipment available to all services, at a deviation of some indicators will allow to make timely its diagnostics, replacement or repair. Such model will provide operational automation of maintenance and repair providing (TORO) and increase in efficiency of a MRO in general, minimizing financial losses.

The analysis of experience of implementation of Internet of Things in the world which is carried out by consultants of J'son & Partners Consulting shows that transition to the concept of IIoT happens due to formation cross-industrial opened (in horizontal direction and verticals) the production and service ecosystems integrating a set of different information management systems of the different enterprises and involving a set of different devices.

Such approach allows to implement in virtual space as much as difficult end-to-end business processes which are capable to exercise in the automatic mode optimization control (end-to-end engineering) of different resources through all supply chain and value creation of products - from development of the idea, design, design before production, operation and utilization.

For implementation of such approach it is required that all necessary information on actual state of resources (raw materials and materials, the electric power, machines and industrial equipment, vehicles, production, marketing, sales) both in one, and at the different enterprises, was available to automated control systems of different levels (drives and sensors, control, production management, implementation and planning).

Thus, one may say, that industrial Internet of Things represents the organizational and technology transformation of production which is based on the principles of "digital economy", allowing to integrate at the level of management real production, transport, human, engineering and other resources in almost beyond all bounds scalable program-controlled virtual pools of resources (shared economy) and to provide to the user not of the ustroyst, but results of their use (function of devices) for the realization account end-to-end production and business processes (end-to-end engineering).

Difference of an ecosystem of IoT from the traditional markets is transformation of the enterprises from the isolated self-sufficient systems in which all are implemented necessary for production of goods or service production and business processes, in open systems of the integrated high-automated processes. Such open systems are implemented on model of cloud services in which different market participants are united in a single platform of provision of services to the end consumer for which creation by fixed assets of production not the personnel, but cloud services, automatically managing act as software-defined devices (Fig. 4), united in pools.

In other words, for the traditional enterprises and their systems (markets) the basic resource necessary for direct manipulation by all other types of resources, are the personnel, and, as a result, a main type of information exchange in such systems is exchange of voice information and data between people. And for ecosystems of IoT which do not use manual work directly at execution of production processes and which management system automatically addresses directly necessary actuators and sensors a basic resource is information and automatic means of its processing.

Implementation of Internet of Things requires change of approaches to creation and use of automated information systems of management (ASU) and the general approaches to management of the enterprises and the organizations. Outdated production lines which cannot be for various reasons automated using IoT can be replaced with the new automated and robotic equipment in the future. Other obstacle limiting IoT development is the absence or insufficiently high development of traditional corporate information systems of management (ERP), then the solutions IoT will be local and to solve niche functions and tasks.

IoT can consistently evolve from connection of separate products and objects for the purpose of their diagnostics and control before consolidation of different products and more difficult technology control objects in IoT network, and IoT network - to more difficult network platforms and complete production solutions.

Regarding technologies of management and information processing these changes are as follows:

  • implementation of program logic of an ACS as the cloud services ("cloud of management", "IoT platform") interacting among themselves;
  • transition from strictly hierarchically built connection of control objects in "a cloud of management" is information the isolated ACS on direct, without participation of the person and intermediate ACS.

At the same time "the cloud of management" performs all necessary functionality (program algorithms of data processing and management) of both local management systems, and enterprise level management systems above. In other words, "the cloud of management" at the same time performs functions of universal remedy of integration and function of execution of as much as difficult and various control algorithms.

Due to use of the mechanism of open applied programming interfaces (Application Programming Interface, API) the connectivity to "a cloud of management" of any devices and any ACS without the need for the making changes in the connected devices and systems, and sales opportunity of logic of processing delivered in "a cloud of management" given using ready templates is implemented and, at their absence, using the built-in development tools of software applications.

The effect of Big Data accumulated in such IoT platforms and use of machine learning technologies allows to automate improvement processes programmatically of the algorithms performed by "a cloud of management", i.e. to optimize control algorithms in process of accumulation of the historical data arriving from the wide nomenclature of devices and an ACS that in principle is impossible in is information the isolated ACS.

The experience of implementation of IoT accumulated in the world shows that transition to the concept of IoT allows to implement quickly as much as difficult end-to-end completely automated business processes. Such processes cover a set of different ACS of the different enterprises and organizations and involve a set of different devices that when using traditional approach to automation in most cases cannot be implemented in reasonable time and for economically reasonable budget.

Upon transition to the principles of IoT the end-to-end completely automated processes can cover all types of interactions of producers of goods and services and their consumers. It, for example, management of traffic and transport infrastructure, management of utility infrastructure, processes of industrial production and operation of products, security and many other things.

Such transformation of the enterprises from the closed self-sufficient "black boxes" in elements of open ecosystems, in turn, requires cardinal review of business models of the enterprises and organizations of all branches of the economy, especially regarding change of nature of interaction in a chain "supplier consumer" that, actually and occurs in world economy in recent years.

The technology factor mentioned by management of the companies for already four years as having the greatest impact on change of the enterprises, is a change of technologies of management, but not production technologies. The stack of technologies of management and control automation, unlike the previous technology (industrial) revolutions, defines transition to new technology way – the fourth industrial revolution.

In terms of macroeconomic growth of process performance in a chain "supplier consumer" means transition from the inflation development consisting in rearrangement of the growing costs (growth of revenue of the supplier is the growth of costs of the consumer) on "the following in a chain", and from the end consumer - back to producers (employers) through requirements about the wages rise, - to deflationary. Deflationary development is based on growth of efficiency of all participants of an ecosystem of IoT, including end consumers that is unprecedented for the history of development of world economy.

When resources of extensive growth of economy due to increase in production of new goods and services on the previous cycle of technology development slow down (it occurs in the majority of developed economies now), growth of efficiency of production and sales processes becomes key focus of development. It, first of all, also characterizes an era of active development of Internet services and implementation of IT technologies.

Separate segment of growth of national economies are not consumers of Internet services, but producers and providers of Internet services, products and solutions which take traditional industry niches and pereformatiryvat them on the basis of cloud computing. Common examples are Internet media, e-commerce and the online order of the taxi.

Advantages of industrial Internet of Things to economy

According to J’son & Partners Consulting, behind proliferation of Internet of Things and organizational and technology transformation of production there are important high-quality changes in economy:

  • data which were not available earlier with growth of penetration of the built-in devices represent valuable information on the nature of use of a product and the equipment for all participants of a production cycle, formations of new business models are the main and provide an additional income from the offer of new services, such as, for example: contract of lifecycle for industrial equipment, contract manufacturing as service, transport as service, security as service and others;

  • virtualization of production functions is followed by formation of "sharing economy the" (shared economy) which is characterized by significantly more high efficiency and performance due to increase in use of the available resources, change of functionality of devices without making changes in physical entities by change of technologies of management of them;

  • modeling of technology processes, end-to-end design and as result, optimization of a chain of value creation at all stages of product lifecycle in real time, allow to make a piece or small-scale product at the minimum price for the Customer and with profit for the producer that in traditional production is possible only at mass production;

  • the reference architecture, the standardized networks and model of lease instead of payment of total cost of ownership, make a joint production infrastructure available to medium and small business that facilitates their efforts on production management, allows to accelerate response to the changing market demands and reduction of product lifecycle, and involves development and emergence of new applications and services;

  • data analysis about the user, his production facilities (machines, buildings, the equipment) and the nature of consumption is opened by opportunities for the supplier of service in improvement of client experience, to creation of bigger convenience of use, the best solution and cost reduction of the client that leads to increase in satisfaction and loyalty from work with this supplier;

  • functioning of various sectors of the economy will continuously become complicated as a result of development of technologies and to be performed due to automatic decision making by machines on the basis of the analysis of large volume of data from attached devices more and more that will lead to gradual decrease in a role of the production personnel including qualified. Quality professional education, including engineering, the special training programs for workers and trainings will be required.

Use efficiency evaluation

Eventually, implementation of any automation equipment including according to the concept of Internet of Things, it will be justified if it gives economic effect in comparison with the taken modes of production and business processes. With respect thereto, consultants of J'son & Partners Consulting carried out the analysis of cases on application of Internet of Things in the different industries in the world and analyzed numerical measure values of efficiency.

The list of some performance indicators on the considered cases by primary branches

Application of IIoT in the different industries

IIoT on production

Conditions for IIoT implementation

The analysis of the best world practices of implementation of IIoT in the research J'son & Partners Consulting shows that the main scopes of solutions in the field of the industrial Internet are the productions which are characterized by existence of one or several following important conditions:

  • release of the wide product range, use of the considerable list of component parts;
  • need for quality improvement of products and decrease in extent of defects;
  • the need for ensuring effective service maintenance of earlier delivered products;
  • need for decrease in operating costs of production;
  • considerable power consumption of production;
  • difficult working conditions;
  • the need for operational diagnostics of faults of technology equipment for decrease in unplanned stops of production;
  • need for ensuring high performance of personnel;
  • need for security of personnel;
  • need of system integration of a broad spectrum.

Standard results of implementation of IIoT in the industry

The research J'son & Partners Consulting showed that, first, use of sensors of control of operation of the equipment with access to the network allows equipment manufacturer to control far off his work, to timely carry out scheduled works, to predict accidents and to make scheduled preventive maintenance or in advance to prepare necessary parts on replacement, etc. Thus, we say that Internet of Things is the effective management tool product lifecycle.

Secondly, knowledge of the actual and planned loading of the production equipment connected to network allows to organize automatic network of orders between different productions in a long chain from suppliers of materials to consumers of end products. It is reached by connection of all production sites to a single software platform, and legally different companies can be its participants.

Such model cardinally optimizes transaction costs in cooperation chains which purchase quality of selfoptimizing. In other words, application of the concept of Internet of Things allows to optimize as much as possible cooperation communications for all chain of the participating enterprises for the purpose of achievement of the most cost-efficient result for the end consumer.

Thirdly, it concerns transition from model of sale of the devices and the equipment measured by the number of the supplied equipment to model of sale of functionality (results of use) of devices and the equipment "on demand". For example, when the company sells not just compressors, and compressed air with accurately determined and guaranteed parameters.

Thus, in the most advanced cases the speech can go not just about new quality of technical support of the equipment (using the developed means of telemetry), but also about other business model of its operation when the equipment is not transferred to the possession of the customer at all, and is paid with it upon use of its functions. By such principle work, for example:

  • the largest supplier of Kaeser commercial compressors – payment of the compressor equipment occurs on the volume of the compressed air produced by it;
  • the producer of John Deere agricultural machinery – payment of the actual usage time of agricultural machinery (tractors);
  • many other leading manufacturers of industrial equipment and consumer equipment described in the report.

It is important to note that sale "on demand" is a key characteristic of a cloud service. Internet of Things acts as necessary technical components for expansion of cloud model for a framework of the information and communication industry. In those branches of the economy where the ICT equipment is not an end product, and computing and communications systems are applied as auxiliary (to a computerization of management of other types of the equipment and devices, the so-called built-in systems), the model of cloud computing purchases a format of the contract of lifecycle, i.e. new model of relationship in a chain "the supplier – the consumer".

Standard project deliverable of IoT – multiple increase in efficiency of all participants of an ecosystem of IoT not only in the field of ICT and finance where the product can be created and consumed in completely digital form, but also in the industries of production of goods. And in process of growth of scale of these ecosystems their efficiency grows, but does not decrease, unlike the cooperation chains constructed by the traditional principle where growth of costs is proportional to a square of growth of number of staff of the interacting enterprises, - note in J'son & Partners Consulting.

Growth of competitiveness of participants of ecosystems of IoT in the global system of job specialization and growth of their shareholder value when the "traditional" company undergoing IoT-transformation, reaching efficiency, comparable with the "technology" companies, begins to be estimated by investors on coefficients of the cloud/technology companies, such as Google, Amazon and other similar is a consequence of such standard project deliverable of IoT.

IIoT in the systems of power supply

In power industry under determination of Internet of Things "smart" or "intellectual" networks (smart grids) and counters (smart meters) usually get. New technologies are especially relevant for Russia having historically developed large-scale centralized system of power supply, and it is over 2.5 million km of transmission lines, about 500 thousand substations, 700 power plants with power more than 5 MW. However today penetration of Internet of Things into the Russian power is at the initial level.

At the level of system management, balances and the modes in power industry the step in the direction of a digital binding of assets can give the chance more optimum to plan loading of the generating capacities and, the main thing, their volume. As the Russian power supply system is constructed on reservation, creation of an intellectual distribution model would allow to take a part of inefficient generation out of service and to partially resolve an issue of overproduction of the generating capacities (growth from 215 GW in 2008 to 235 GW in 2016 in the absence of the correlating consumption growth). At the same time it would allow to implement modern incentives of decrease in electricity consumption more widely: for example, demand management (demand response).

In power grid economy more widespread introduction of intellectual technologies, especially taking into account the extent of linear objects, could lead to reliability augmentation and decrease in operating expenses. It at last would allow to pass to network management "on a status", but not to make repairs according to tough procedural terms.

For the purpose of normative fixing of such possibility of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation at the beginning of 2017 suggested to fix by the government decree change of the corresponding repair standards for the companies of Rosseti Holding. In Russia there is a number of successful examples of implementation of intellectual network technologies, for example, in regions of presence Rosseti, Tatarstan and some other areas. The most part of the new equipment (transformers, switches) already has the systems of remote diagnostics.

With information transfer also there should not be problems as the network complex, in fact, is the largest telecom operator in Russia: for example, on all substations (PS) of 110 kW there are communication channels (in the majority fiber optic), all new PS of 35 kW have Internet connection. The intelligent electric network will also allow to integrate different objects of electricity generation, including on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES – the sun, wind, etc.), the distributed generation.

So far volumes of RES in Russia are insignificant, and the volume of the distributed generation is about 5.5% of installed capacity (slightly less than 13 GW), however experience of other countries shows that these indicators will grow.

In North America and Western Europe "intelligent networks" also allow to organize the movement of the electric power in two directions, doing possible sale of excesses of electricity produced by households (generally solar panels on roofs of houses).

In generation elements of Internet of Things are also used - it is class PCS asset management systems (automated process control systems). They are set in different combinations at all power plants of our country and allow to manage and obtain remotely information on work of the key systems. At the same time the share of the domestic equipment that is pleasant, is rather big. For the purpose of development of IoT in generation of the Ministry of Energy together with RUSNANO and Rostelecom creates the national project on Industrial Internet on the basis of a pilot project of development of a system of remote monitoring and diagnostics of steam-gas units.

Some private energy companies also actively equip the objects with the systems of remote control and diagnostics with the purpose to increase reliability and to reduce operating expenses.

Certainly, more intellectual power would bring obvious benefits to both consumers and power producers, and domestic economy in general. The answering purpose are designated in a number of program documents (the approved energy strategy of Russia until 2030, the project of new strategy till 2035, in the documents (which is a part of the National technology initiative)). However, according to us, more accurate, subject strategy of the state in development of intellectual power is necessary.

The EU, for example, sets as the purpose providing 80% of consumers with "smart counters" by 2020 (200 million electric and 45 million gas meters). In the USA each state independently defines policy on their implementation, however the number of "smart counters" countrywide is already close to 50% of total number (in six states the share of "smart counters" made more than 80%).

IIoT in the transport industry

Got into Internet of Things transport much more deeply. In the industry where the extent of different types of ways exceeds 1.6 million km, and the number of cargo transport (automobile, railway and other) – 7 million units, in principle it is impossible to do without the systems of remote monitoring.

IoT gained the greatest development in the motor transport thanks to distribution of the same smartphones which drivers take with themselves in the road and which share approached 50% of cellular devices in Russia. Thanks to them traffic congestion monitoring systems on cards of Yandex, Google, etc. are constructed. Around smartphones in the car – the whole ecosystems of software solutions (for example, Uber, Yandex of the Taxi, [GetTaxi]], etc.).

These solutions completely changed the market of the taxi in the large cities. Such services are not limited only to the sphere of the taxi any more and get into the sphere of logistics: UberCargo and Trucker path in Russia is similar there were startups of GoCargo and iCanDrive which cornerstone just IoT use is.

More serious systems of intellectual monitoring of transport are implemented thanks to installation into cars of the systems of remote monitoring of movement based on GLONASSGPS sensors of control systems for fuel consumption. Such devices allow to reduce significantly costs and to control target use of transport, to analyze and optimize routes of the movement that is extremely important for logistics. Any more or less large transport enterprise does not do without such devices, probably. At the same time they are used not only for external transportations, but also in the enterprises: Severstal, for example, thus traces the weight and movement of loads, routes of loaders at the plants. In Russia there were already very many producers of devices of remote monitoring of transport – Omnicom"AUTOGRAPH System of satellite monitoring and control of transport" Galileoskay, Fort, Naviset, "Incotex", "The stroke is TaxoRUS", "Granite Navigator" M2M Cyber , etc. In the market there are also a lot of software products allowing to analyze the obtained data and to optimize costs and processes.

Security of IIoT

2019: TK26 approved the protocol of the protected exchange for the industrial CRISP systems as methodical recommendations

The solution of protocol No. 23.1 of Technical committee on standardization "Cryptographic data protection" (TK26) of May 27-30, 2019 approves the methodical recommendations of MP 26.4.001-2019 "The protocol of the protected exchange for the industrial systems (CRISP 1.0)". On June 27, 2019 reported about it Infotecs. In more detail here.


The standard on security of the industrial IoT-equipment is developed

On February 11, 2019 there was information that International Organization for Standardization (ISO/ISO) developed the ISO/TR 22100-4:2018 standard "Security of a production equipment — Communication with ISO 12100 — Part 4: The guide for equipment manufacturers to consideration of the corresponding aspects of information security (cyber security)" (ISO/TR 22100-4:2018 Safety of machinery — Relationship with ISO 12100 — Part 4: Guidance to machinery manufacturers for consideration of related IT security (cyber security) aspects). The document was published in December, 2018. Read more here.

Growth of IIoT leads to increase in potential cyber attacks

High penetration of industrial Internet of Things into crucial infrastructure and manufacturing sector led to increase in number of potential cyber attacks. These researches, carried out by analysts of Frost & Sullivan company demonstrate what became known on December 13, 2018 to it.

According to their opinion, cyber attacks only in the power and utility industries cost on average $13.2 million annually. Experts of Frost & Sullivan note that increase in risks leads to development of the general approaches to ensuring cyber security. The role is played gain of a regulatory role of the governments of the countries of the world in the field of cybersecurity and increase in awareness on a problem and in mature markets, and on young people.

Industrial Internet of Things gradually gains steam together with development of Internet of Things. Both of these concepts assume data transmission on the Internet, use common hardware reference platforms and are controlled by means of a specialized software that finally leads to growth of amount of the general vulnerabilities and possible attacks on industrial facilities. Frost & Sullivan follows from the report that industrial and IT infrastructures become more transparent. It, first of all, is connected with development of the Industrial 4.0 standard and an exception of complete isolation of industrial facilities that, of course, involves the general vulnerabilities, use of services of security according to the SaaS model for industrial facilities and also use of hardware devices, access to which the potential malefactor can get quite easily.
Vyacheslav Gordeev, system engineer of Fortinet company

Analysts note that the market of services of industrial cyber security is at peak of the lifecycle. It is characterized by growth of awareness on rules of conduct among end users in connection with the growing need for skills of ensuring cyber security. What, however, does not rescue the company from high risk of the attacks on industrial management systems.

Industrial Internet of Things makes not only good profit, but also risks

Many end users use labor-consuming methods of security and have no strict the politician. Service providers should help with automation of process of ensuring cyber security and offer more complete approach. It can consist, for example, in a consolidated view on IT and OT - infrastructure
Riti Newa, the analyst on the industrial researches Frost & Sullivan

Several recommendations for the companies which want to grow in the market of services of ensuring cyber security are specified in the report of Frost & Sullivan. Among them – development of the integrated platforms providing the high level of safety of end users, parallel implementation of best practices of providing Information Security, use of the automated services of management and expanded analytics for development of a complex service portfolio which can be adapted for all types of end users. Besides, analysts consider perspective flexible pricing models and approach of CSaaS (Cybersecurity-as-a-Service – "the cyber security as service")[2].

2017: Recommendations about protection of IoT-devices within critical infrastructure

The agency of the European Union on networks and information security (ENISA) at the end of November, 2017 published recommendations about security of IoT-devices in the context of objects of critical infrastructure. The contribution to creation of this document was made also by experts of Kaspersky Lab.

The report consolidates knowledge of the industry of industrial cyber security, shows model of threats of industrial Internet of Things and also describes available measures which can protect from these threats. The experts of Kaspersky Lab participating in the IoTSEC group (ENISA IoT Security Experts Group) added a number of recommendations for those who are engaged in development of the unified security policies.

According to results of a research of Kaspersky Lab, incidents with devices of Internet of Things are included into the three of threats with the greatest financial damage to the companies. It belongs to the companies of any size: both small and medium business, and big corporations.

According to Kaspersky Lab, the lack of uniform standards remains one of the main problems in the field of cyber security of industrial IoT-devices still. The recommendations of ENISA, as expected, will become an important step towards unification the practician and security policies, and they concern both creators and users of industrial IoT-devices, and the various agencies of the European Union developing security policies.

Kaspersky Lab has the profound expert knowledge in security of critical infrastructures. We believe that our contribution to the recommendations of ENISA will help the companies to develop more effective strategies of cyber security, and — to set to regulators relevant and relevant standards to be ready to fight against modern cyberthreats — Andrey Dukhvalov, the chief of the department of perspective technologies of Kaspersky Lab said.

Among the main recommendations developed for regulators:

  • Be focused on recommendations, specific to the specific sector, instead of the general;
  • Standardize recommendations in the EU, set uniform terminology and classification;
  • Cooperate with representatives of the industry and involve the private sector in development of laws, using the operating associations and associations, for example, of AIOTI.

Main recommendations for producers of devices and software developers:

  • Make sure that all employees have relevant knowledge and skills in the field of cyber security;
  • Provide compatibility of data with a reliable automated system of installation of patches;
  • Book audit of the code during implementation process — it will help to reduce quantity of errors in the final version of a product and also to reveal any attempts of implementation of a malicious code or bypass of authentication.

The complete text of the document "Baseline Security Recommendations for IoT in the context of Critical Information Infrastructures" can be found on the website ENISA.[3]

IIoT in Russia

Main article: Industrial Internet of Things - IIoT (industrial Internet of Things) in Russia

IIoT in the world: analytics and forecasts


Magic quadrant of Gartner

At the beginning of July, 2019 the Gartner analytical company provided results of a research of the world market of platforms for industrial Internet of Things — Magic Quadrant For Industrial IoT. Solutions of the leading producers as experts note, integrate possibilities for integration, analytics, security and also management of applications of large industrial complexes.

It is supposed that the number of industrial enterprises with the local IoT platforms will grow by 30% by 2023. In the report of Gartner leaders of the considered market are called: their number included Software AG, PTC, Hitachi, Accenture, Atos, GE Digital, IBM.

Magic quadrant of Gartner in the field of industrial Internet of Things

The Cumulocity IoT platform from the German supplier of Software AG offers device management and previously configured IIoT applications and also to analyst in real time, integration with the enterprises and the cloud systems. From strengths of the platform specialists noted that clients of Software AG are usually happy with experience with Cumulocity. From weak – unsatisfactory maintenance of the platform.

The ThingWorx platform from PTC company is focused on monitoring assessment, the predicted service and use of assets. ThingWorx can be started on a cloud server, in the local or hybrid environment. The platform can be also connected to the existing cloud environments and the IIoT environments. From strengths it should be noted that clients highly appreciated ThingWorx for ability to integrate and managements of applications. From weak — ThingWorx Enterprise Edition is 20-50% more expensive, than products of competitors.

The Lumada platform of the Japanese supplier of Hitachi proposes the complete solution for local and cloud deployments in the resource-intensive industries, such as industry, transport, power and utilities. From strengths it should be noted that Lumada can be used as the certain platform or in partnership with other suppliers of the original equipment for the resource-intensive industries. From weak — limitation of resources for sales and service.

The solution Connected Platform as Service of Accenture company is delivered with the ready and configured applications for the sphere of transport and trade operations. The platform is available to local and cloud services. From strengths it should be noted that Accenture has extensive experience with customers. From weak — the company has no program for developers focused on the market.

The Bezons platform of the French company Atos combines software open source and software from third-party independent suppliers. Using such approach, the company provides a competitive product which is simple in use, deployment and implementation. From strengths in Gartner specify that the company is ready to work also with old industrial management systems, from weak — has limited scope of application, being generally focused on solutions of Siemens.

In June, 2019 Gartner provided a research about strong and weaknesses of the leading suppliers of industrial IoT-platforms

The Predix platform of GE Digital company is delivered with opportunities for connection of assets, aggregation of these sensors and the analysis of these data at a business intelligence. The company supports cloud and local deployments. From strengths it should be noted high customer satisfaction, from weak – permanent changes in company management, its structure and the strategy of entry into the market.

The Watson IoT platform provides a full range of services and can be unrolled as the managed cloud service in infrastructure of IBM Cloud or locally, and clients can create own services over the platform. From strengths it should be noted that most of customers highly appreciate support of IBM IoT, from weak – considerable costs for deployment of the platform.[4]

Forecast of growth of market size

Given for the beginning of 2019


Growth of the Industrial Internet till 2021

Growth of the Industrial Internet till 2021

ABI Research

Analysts of ABI Research predict that total income from use of industrial and production IoT-applications to which work mobile and satellite communication is applied can be more than $138 million. In 2017 the number of new wire and wireless IIoT-connections will increase more than by 13 million, having been by the end of the year 66 million connections (together with 53 million connections recorded in 2016).

The Pacific Rim takes the leading positions on new IIoT-connections. In 2017 more than five million additional connections are expected here. Global opportunities of the market will grow within the next four years: 18 million new IIoT-connections on reaching 2021 are predicted.

Despite it, decline in income from communication services which will decrease to $122 million in 2021 is expected.

The basis for the set connections is the share of fixed connection (DSL, a cable, Ethernet and PSTN). About 25% of new IIoT-connections will fall on wireless connections in 2017. Operators of mobile networks will continue transfer of the networks and the equipment for rendering IoT-services from technology 2G in 4G of LTE range. Connections in industrial production also increase use of networks of a distant range with low power consumption (LPWA). On LPWA within the next four years most of all connections is necessary.



According to analysts of Accenture company, by 2030 the size of the market of industrial Internet of Things will exceed a mark of $14 trillion. Digits are good if there is a need to attract investors or to convince chiefs to be engaged in IoT implementation. You should not treat these digits too seriously. In terms of the forecast obviously that the industry grows very in high gear.

Growth expects several jumps connected with adoption of the general standards and parameters of protocols which should reduce significantly risks of large investments into the IoT systems.

Forecast of Ovum

The Ovum company predicts that the total amount of the connected devices used in different segments of world economy will reach about 530 million pieces in 2019, at the same time the greatest number of such devices will be in the field of power and housing and public utilities, on transport, in the industry, health care and trade.

The continuing reduction in cost of sensors and the equipment, communication services, data processing and system integration, on the one hand, both cost reduction and increase in revenue of the enterprises which implement the innovative solutions, on the other hand will become the key driver of growth.

Forecast of Machina Research and Nokia

According to Machina Research and Nokia company, income of global market of industrial Internet of Things will reach 484 billion euros in 2025, and transport, the industry, housing and public utilities, health care and applications for the smart house will become primary branches. At the same time overall assessments of the market of Internet of Things (user and corporate) in the world of Machina Research and Cisco estimate up to 4.3 trillion dollars in 2025.

Honeywell of IIoT: Most of producers are going to increase investments into technologies of data analysis

In poll under the name "Influence of Big Data on production: studying of opinion of heads" more than 200 heads of North American production companies took part. Survey was conducted by division "Industrial automation" of Honeywell company together with KRC Research corporation from May 23 to June 8, 2016.

The conducted survey allowed to draw the following main conclusions:

  • Some companies are forced to work under the threat of unplanned idle times and breakdowns of the equipment which are considered as the most harmful factors influencing revenue growth.
  • Most the companies is recognized that already make investments in technologies of data analysis.
  • More than a quarter of heads reported that they are not going to make investments in data analysis next year; misunderstanding of advantages of data analysis and a lack of resources are most often mentioned as the reasons in this group.

"Vicious circle"

Unplanned idle times are considered as the main threat for revenue growth, but 42% of respondents were recognized that they operate the equipment with bigger loading, than follows. 71% of respondents answered a question of that how often their companies faced production problems in recent years, that hardware failures at them arise from time to time, 64% told the same about unplanned idle times.

40% of respondents specified unplanned idle times as the greatest threat for revenue growth. Among other reasons the following was specified:

  • Problems of supply chain management (39%)
  • Inadequate qualification of personnel (37%)
  • Defects (36%)
  • Breakdowns of the equipment (32%)

Data analysis as effective solution

Data analysis is a key component of successful implementation of IIoT technologies for producers. Most of respondents recognize efficiency of technologies for data analysis. For example, heads said that they agree that the analysis of Big Data can lead to reduction:

  • breakdowns of the equipment (70%)
  • unplanned idle times (68%)
  • unscheduled maintenance (64%)
  • failures in supply chain management (60%)

Respondents said that, according to them, data analysis can quicker help to make reasoned decisions (63%), to reduce the defects volume (57%) and to predict risks of idle time (56%).

Besides, more than two thirds of respondents (68%) said that they make investments in data analysis now, and 50% reported that they, according to them headed by them the companies are on the right track in the relation of implementation of technologies of data analysis; and 15% were said by them are are ahead of others in respect of use of technologies of data analysis.

Advantages are obvious not to all

While most of respondents said that they already invest and/or is going to increase investments into data analysis next year, 32% told that now do not make investments in data analysis. Meanwhile 33% of respondents said that their companies are not going to invest in data analysis within the next 12 months or that they do not know of such plans of the company.

From among respondents who do not plan investment into data analysis now:

  • 61% consider that their companies already locate systems capable to ensure safety, profitability and success of business
  • 45% said that in their company a certain growth and without data analysis is observed
  • 42% told that they do not understand fully advantage of Big Data
  • 35% consider that people revaluate advantages of Big Data

63% of respondents who are not going to invest in data analysis specified that they just lack resources for investments while 39% reported that they do not locate the necessary personnel for necessary data analysis.

2014: Assessment of Verizon

According to Verizon, in the 2014th globally the market of IIoT contained 1.2 billion devices, and by 2020 it will grow to 5.4 billion.


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