Translated by
2019/11/29 15:00:42

Information science

Information science  — the science and a subject matter connected with questions, methods and the principles of Processing, accumulation and information transfer in a computer and using computers and computer networks. Information science as science and a subject matter is studied in Russia, in Ukraine, in Belarus, Kazakhstan, France and Germany.

Content

Information science as scientific discipline in Russia was stated in the fundamental monograph by the academician Glushkov V. M. "Paperless information science" in  1978. The academician Glushkov wrote: "In HH1 a century the most part of information will be stored in computer memory".

The first encyclopedic edition "Informatika" under the editorship of the academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences of Pospedovaa D.A. appeared in  1994 and contained a large number of the materials connected with information science, information systems, information technologies and researches in the field of artificial intelligence.

Information science as a subject matter in Russia appeared at schools in 1985 along with the first textbook   by A.P. Yershov "Fundamentals of Information Science and ADP Equipment". The first textbook information scientists Kaymina V. A. and Piterkina V. M. for students of universities appeared also in  1985.

Concept of information

Information is a basic concept of information science as scientific and subject matter, and also in philosophy, law, information and telecommunication technologies, in communication, in life of human society.

Information — according to the Act of the Russian Federation "About Information and Data Protection", it the information about people things, the facts, events and processes. In a broad sense, this abstract concept having a set of values depending on a context. In a confined sense of this word — data (messages, data) irrespective of a form of their representation.

Information science in the very first scientific monographs and also the Yershov, Kaymin, Kushnirenko's school and high school textbooks was defined as science about accumulation and information transfers in a computer, using a computer and in computer networks.

The concept of information was considered still by antique philosophers. Prior to industrial revolution, determination of an essence of information remained a prerogative mainly of philosophers.

After mass implementation of personal computers and a global network the Internet information became the main object — science, new for that time — information science - as scientific and subject matter in universities and schools.

The USE is uniform examinations in information science and ICT

Since 2009 information science and ICT - uniform final and entrance examinations in universities and schools of the Russian Federation. In 2009 more than 50 thousand school students passed the Unified State Examination in information science and ICT and became students of universities on the basis of certificates of the USE.

The Unified State Examination in information science and ICT is uniform state examinations on the basis of which entrants are enlisted in universities on computer, mathematical and engineering specialties. In 2009 tender on computer specialties in universities of Moscow reached 10 people into place.

At examinations of the Unified State Examination in information science knowledge of algorithmization, logic, databases, the Internet, to the BASIC or Pascal languages, abilities to solve problems on a computer and the analysis of correctness of algorithms and programs on a computer without computer is checked.

Experience of training in information science in schools and universities

Process performance of training is determined by the end and intermediate results - results of offsets, examinations, accomplishment control and homeworks, academic year and degree projects.

In information science and programming - offsets and examinations and also solving of tasks on a computer and accomplishment of academic year projects and works are considered as results.

Effective programming is an effective development of applied algorithms and programs on the computers which are completely solving the set applied tasks.

Significant results in information science are the term papers and projects executed on a mla computer on the Internet - the websites, blogs, programs, spreadsheets, databases, etc.

Offsets and examinations in information science consist of three parts:

  1. solving of tasks on a computer,
  2. works with office suites,
  3. academic year projects in the Internet (in computer network).

The brightest results are course Online projects which are visible to all participants - pupils, parents, teachers, administration and the public.

The simplest results - preparation of texts, compositions, drawings, illustrations, spreadsheets, databases and presentations in office suites.

The most significant results - algorithm elaboration, programs and solving of tasks on a computer with validation of results, algorithms and programs.

Algorithm elaboration and programs requires knowledge of algorithmization and abilities to carry out the analysis of correctness of algorithms and verification of programs on a computer.

Long-term experience of training shows that all school and university students can be taught information science and programming at ought practical works on a computer and the organization of educational process.

Training in information science and programming in MIEM, MATI and other Moscow universities since 1985 shows that at proper practice on a computer and use of textbooks of Kaymin, Nechayev, Piterkin almost all students receive at assessment examinations "perfectly" and "well", performing test and term works on a computer.

experience of training in information science of school students from 120 Moscow schools at MATI from 1983 to 1998 showed that almost all school students successfully took entrance examinations in information science, successfully solved examination problems of textbooks by information science of Kaymin, Piterkin, Titov on a computer.

Information science and Russian

Information science at schools - the most powerful tool for deepening of studying of Russian, national and foreign languages using Internet technologies.

Internet technologies in universities and schools are first of all creation of the websites, blogs, electronic newspapers and magazines and also digital libraries and encyclopedic materials.

Publications in the Internet - are visible to school and university students not only to their authors, but also their teachers, companions, the family and friends - all interested persons.

All want that their publications on the websites, blogs, attracted live interest and positive rekation on their ideas, pipes and compositions - everything is created for people.

Examinations in information science should include surely creation of the websites and blogs and the publication of personal compositions in the Internet.

The open encyclopedia of innovations in information science and ICT - a sample for mastering of Internet technologies for preparation of scientific publications on the Internet.

Information science and computer sciences in universities

Information science universities of the Russian Federation is studied since 1991 based on computer classes and computer centers which equip all universities of Russia. The first textbooks by information science for students of universities at us in the country appeared in  1985 along with emergence of the first school textbooks of information science.

Teaching information science in universities of Russia is from the very beginning carried out based on computer classes with computer workshops, offsets and examinations in algorithmization and programming, office suites of programs and also on Internet technologies.

Examinations and offsets in information science and programming in universities of the Russian Federation are conducted from the very beginning of introduction of these disciplines on computer, and then technical, economic and mathematical spetstalnost of the higher education.

In  1998 in the Russian Federation there took place tender of high school textbooks under the auspices of Mniobraz the Russian Federation. The best textbooks by information science announced the textbook by information science of Kaymin V. A. and the Textbook by information science of Makarova N. V. to which the signature stamp was sentenced "The call is recommended by the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation for students".

To textbooks by information science of Kaymin V. A. together with Kasayev B. S. are created a practical work on a computer based on Windows and distribution kits with packets of the open source software on information science and information technologies based on Linux.

The recommendation of reflection in textbooks of the current state of information science and also the information and communication technologies (CT) was the main requirement to contents of high school textbooks of information science.

The sections connected about the Internet and to Internet technologies and also workshops on creation of the Websites and interactive programs for the Internet based on the Javascrit language were published in high school textbooks by information science since 2000 owing to these requirements to the maintenance of a course of information science.

In many universities of Russia from the middle of the 80th years in laboratories, departments and faculties of information science at which train specialists in the field of information science, ADP equipment and information technologies appeared.

Computer specialties in universities

Implementation of information science in universities as subject and fundamental science led to opening of a large number of the directions and specializations in the field of information science, information systems, technologies, information security and data protection in a computer and computer networks.

  1. PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
    1. of the Mathematician. Computer sciences
    2. Applied mathematics and information science
    3. Information technologies
    4. Software and information systems administration
  2. EDUCATION AND PEDAGOGICS
    1. of the Information scientist
  3. INFORMATION SECURITY
    1. Cryptography
    2. Computer security
    3. Organization and technology of data protection
    4. Comprehensive protection of objects of informatization
    5. Information security of telecommunication systems
    6. Counteraction to technical investigations
  4. INFORMATION SCIENCE and ADP EQUIPMENT
    1. of the Information scientist and ADP equipment
    2. Computers, complexes, systems and networks
    3. Automated information processing systems and managements
    4. of the Automated design engineering system
    5. software of ADP equipment and automated systems
    6. Information systems
    7. Information systems and technologies
    8. Information technologies in education
    9. Information technologies in design
    10. Information technologies in the media industry
    11. Modelling and operations research in the organizational and technical systems

Information science and ICT at schools

Information science at schools appeared in 1985 along with emergence of the first school textbook of information science of the academician Yershov A. P. who took personal part in writing of the manual "Fundamentals of Information Science and ADP Equipment".

The information science immediate goal at schools was defined as training of computer literacy  — to abilities of work on computers with editors of texts, electronic to tables, databases and also abilities of work and information search in the Internet (IT literacy).

All schools of the Russian Federation since  2007 are equipped with computers, access to the Intern and software packages on information science and information technologies based on the licensed commercial software (based on Windows) and open source domestic software (based on Linux).

At schools of Russia Since 2004 Uniform examinations of the Unified State Examination in information science which are passed at the choice of pupils are entered. In 2009 more than 50 thousand school students successfully passed the Unified State Examination in information science and acquired the right to entering higher education institutions of the Russian Federation to computer, mathematical, technical and engineering specialties.

Content of the Unified State Examination in information science includes knowledge of fundamentals of logic, algorithmization, the BASIC and Pascal languages, office suites of programs and also abilities to carry out the analysis of correctness of algorithms and programs in the BASIC and Pascal languages.

All schools of Russia are provided with the qualified teachers and teachers of information science familiar with operating systems Windows and Linux, office suites of programs and the BASIC and Pascal programming languages.

However many existing textbooks by information science (Makarova, Semakin, Shifrin, etc.) do not conform to requirements of the Unified State Examination in information science - in them there is no logic, algorithmization and also the BASIC and Pascal languages used in tasks and problems of the USE.

' most the Kaymin, Ugrinovich and Shautsukova's textbooks in which not only work with office suites in Windows, but also algorithmization and the BASIC and Pascal languages is stated conform to requirements of the Unified State Examination in information science.

Uniform examinations of the Unified State Examination in information science

The Unified State Examinations (USE)  — on a centralized basis the examinations held to the Russian Federation which serve as at the same time final examinations in schools and entrance examinations in universities. When holding examinations in all territory of Russia the same tasks and uniform quality evaluation methods of execution of works are applied.

The USE is held on Russian, mathematics, foreign languages (English, German, French, Spanish), to physics, chemistry, biology, geography, literature, history, social science, information science.

About 2009 Uniform examinations of the USE are the only form of final examinations at schools and the possibility of a repeated Unified State Examination in the years ahead is the main form of entrance examinations in universities, at the same time. When holding examinations of the USE in all territory of the Russian Federation the same tasks and uniform quality evaluation methods of execution of works are applied.

After passing an examination to all participants certificates on results of the USE where the got points in objects are specified are granted. Since 2009 all graduates of schools pass the Unified State Examination in Russian and mathematics and also any number of additional examinations in the choice.

In  2009 more than 50 thousand school students successfully passed the Unified State Examination in information science and acquired the right to go to the universities on computer, technical, engineering and mathematical specialties of higher educational institutions of Russia.

Content of the Unified State Examination in information science and ICT

The contents of the examination-paper cover the main maintenance of a course of information science and ICT, its major subjects, the most significant in them the material which is unambiguously treated in the majority of the options of a course of information science and ICT taught at school.

The maintenance of tasks is developed on the primary subjects of a course of information science and information technologies united in the following thematic blocks:

1. "Information and its coding", 2. "Algorithmization and programming", 3. "Fundamentals of logic", (logic in information science) 4. "Modeling and computer experiment", 5. "Software tools of information and communication technologies", 6. "Technology of processing of graphic and sound information", 7. "Technology of information processing in spreadsheets", 8. "Technology of storage, search and sorting of information in databases", 9. "Telecommunication technologies" (Internet technologies).

USE advantages

  1. Entrance tests in universities of the Russian Federation on information science become the entrance ticket for revenues to profile specialties to computer and chemical specialties.
  1. Increase in requirements at Uniform examinations of the USE will lead to quality improvement of education at the corresponding increase advanced training of teachers and qualities of educational literature.
  1. the USE allows to identify worthy entrants in the province who had earlier no opportunity to take entrance examinations in the large cities.

USE shortcomings

  1. the Bulk of the operating educational literature (on information science) does not conform to requirements and content of the USE (on information science).
  2. the USE on Russian, physics, information science contains incorrectly delivered tasks and controversial possible answers, the structure of examination is worked not up to the end out.
  3. Most of teachers of high schools cannot provide training of pupils (90 %) for passing Uniform examinations of the USE (an example  — Examinations of the Unified State Examination in information science).
  4. the USE leads to a new type of the tutoring connected with increase in level of knowledge in the USE specifications (an example  — specifications and requirements of the Unified State Examination in information science).
  5. B the content of the Unified State Examination in information science does not have the Internet, Internet technologies and the most important - there is no information search in the Internet.

The minister bared shortcomings of the Unified State Examination in information science

Standardization

2019: Estimated the state educational standard of the subject "Information science" at IRI

The chairman of the board of Institute of development of the Internet Sergey Petrov commented on the updated federal state educational standard of the subject "Information science" offered by the Ministry of Public Education of the Russian Federation. About this IRI reported on November 29, 2019.

According to Petrov, in an issue of development of digital skills the educational standard becomes a step forward in comparison with earlier used school programs. In September, 2019 IRI conducted the visionary research "Russian School 2030". 9 disciplines among which is as robotics and programming, already popular with modern school students, the cybersport scoring points, and futuristic objects were as a result provided: VR architecture, quantum technologies. The prepared list illustrates importance of development of digital competences, the need for obtaining system IT skills.

«
In the next 10 years in Russia there have to be in addition two million IT specialists that we could participate in a global technology race successfully. System training of future professionals, since a school bench is necessary for the solution of this personnel problem,
notes Petrov
»

At the overall positive assessment of offers of the FSES Petrov noted that many objects are offered to be entered only in the last classes of school whereas the foundation of digital skills is laid much earlier and to independently use the computer, gets acquainted with the Internet modern children begin with elementary school, and by 10 – 12 years often have the level of knowledge above, than at the parents.

So, the user skills forming a basis of digital culture such as information search on the Internet, work with the file system, creation and execution of text documents, creation of the presentations begin to form in the 7th class. These skills are demanded significantly earlier and their absence will negatively affect efficiency of the training process. But also to bear real risks as the Internet gives great opportunities – boundless access of information, online training, communication and at the same time bears certain threats, becoming a source of false information, the channel of involvement of teenagers in destructive groups and currents. As soon as possible children need to give tools for safe stay in the digital world, but also, to create conditions for their development according to requirements of the present where the increasing role is played by IT technologies.

The algorithmizations entered by the FSES training and to programming begins in the 8th class and makes only two years. Very productive age for formation of algorithmic thinking – 5-6 classes is lost. In graduation classes school students are loaded with traditional objects, at the same time skills of the analysis and data processing in spreadsheets are supposed to be created only from the 9th class. Along with a heavy load on algorithmization and programming it overloads the 9th class and does not allow to prepare school students for IGA effectively.

Speaking about overall assessment of educational process, sees that the large volume of material in terms of modern concepts and a variety of the created skills it is offered to school students 7, 8, 9 classes, at loading at one o'clock in a week, material will not allow to acquire. Expansion of the age groupes involved in process of formation of digital skills and competences seems reasonable.

Errors in algorithms and programs

Errors in algorithms programs - one of the most serious problems in information science and professional programming.

The program contains errors if at its accomplishment the computer glitches, failures or the wrong results.

Programming axioms (Kaymin-Dijkstra):

1) The number of errors in programs - is unknown.

2) Duration of debugging of programs - is unknown.

3) The lack of errors is guaranteed by correctness proofs. The lack of errors in programs is checked by their testing for a computer. Testing can reveal errors, but cannot guarantee lack of errors in programs. (Dijkstra)

The lack of errors in algorithms means that the algorithm yields the correct results for any legal data.

The correctness of results is defined by settings of solvable tasks and technical specifications on development of the computer programs.

Correctness proofs are correctness proofs of results of the solution of assigned tasks - results of work of algorithms and programs for any legal initial data.

Examples of algorithms and programs with correctness proofs see in textbooks by information science of Kaymin and in books by Dijkstra.

Entrance examinations in universities

For entering a higher education institution the entrant needs to pass entrance examinations in the form of the USE. The list of entrance examinations approves by the Ministry of Education and contains, as a rule, four examinations for each specialty (in certain cases  — three). For each specialty one of examinations is profile.

Information science as a profile entrance examination is specified in a large number of specialties:

PHYSICAL AND MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

  1. Mathematics. Computer sciences
  2. Applied mathematics and information science
  3. Information technologies
  4. Software and information systems administration

EDUCATION AND PEDAGOGICS

  1. Information science
  2. Mathematics
  3. Physics
  4. Technology education
  5. Technology and entrepreneurship

INFORMATION SECURITY

  1. Cryptography
  2. Computer security
  3. Organization and technology of data protection
  4. Comprehensive protection of objects of informatization
  5. Information security of telecommunication systems
  6. Counteraction to technical investigations

EQUIPMENT AND TECHNOLOGIES

  1. GEODESY AND LAND MANAGEMENT
  2. GEOLOGY, EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MINERALS
  3. POWER, POWER ENGINEERING AND ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
  4. METALLURGY, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND MATERIALOOBRABOTKA
  5. AVIATION AND MISSILE AND SPACE EQUIPMENT
  6. WEAPON AND WEAPON SYSTEMS
  7. MARINE FACILITIES
  8. VEHICLES
  9. INSTRUMENT MAKING AND OPTICS ENGINEERING
  10. ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, RADIO ENGINEERING AND COMMUNICATION
  11. AUTOMATIC EQUIPMENT AND MANAGEMENT

INFORMATION SCIENCE AND ADP EQUIPMENT

  1. Information science and ADP equipment
  2. Computers, complexes, systems and networks
  3. Automated information processing systems and managements
  4. Automated design engineering systems
  5. Software of ADP equipment and automated systems
  6. Information systems
  7. Information systems and technologies
  8. Information technologies in education
  9. Information technologies in design
  10. Information technologies in the media industry
  11. Modelling and operations research in the organizational and technical systems
  12. Applied mathematics

The Olympic Games on information science and programming

The Olympic Games on information science and programming  — intellectual competitions in the solution of different tasks on computers to which solution it is necessary to think up and apply any the program and/or an algorithm in one of programming languages.

The Olympic Games on programming in universities are held since the beginning of the 80th years for students with development and testing of programs on tests of jury. Boris Nuraliyev, the founder of 1C company was a winner of one of the first Olympic Games on programming.

The Olympic Games are held for the purpose of identification of the most talented and capable people in the field of programming and also awakening of interest in programming. Winners and prize-winners of the Olympic Games gain diplomas and the rights to receipt without examinations in the leading universities on computer specialties.

Participation in the Olympic Games on information science and programming is considered successful if participants could solve on a computer assigned tasks on a computer, having made the program and having checked it for a computer on the tests provided to jury.

The solution of a task is considered correct if the computer yields the correct results on (all) tests of jury. The algorithm (program) contains errors if on the computers some tests glitches, failures or the wrong results. Winners of the Olympic Games make algorithms and programs practically without errors.

Long-term practice of holding the Olympic Games and championships on information science and programming shows that winners are those and only those school and university students who learned to make algorithms and programs without errors.

At the Russian regional Internet Olympic Games on information science competitions are held in three rounds: the first two rounds - testing of knowledge of pupils of the Unified State Examination in information science, and the third round - solving of tasks on information science on a computer with testing of correctness of programs.

For the solution of Olympiad tasks on a computer at the Olympic Games on programming languages Pascal and Si, and at the Olympic Games on information science the BASIC languages (freebasic interpreter) and Pascal (compiler freepascal) are used.

Winners and prize-winners of the Olympic Games on information science gain diplomas and the right to go to the universities without the examinations on computer specialties, and to participants which successfully passed the USE tests, these tests are set off at entering a higher education institution.

Examinations in information science on a computer

Examinations and offsets in programming in universities are held since the beginning of the 80th years on base of the EU by a computer at the beginning in package long ago, and then in a dialogue mode in display classes. Examinations in information science in universities in universities are held since the beginning of the 90th years in the oral, written and computer form. Examinations and offsets in information science in universities consist of three parts according to three practical works:

  1. workshop and offset on office suites of programs,
  2. workshop and offset on Internet technologies,
  3. a workshop and offset on solving of tasks on a computer.

Examinations in information science at schools are held since 2004 in a format of Uniform examination of the Unified State Examination in information science using special paper forms in writing with three types of tasks: 1) selective tests, 2) open tests and 3) open tasks.

Lack of the Unified State Examination in information science are the USE tasks for the analysis of correctness of algorithms and the computer programs in the BASIC and Pascal languages without check and testing of these programs for a computer. At the Olympic Games p to information science these programs on the BASIC and Pascal are without fail checked for a computer.

The open source software at schools and universities

The decision of the Government of the Russian Federation in March, 2008, all high schools Russia received basic packets the free open source software and the license commercial software for training of computer literacy, to fundamentals of information science and new information technologies with operating systems Windows and Linux.

Works on implementation and use at high schools of basic software packages for offices of information science and ADP equipment are developed in four regions of Russia in 2008 and training of teachers and teachers of information science of technology of work with open source software in the environment of Windows and Linux is begun.

Practical experience of use of the Open source software in universities and schools showed that use of Otkrty software in Windows leads to disappearance of computer viruses and failures and failures of software in the environment of Windows which with the Open source software behaves as very reliable operating system.

In the 205-2006th. for schools and universities of the Russian Federation basic software packages on information science on the basis of the Open source software for Linux and Windows together with Competence Center of Linux of IBM, LinuxCenter and NPO Network were prepared.

In 2007 textbooks by information science for universities and schools for training in information science according to state standards of education with free and the commercial software in the environment of Windows and Linux are published.

In 2007-2009 the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev personally supported the project of equipment of all schools of the Russian Federation Open Domestic the Open source software for the purpose of information security support in the field of IT all state institutions of Russia.

Distance learning to information science

Training of students, teachers and teachers for the Unified State Examination in information science can be carried out remotely with the help the Internet and basic manuals on information science and ICT.

Distance learning as well as any other correspondence course is provided using textbooks and manuals and also tests and examinations and academic year projects and works.

Remotely preparation for the USE can be carried out not only on information science and ICT, but also in other school general education objects. For example - to social science.

Preparation for the USE of students, teachers and teachers of information science begins with confirmation of knowledge of textbooks by information science by them and the USE standards.

Completion of preparation for the USE - accomplishment of academic year projects and works on information science and ICT in the computer network the Internet.

Experience of training in information science in universities and schools

Training in information science at schools began in 1985 right after introduction of the first trial textbook of information science of A.P. Yershov. Due to the lack at schools of the country of computers training in information science at schools was conducted without computer.

Teaching information science at schools with computer practical works with office suites and practical works of solving of tasks in the BASIC language began in the late eighties after emergence of the first trial textbooks of information science of Kaymin in 1989.

Training of information science in universities officially was are entered in 1991 in all educational institutions having computer classes based on IBM PC personal computers by complete machine option with office suites of programs and the BASIC and Pascal programming languages.

Teaching information science in universities was from the very beginning carried out with offsets and examinations on a computer on the basis of computer workshops on office suites and solving of tasks on a computer using the BASIC and Pascal programming languages.

Entrance examinations in information science began in Moscow in 1994-95gg. at the Moscow schools at MATI on the basis of the textbooks information scientists Kaymina and Piterkina expected complete computer practical works of work with personal computers and practical works of solving of tasks on a computer using the BASIC and Pascal languages.

More than two thousand pupils at schools at MATI in 1994-1999 had training according to the Kaymin and Piterkin's textbooks and successfully passed entrance examinations in information science with solving of tasks for a computer in the BASIC and Pascal languages (at the choice of pupils).

The contents of trial textbooks information scientists Kaymina and Piterkna were assumed as a basis in specifications of the first trial examinations of the Unified State Examination in information science in 1997 and passed into the USE basic specifications on information science including studying of algorithmization, logic and solving of tasks in the BASIC and Pascal languages.

More than 50 thousand school students in 2009 successfully passed uniform examinations of the Unified State Examination in information science and acquired the right to revenues in the best universities of the Russian Federation for computer, technical, engineering and mathematical specialties based on a Unified State Examination on information science.

Examples of course Online projects

Course Online projects are interactive information websites with accomplishment of term papers and tasks on solving of tasks on information science, work with office suites and creation of the personal or school websites.

Term papers and academic year projects of teachers of information science and students of ITO MPGU:

  1. Academic year project of the student teacher of information science M. Yagid
  2. Academic year project of the student teacher of information science M. Shchetinina
  3. Academic year project of the student teacher of information science A. Holin
  4. Academic year projects of students of ITO FTP MPGU

See Also

information

database

algorithms

supercomputers

logic in information science

programming

Internet technologies

Unified State Examination in information science and ICT

logical programming

programming methodology

Unified State Examination in information science and ICT

open source software

Literature

  • Glushkov V.  M.  Paperless information science.  — M.: Science, 1978.
  • Bauer F., Gooz Informatika. M.: World, 1979.
  • J.G. Brukshire Introduction to computer sciences = Computer Science: An Overview.  — M.: Williams, 2001.  — ISBN 5-8459-0179-0n

  • Information science: encyclopedic dictionary. / Sost. Pospelov D.A.  — M.: Pedagogics press, 1994.

  • Yershov A. P., etc. Fundamentals of information science and VT. The trial textbook for high schools. M.: Education, 1985.
  • Kaymin V. A., etc. Fundamentals of information science and VT. The textbook for high schools. M.: Education. 1988 — 1989.
  • Kaymin V. A., Kaymin S.V., etc. The basic software package for IBM PC. M, VAK, 1984.
  • Kaymin V. A., Piterkin V.  M.  Fundamentals of information science and VT. The textbook for students. M.: MIEM, 1985.
  • Kaymin V. A  .  Information science. The manual for going to the universities. M.: Bridge. 1984.

  • Kaymin V. A  .  Information science. The textbook for students. the 6th edition. M.: INFRA-M, 1998 — 2009.
  • Kaymin V. A., Kasayev B.  S.  Information science. A practical work on a computer. M.: INFRA-M, 2003.
  •  Makarova N. V.  Information science. The textbook for students. SPB.: St. Petersburg. 1999.
  •  Makarova N. V.  Information science. A practical work on a computer. SPb., St. Petersburg, 2004.
  • Kaymin V. A  .  Information science. The textbook for arriving. M.: Avenue, 2009.
  • Kaymin V. A  .  Information science. A benefit to examinations. M.: RIOR, 2008.
  • Nechayev A.M. Programming of a computer. Manual for students. M, MIEM, 203.
  • Ugrinovich N.D. Information science and ICT. The textbook for schools. M, Bing, 2006.
  • Semakin, Henner Informatika and ICT. The textbook for schools. M, Bing, 2007

Internet links

Highway