Translated by
2019/05/07 07:10:34

Japan

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Content

Population

After the record set at the beginning of the 2010th the general population of Japan in December, 2016 made 126.9 million (decrease by 160 thousand people in comparison with last year) or the level of the beginning of the century.

Also is more senior than aged people of 65 years in December, 2016 there were 27.32% of the general population that is 0.58 items higher, than a year ago. At the same time a share of citizens aged from 15 up to 64 years there were 60.27% (decline by 0.46 items), and from 0 to 14 years - 12.41% (decline by 0.11 items).

Data for 2019
Data for 2019

For 2016 Japan is epicenter of demographic problems of economically developed world. According to government statistics the number of births in Japan in 2016, most likely, will be below a million mark, for the first time from the moment of the beginning of maintaining similar statistics in 1899 that, certainly, is a consequence of quickly growing old society and high cost of education of children.

It is expected that in 2016 only 981 thousand babies will be born, in their 2015 there were more than one million. Most of all births (2.7 million) were recorded in the Land of the rising sun in 1949[1].

Japan in 2016 also has natural losses of the population as the quantity of death exceeds quantity of births. This decrease is noted the tenth year in a row, writes the informational portal zerohedge.com.

Reduction of number of women aged from 20 up to 40 years - a key factor of falling of birth rate, government officials consider. The birth rate coefficient in Japan was 1.45 in 2015 (0.03 points higher, than in previous year) that is explained by economic recovery. However all this is still far from the object set by the authorities in 1.80.

In December, 2016 the Japanese authorities approved record ($830 billion) an account part of the budget for 2017 taxable year which includes the help on education of children. However, according to experts, all this overdue steps will also hardly be able cardinally to change a situation.

Army

Information security

2019: Creation of the first cyber weapon

At the end of April, 2019 it became known of creation of a cyber weapon, the first for Japan. It is going to be used for protection against hackers. Read more here.

Transport

2019: Japan made obligatory the system of automatic braking for new cars

In the middle of February, 2019 40 countries, including Japan and the European states, agreed to accept the technical regulation developed by the UN about use of the systems of automatic braking of cars. Since 2020 all new passenger and small commercial cars will begin to be equipped with such electronic assistants. Read more here.

National debt

Huge national debt per capita

For the end of 2018
For the end of 2018

As Japan solves a national debt problem

For 2017 to a vma well know that Japan the leader in the size of a public debt among all countries of the world. The national debt relation to GDP in Japan makes 250%. The absolute size of a debt - 12.5 trillion dollars. Here its dynamics in the last decade.

It is considered that it is bad to have deficit ridden budget. But Japanese strained and strain about it most less. They willingly financed and continue to finance deficit the budget by placement of bonds. International financial institutions constantly criticized them and criticize for it. In 2017 suddenly unexpectedly it became clear that there is no problem with a national debt any at all. Now we will explain why. But at first there are a little digits.

The federal budget in Japan makes 830-850 billion dollars on expenses. Bonds they release every year for 1.5 trillion dollars. I.e. the bond emission twice prvyshat the budget. The most part of bonds goes for refinancing of the saved-up debt (see the diagram).

Black segments are the bonds issued to refinance a debt. Red segments are the bonds issued for budget deficit financing. Gray segments are the bonds issued to finance deficit of the pension fund.

At the same time the budget deficit at Japan is 4.5% of GDP.

For comparison at the USA at this time the budget deficit is 3.2% of GDP, Great Britain has 3% of GDP.

15.6% of all federal revenues in Japan go for payment only of percent on state. to bonds. At the same time the Bank of Japan is kept by 40% of all debt of the Government of Japan. And the Bank of Japan returns back to the Government all interest payments on those bonds which to it belong (Bank of Japan). Well i.e. service of that part of a debt which belongs to the Bank of Japan does not cost to the Government anything. And 15.6% of budget revenues leave on service of an other part state. it is long - that state. a debt which belongs to physical persons and legal entities.

And here in 2017 the Government of Japan together with the Central Bank of Japan decided to solve a national debt problem completely. They agreed that the Central Bank of Japan will redeem the national debt of Japan belonging to all other bondholders from the market. The debt for 700-800 billion dollars will be redeemed every year. It is supposed that all debt will be redeemed by the Bank of Japan by 2026. Respectively, by 2026 budget expenses on service of a state debt will reduce to zero. I.e. the Central Bank of Japan will pay to the Government of Japan in the form of profit the same amount which the Government of Japan should pay the Central Bank of Japan in the form of percent on bonds. It is normal practice when the Central Bank pays to the Government a part of the profit. (The Central Bank of Russia for example deducts to the Government of the Russian Federation 75% of profit.).

Here and so everything is not difficult. By itself, the debt buyback for 700-800 billion dollars a year means issue for the same amount. But inflation in Japan is 0.02% now, i.e. inflation is equal to zero. So it is not difficult to pursue soft monetary policy. And even if inflation suddenly will jump up that it will change nothing because there are one million methods to sterilize excess money supply.

In principle the USA can make with the national debt most too. They for this purpose should emit 11.5 trillion dollars. Well i.e. approximately is one third more than to Japanese. As we remember during QE1-QE3 of FRS emitted 3.6 trillion dollars and 90% of this money did not get to economy, having remained on corr. accounts of banks in FRS (is more detailed here). So will emit 11.5 trillion dollars not difficult too. If it is required. So far probably it was not required.

Trade

2019: Influence of trade restrictions of administration of Trump

Cities

Electronic government

Branches of the economy

Dynamics of export of the Japanese whisky
Dynamics of export of the Japanese whisky

Energy carriers

Gasoline price

The card of petrol prices in the countries of the world for February 12, 2018
The card of petrol prices in the countries of the world for February 12, 2018

Education

Television and radio

2018: Start of TV channel in format 8K

At the beginning of December, 2018 broadcasting of the first-ever TV channel in format 8K began. Told about such achievement in NHK company. Read more here.

Health care

Number of prisoners

Data of World Prison Brief for 2018

History

1945: Defeat in World War II

Main article: World War II

On August 15, 1945 Japan announced the capitulation. The act of capitulation which formally finished World War II was signed on September 2, 1945.

On August 9, 1945, the Fat Man atomic bomb ("Fat man") an equivalent in 21 kilotons of TNT, was reset on the city of Nagasaki by the pilot of the USA Charles Sweeney, the commander of the Bockscar B-29 bomber. The total quantity of the dead in Nagasaki made from 60 to 80 thousand human.

Nuclear explosion over Nagasaki. 1945.
Nuclear explosion over Nagasaki. 1945.
In August, 1942 the territory under control of the Japanese fleet reached the largest size
In August, 1942 the territory under control of the Japanese fleet reached the largest size
The personnel of division 731 infect the Chinese civilian population with bubonic plague in Harbin, Manchuria, 1940.
The personnel of division 731 infect the Chinese civilian population with bubonic plague in Harbin, Manchuria, 1940.

More detailed than cm: Group 731 (Bacteriological weapon of Japan)

School snaypersh, Japan. 1937.
School snaypersh, Japan. 1937.

Notes