Translated by
2020/01/29 15:20:57

Labor market in the countries of the world (IT and a telecom)



Working conditions

2018: IT specialists do not fill up 27 hours a month

At the beginning of January, 2019 the Bedstar online store published results of a research of habits of a dream among 2500 people according to which people do not fill up on average 32.3 hours every month. At the same time workers of health sector lose the whole 42.4 hours of a dream a month, and IT specialists – 27 hours a month. The industry in which people do not fill up most of all – public services though all of them equally lose a considerable share of a healthy sleep, to a component is 21.6 hours a month.

People do not fill up on average 32.3 hours every month, and IT specialists - about 27 hours

The National fund of a dream calls "a dream debt" a difference between quantity of a dream which is necessary for the person, and quantity which he actually receives. It seems obvious that we do not get enough sleep - but whether we know about it? According to data of poll, people know about own sleep debt, and 31.8% of the workers deprived of a full-fledged dream make up for regulation on days off.

In a research problems which can lead to a sleep debt were estimated. According to poll, nearly three quarters of people (73.5%) note problems with falling asleep on which nearly 54 minutes are required on average. These results are connected with the fact that the prevailing number of respondents were necessary on technology and coffee concerning leisure. The research showed that 11.4% of people use caffeine - the containing drinks (tea, coffee or energy drinks) at night, and 30.7% use mobile phones before going to bed.

However experts claim that it is impossible to repay a long-term debt on a dream. To provide sufficient rest to a body and a brain, they recommend to change habits and a way of life. First of all it is worth adhering to the regular mode of a dream and wakefulness, to avoid the use caffeine - the containing drinks and alcohol - especially before going to bed - and to be engaged daily in physical exercises. Experts also recommend to switch-off electronic devices not less than for an hour before going to bed.[1]

Remote work of IT specialists

2020: Belarus legalized remote work

On January 28, 2020 in Belarus became effective the updated Labor code. Changes which concern also IT specialists the president Alexander Lukashenko approved the 2019th in July.

One of innovations assumes legitimation of work at home. In the new version of the Labor code such concept as remote work.

In Belarus became effective the updated Labor code which assumes legitimation of work at home

As explained in the Belarusian Ministry of Labour, remote work is convenient for all: the employer does not need to equip a workplace for the worker, and employees will be able to perform the work charged to it in any place where it will be convenient to it. At the same time for remote workers the specific employer should have the same working schedule and holidays as for working at office, and to be provided according to the Labor code and other documents.

But for this purpose it is necessary to conclude the employment contract. Otherwise the person, for example, the sick-list as the employer does not pay for them contributions to Fund of social protection of the population will not receive. But the conclusion of employment contracts is not obligatory.

Freelancers will be able to continue to work according to works agreements. This type of activity does not assume inclusion in staff of the organization or the enterprises.

As reported in Ministry of Labor, the Belarusian citizens can execute far off the duties from abroad. However at implementation of similar activity it is always necessary to remember features of the legislation of the country where the Belarusian lives. For example, the person can get into a situation when he has an agreement with the Belarusian company, and he is obliged to submit to the legislation of the Russian Federation as lives in the territory of this country, explained in the ministry.

Introduction of a concept of remote work and inclusion of this form in the system of labor relations is made on perspective — in the future not to lose a big segment of labor market, the Deputy Minister of Labour and Social Protection Igor Starovoytov considers.[2]

Requirements about education

2018: Google, Apple, IBM and 12 more large companies do not require the higher education at employment

In August, 2018 the large recruiting agency Glassdoor provided results of a research in which called the large companies which ceased to require the higher education at employment. Among such corporations Apple, IBM and Google, and all list appear looks as follows:

As noted in a research, Google it is ready to employ without the higher education of product managers, developers, recruiters and researchers. In EY vacancies of the consultant for risks, the manager on management of client experience, the auditor, the tax specialist and other are open.

According to Glassdoor, among vacancies of Apple in which the higher education is not required such positions as engineers of projects, specialists of the hardware of Apple and also technical designers appear. There are also less responsible positions as, for example, work in department of AppleCare and AppleTV. IBM is ready to take over work specialists without diploma in department of developments a blockchain systems.

Google, Apple and IBM ceased to require the higher education at employment

If technology giants began to look more and more seldom at presence of the higher education at candidates for positions of engineers where technical knowledge is required, then in retail networks, including Starbucks, Whole Foods and Costco Wholesale, set of not certified specialists only on positions of sales managers, financial analysts and just cashiers goes.

At the same time, as experts in the personnel consider, results of a research do not say that the diploma of college will be less demanded at employment now. Rather applicants without the higher education will be able to draw attention of recruiters, considering that they have the corresponding experience for work.[3]

Demand for IT specialists


IDC: Less than 4% of IT specialists of Russia and Europe conform to modern requirements

On November 20, 2019 the companies IDC also Microsoft provided results of a research according to which, most the companies Central and East Europe, including Russia, are knowledgeable about digital transformation and only 10.5% from them do not consider necessary it. At the same time only 13% of the companies actively implement modern technologies or have the strategy of digital transformation of business. One of the main barriers – shortage qualified IT- specialists. Only 3.5% of employees completely conform to modern requirements. The highest (35%) is the shortage of the qualified IT specialists in the companies implementing cloud technologies. In more detail here.

Deloitte, IBM, Accenture and Cisco are in the lead on set a specialists blockchain

At the end of November, 2019 the portal of vacancies reported that though a specialists blockchain look for the place more and more seldom, demand from employers sharply increased. During the period from September, 2015 to September, 2019 the quantity of vacancies on one million grew by 1457%, and a share of search queries - for 469%.

However the specified digits are generally connected with growth 2017 in bitcoin to year. In 2018 the quantity of vacancies increased by 26%, and the amount of requests dropped by 53%. The report connects falling of search queries with decrease in interest of applicants because of high volatility of cryptocurrencies. On the other hand, employers implement blockchain technology and look for specialists.

specialists blockchain look for the place more and more seldom, demand from employers sharply increased

According to the report, the five of the largest companies which look for specialists in the field of a blockchain includes Deloitte, IBM, Accenture, Cisco and Collins Aerospace. However blockchain technology get everywhere and are required not only software developers. Cryptocurrency corporations, such as Coinbase, Ripple, Circle and Kraken also got to top ten employers. In the financial sector JP Morgan and Signature Bank which even more often employ a specialists blockchain are in the lead. It should be noted that one of the companies which headed the list, Collins Aerospace, signs contracts for defense orders with the government and uses a blockchain for optimization of supply chains and the strengthened protection against cyber attacks.

Such technical specialties as the software engineer, the senior software engineer, the software architect, the complex application development specialist and the developer of the external interface are most popular in the field of a blockchain. Indeed assumes that the high demand on these the specialist will remain at least till 2020, despite volatility of cryptocurrencies.[4]

In the world there are 2.8 million cybersecurity specialists and there are not enough 4 million more

At the beginning of November, 2019 professional association on cyber security (ISC) ² published results of a new research. According to these data, the staff deficit in the field of cybersecurity is so high that only attraction twice of bigger number of specialists can close it.

In the world there are 2.8 million employees in the field of cyber security, but there are not enough 4.07 million more. In Great Britain it is necessary to involve about 289,000 security experts, in France — 121,000, in Germany — 133,000, and across all other Europe, in the Middle East and in Africa there are not enough 291,000 more employees.

Professional association on cyber security (ISC) ² published results of a new research.

The research conducted in 2019 also showed that for 65% of the enterprises there is not enough staff of service of cyber security, and deficit of qualified specialists with the corresponding experience was called by the main problem by 36% of respondents. Nearly a half of respondents indicated that they intend to increase investments into training of new employees in the next 12 months, and 59% said that they carry actively out certification of specialists or are going it to carry out.

In a research the practical ideas and strategy for creation and development of specialized groups on cyber security are provided. Authors hope that it will help the enterprises to overcome problems with staff shortage.

They recommend to employers to give to specialists opportunities for training and development which can promote career development; take measures for creation of wider networks of search of new talents; use new requirements at employment, for example, not to refuse graduates of colleges with degree of STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) even if now their qualification has not a direct bearing on security; and also to train other members IT sooobshchestva in cyber security bases.[5]

2018: Demand for a blockchain programmers flew up for 517%

At the end of February, 2019 the Hired service allowing applicants of work to find vacancies and to respond to proposals of employers announced huge splash in interest of the companies in programmers with experience of development of blockchain technologies.

Demand for such specialists in 2018 grew by 517%. On dynamics of growth of quantity of open vacancies the profession a developer blockchain is included into the three of the most popular almost around the world. Analysts of Hired drew this conclusion on the basis of data from more than 100 thousand curricula vitae of applicants and declarations of vacancies not less than from 10 thousand companies using this recruiting service.

Dynamics of increase in demand for the most popular IT specialists, data of Hired

In addition to a blockchain programmer, in top-3 specialties with the most fast-growing demand developers of information security systems and the firm ware who in 2018 began to be looked for for 132% and 76% enter is more often respectively.

The CEO of Hired Mehul Patel notes that growth of demand of experience of creation a blockchain products "reads off scale" and became the highest which he ever saw in the market.

In a research it is said that the salary of software developers with skills in a blockchain in the USA reaches $157 thousand a year. According to Patel, in other states such specialists earn much less, but it also should have been expected as in the USA salaries of software developers in general are higher on the market.

The salaries of developers in New York, data of Hired

In London programmers with experience with a blockchain can expect salary up to $90 thousand a year, in Toronto pay them up to $75 thousand, in Paris — to $67 thousand.

The high demand on IT professional in the field of a blockchain is noted not only in Hired. According to the Burning Glass Technologies company specializing in a labor market research in 2018 only in the USA more than 12 thousand vacancies were open for such developers that is 316% more, than the previous year.[6]


Despite some uncertainty in the world market of work in 2012, it is possible to tell with confidence that the companies do not hurry to reduce costs due to dismissal of IT specialists, and on the contrary, continue to take them. ComputerWorld reported about it on November 6, 2012.

The general economic uncertainty is connected with elections in the USA and financial problems in Europe. However in two months prior to the termination of year it is possible to tell that the market of the IT personnel, at least in the USA, will grow.

The main dvayver of growth the professional category, engaged in services, but not technologies or development will move. at the same time, introduction of new consumer services by such companies as Google, Amazon, Apple and Microsoft, will influence the market of employment in the USA little.

According to three sources of ComputerWorld in October, 2012 the market of the IT personnel of the USA grew still.

"Despite a certain deceleration of a rosta of the market of employment among IT specialists, we do not see any signs of stagnation", - the chief executive of alliance TechServe Mark Roberts told. - As soon as uncertainty and financial strength in Europe falls down, we expect recovery of stable growth".

According to Foote Partners, in October, 2012 in the market of IT specialists about 12500 jobs, generally in management and technical consulting and also consulting of computer systems and services were added. The CEO of Foote Partners David Foote is sure that in November the companies will show steady growth by the number of the employed IT specialists again.

Janco Associates considers that the IT employment segment in October grew by 6600 jobs.

Image:Techamerica employment data.png‎

Number of IT specialists

2019: The number of women in the Ukrainian IT industry grew up by 4 times in 5 years

By the end of December, 2019 the number of women in the Ukrainian IT industry grew by 4 times in comparison with an indicator of five-year prescription — from 9 to nearly 40 thousand people, counted in GlobalLogic company (is engaged in software development and rendering services of IT outsourcing). Read more here.

2018: Moscow was included into the five of the European cities with the greatest number of software developers

In February, 2019 it became known that Moscow was included into the five of the European cities in most of which of all is software developers. In a case with the Russian capital it is about  160,900 specialists.

It is stated in a research which was conducted by official advertizing agency of the London mayor's office London & Partners on the basis of data from community Stack Overflow and business social networks LinkedIn.

By the end of 2018 Moscow was included into the five of the European cities in most of which of all is software developers

London in which in December, 2018  about 357,900 programmers worked that is 17% more, than the previous year remains the leader of the rating. Experts note that on number of such specialists the British capital advances Berlin more than three times.

Entered into top three Paris ( 268,600; growth by 58% relatively 2017) and Amsterdam ( 216,800; growth by 140%), and was located with a trace Cologne  (165,900).

Researchers, having studied data on the website of LinkedIn, came to a conclusion that London is the most demanded European city for work of IT specialists from Europe and other regions at the end of 2018.

Despite all political uncertainty, there are no doubts that London will save a rank of the best city for creation and development of startups — the founder of Revolut financial technical-company  Nikolay Storonsky considers.

Some technology companies decided to use high concentration of programmers in London therefore started the development centers there.  Amazon, Facebook and Expedia acted this way, for example. Besides, Apple is going to open in London new office on 1400 people, and Google is the whole campus on 4500 people.

Whether the London technology ecosystem can attract talents with the same speed, as before, in many respects will depend on how it to cope with effects of an exit of Britain from the European Union, ZDNet notes.[7]


In July, 2013 data according to which India will exceed the USA by the number of software developers by 2017 were published. In total in the world there will be 18.2 million developers of software in 2017, and in 2019 – already 26.4 million, what is 45% more, according to Evans Data Corp.

On the middle of 2013 of the USA were in the lead in the world by the number of programmers, in their this country there were about 3.6 million, at the same time in their India there were 2.75 million. By 2018 in India there will be 5.2 million developers, growth will be about 90%, in comparison with 4.5 million in the USA (height about 25% for the same period).

Experts explain the Indian phenomenon, first, with the big size of population (1.2 billion people) and also population youth where more its half are made by young people aged up to 25 years. Besides, plays a role and high growth rate of national economy. So the Indian service companies have an opportunity to employ thousands of new employees quarterly. Work in IT and development of software is most popular with representatives of the middle class.

For example, only for one of quarters 2013 the Tata Consultancy Services company employed 17 thousand new employees so their total quantity reached 263.6 thousand. In 2010 in the company 150 thousand specialists worked.

GDP growth of India remained at the level of 8% in the last decade, but if it slows down, the trend in labor market will also begin to turn in the opposite direction. In 2011 Evans Data assumed, for example, that India will outnumber the USA developers of software in 2015.

Also the fact that Indian the industry shows to IT phenomenal growth rates is obvious. Even such companies as IBM have at the moment more employees in India, than in the USA.

According to Goldman Sachs, in the next decade India will supply 110 million workers to the world market of work that it is more, than the USA, China, Russia and Japan combined. For comparison, in 2018 in China there will be 1.9 million programmers, in Russia – 1.3 million, according to Evans Data.

Salaries of IT specialists

2018: IT specialists in Asia earn more, than in Europe

In January, 2019 the American company Puppet published the report according to which in the 2018th in wage level in the field of IT the Pacific Rim outstripped Europe. Within the research about 3 thousand information technology specialists were polled worldwide.

IT specialists and managers in Asia earned in a year on average from $75,000 to $100,000 whereas colleagues in Europe on average received from $50,000 to $75,000.

The salaries of IT specialists in Europe fall short of salaries of Asian colleagues

Salary increase in Singapore and Japan which, as more developed countries, doubled the competitiveness in the field of IT on the world scene became the reason. In 2018 in Japan less than 9% of IT specialists earned less than $50,000. In Singapore this indicator was closer to 27%.

However these two countries reflect the general trend in the region. In 2017 a half of respondents in Asia reported that it earned less than $25,000, and in 2018 this indicator was about 20%. On the other hand, only 10% of respondents announced the salary over $100,000 in 2017 in comparison with 30% in 2018.

The vice president of Puppet and the managing director for the Pacific Rim Darryl McKinnon (Darryl McKinnon) told that the organizations see direct dependence between the competitiveness and decent remuneration of professional specialists.

The organizations change the approach to providing IT services, urging to invest in good professional commands — McKinnon says. — They look for highly qualified specialists who not only well understand technologies, but also are capable to implement innovations and to improve process of delivery of the software.

Authors of a research broke salaries by sectors and showed that retail is especially profitable to IT specialists. Nearly a half (47%) polled in the sector of retail reported that they receive more than $100,000 a year. Other most highly paid sectors include health care and pharmaceutics and also the public and financial services.[8]

How long will work of the programmer be highly paid?

Glassdorr published the report on the salary level of programmers at the end of October, 2012. According to these data, compensation of the specialists writing the code for Google and Amazon, for example, makes more than 125 thousand dollars a year, apart from bonuses and the share purchase options of these companies, and services of staff of IT departments of Yahoo are calculated by six-digit digits. Writes TechCrunch about it.

According to the edition, demand for programmers will remain for a long time at the high level because there is not a lot of highly cool engineers. And such transcendental salaries of specialists are also explained by it.

It would seem, rapid development of the IT industry had to meet demand for programmers, considering a large number of applications for mobile platforms with the open code and also popularity of the other free systems and platforms. At all it, the salary the specialist not only does not decrease, but also demand for them remains at the same high level. And it occurs, considering influx of programmers from the countries China, India and Brazil which are ready to work for smaller money.

It is explained by several factors. The first of them - education. By TechCrunch it is sure that not all specialists from India, China or Brazil are able to afford training at the expensive universities. And if the person was lucky, then about 60% of students are eliminated already within the first rate.

In principle, the remained 40% can gradually saturate the market of programmers. However, there is a certain professional category which prefers more low wage, but an opportunity to be in the convenient location of the globe that suits not all companies. And leaves that the number of young specialists can be approximately equal to that number of programmers who refuse highly paid positions, even at the expense of India, China and Brazil.

One more factor affecting the number of highly paid specialists is experience of the difficult projects allowing to increase skill and to develop the capabilities and talents. TechCrunch considers that only the few natives of a BIC try to obtain great success because of the low taken positions in these or those projects.

According to the edition, the shortage of programmers will remain within several decades, and respectively and the salaries of engineers will remain at the previous high level.

How many do IT specialists of the USA earn?

The InformationWeek edition conducted a research of the salaries of IT specialists in the USA for 2011 (2011 U.S. IT Salary Survey). As it became clear, income in the industry is quite high: heads have on average about $115 thousand a year (about 3.5 million rubles a year or 287 thousand a month), at professionals a rank is lower - $87 thousand (about 2.6 million rubles a year or 217.5 thousand a month in terms of rubles).

The received digits say that salaries are strongly differentiated on specialties. For employees with the high level of qualification in system architecture, data management, integration of corporate applications, income is expressed by six-digit digits while the salary of employees of a support service is about $55 thousand a year (1.65 million rubles or 137.5 thousand rubles).

At the same time suspension of the wages rise last year gave way to small increase - the average total amount of growth of compensation in 2011 was only 0.9% for IT employees, 1.9% - for IT heads.

The salaries of IT specialists in the USA, $ one thousand a year

Source: InformationWeek, November, 2011

Apparently from the table is higher, the salary level of the main categories of IT specialists is quite high. For example, programmers on average receive $92 thousand a year (or 2.76 million in terms of rubles or 230 thousand rubles a month). Average earnings of the specialists working in the computer industry and specialists mathematicians in the USA grew by 2.8% during the period from 2010 to 2011 to $70.6 thousand a year, according to Bureau of an United States Census. These data include the information about those who work, for example, as mathematics teachers, statisticians and also in IT.

U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey 2010 and 2011

Separately in the industry of computer technologies, engineering and science the annual income of specialists grew by 1.7% to $67.4 thousand for the end of 2011. In general by all sectors of economy the gain of an annual income of specialists in the USA for 2011 made 1.2% for comparison.

The percent of technical specialists in the USA remained invariable during the period from 2010 to 2011 - 5.2% of the total number of workers. The highest percent of technical specialists is concentrated in the district Washington (10.3%), it is followed by Maryland (8.6%) and Virginia (7.2%), generally it is explained by high concentration of the organizations of the federal government in these regions.

Outsourcing of jobs in the cheap countries

On March 27, 2012 the consulting company Hackett Group published results of a research according to which till 2016 the North American and European companies will open 750 thousand additional jobs in India and other countries with the low level of compensation. For March, 2012 rates are about 150 thousand new vacancies in the field of providing business services, it is supposed that after 2014 their quantity is stabilized or will begin to decline. India remains the most attractive market, about 40% of all number of vacancies fall to its share. First of all, it is about employment in the field of IT and finance.

Till 2016 all 2.3 million jobs in the field of IT, finance, purchases, HR will move to offshores (not to confuse with economic offshore zones). It is about a third of the total number of jobs in the USA and Europe. In 2012 5.1 million jobs, potentially suitable for outsourcing, will remain in the territory of the USA and Europe, however 1.8 million have every chance to remove out of limits of the developed markets. Till 2014 rates of increasing migration suitable for removal in offshores of types of activity will begin to decrease, and in the next 8-10 years can come to naught at all. There will be a saturation – the companies simply will not have more works suitable for outsourcing.

Other aggravating factor is the growing distribution of technologies of automation and increase in productivity of work. According to a research, during the period from 2006 to 2012 they will become the washing away reason from the markets of the USA and Europe of 2.2 million more jobs or about 200 thousand a year. All this does not allow to expect the positive forecast of growth of labor market in the countries of these regions – Michel Janssen, the director of research of Hackett Group noted.

4700 North American and European companies with an annual turnover over $1 billion participated in the research Hackett Group.

Fight of the USA against labor IT migrants

In June, 2013 analysts of Gartner warned that legislative initiatives of the USA in the field of regulation of work of migrants can have in the long term a depressive impact on local IT market and the world industry of outsourcing in general, especially it concerns offshore firms whose assets are concentrated in India.

It is about possible prohibition on hiring in large numbers of the foreign workers using the American working visas of H-1B or L-1B. The category of visas L-1 is expected those who work in the international company having affiliated or head enterprise in the USA, and the visa of type A is expected top management, and type B - ordinary specialists, and it is not obligatory from an information technology sphere.

As for H-1, it also allows foreign specialists to arrive to work to the USA, however, the difference consists that on H-1B certification of work in Department of work of the USA is required, there are requirements to education (not below the bachelor), there is also some other nuances. Such visas are issued for the term at most 5 and 6 years respectively.

Logically, the initiative of restriction of issue of workers vy is directed to foreign citizens to creation of jobs for citizens of the USA. Gartner considers that such restrictions will seriously affect the IT outsourcing industry as at present in the similar companies up to 70% of employees represent foreign specialists.

As a response measure offshore IT the companies of the USA will be forced to employ a significant amount of compatriots or, on the contrary, will display up to 80-90% of the activity in foreign divisions, the expert of Gartner Frances Karamouzis considers. Besides, he believes that the companies will aim to increase automation of the activity and also current situation will lead also to emergence of the innovative solutions.

Already there are signs that the situation will develop on the scenario offered Gartner. For example, Infosys company signed the agreement with IPsoft, provider of the automated IT services recently.

One more scenario of succession of events consists that offshore companies after all will begin to work more actively in the USA and to attract local population, then in the country there will be some other the problems requiring the emergency solution: for example, how to provide labor market with the necessary number of specialists of the corresponding qualification.

However, the legislative initiative can go still very long way before it becomes a reality. The so-called initiative 50/50 provides that the quantity of hired foreign employees in the companies will be limited to 50% by 2017.

New professions

Director of digital policy

12 years ago outside IT only 20% were the share to the industry from all expenses on technologies directly of information systems, and by the end of this decade the proportion for benefit of IT of expenses will make 90%, according to Gartner. This process is supported with digitalization of business in all industries and services which provide the companies.

For example, in many companies digitalization of marketing, research and development is actively conducted. The second area which promptly stops being "analog" - customer service and communication with them. Besides, digital technologies more and more actively join in new models of generation of profit. As a result, "any budget turns into IT the budget", experts of Gartner claim.

To correspond to these realities, the companies will be forced to enter a position of the director of digital policy (Chief Digital Officer), it will be absolutely new position in structure of top management. According to forecasts of analysts, by 2015 such position will appear in 25% of the companies.

The director of digital policy will be one of key figures in business in new decade, consider in Gartner, it will be "the most fascinating position and a strategic figure", researchers also add. Clouds, social technologies, mobile devices and large volumes of data influence today how people live and work.

However the existing IT leaders will not be out of work as they should resist to calls of new digital reality to which first of all cyber attacks belong and also to monitor reputation of the company in a social web. Also they will be engaged in investments into new technologies, such as management using mobile devices and virtualization. The role of information security at the same time will be so big that in the next five years, according to forecasts of Gartner, this market will grow by 56%, and the market of solutions for security in a cloud will treble in volume.