Translated by
2019/05/15 09:32:10

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  — a tomographic method of a research of internals and fabrics using the physical phenomenon of a nuclear magnetic resonance.  The method is based on measurement of an electromagnetic response of atomic nucleuses, most often hydrogen atomic nuclei, namely on excitation by their certain combination of electromagnetic waves in permanent magnetic field of high tension.

Content

Incidents with tomographs

Main article: Incidents with tomographs

Mobile tomographs

Main article: Mobile tomographs

Repair of tomographs

Main article: Repair of tomographs

2019

Thanks to a CAD it is possible to avoid unnecessary introduction of contrast at MRT

At the end of May, 2019 3D specialists - radiologies used an automated design engineering system (CAD) to estimate whether patients need to enter with multiple sclerosis contrast substance at MRT of a brain. Read more here.

Denis Manturov: Rostec is engaged in development of the Russian MR-tomograph

The head Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation Denis Manturov announced on May 13, 2019 the project of development of the domestic magnetic and resonant tomograph (MRT). As he noted, the state corporation "Rostec" is engaged in project implementation.

Denis Manturov. Photo: ekburg.tv

According to Manturov, for May, 2019 23.5 thousand names of medical products are manufactured in Russia.

«
If we speak about the radiological equipment, we not only cover requirements in the market, but also we export the products. It and our couveuses, it and equipment for artificial ventilation of lungs, narcotic devices and many other directions. The only thing where we for the present lag behind - it is computer tomographs and MRT. Development is planned, and we with colleagues from Rostec actively are engaged on magnetic and resonant tomographs — the minister said.
»

In Rostec Group at the time of the publication of news could not report a project detail.[1]

The virus applying images of cancer tumors to MRT-pictures is created

At the beginning of April, 2019 the Israeli researchers created the virus applying images of tumors to MRT-pictures to draw attention to serious security of the medical equipment.

The malware created by them shows how it is easy for malefactors to add automatically realistic malignant new growths on KT- or MRT-pictures. Besides, the virus is able to find and delete images of these tumors. Such interventions lead to the wrong diagnostics and failure in the timely help.

The Israeli researchers created the virus applying images of tumors to MRT-pictures to draw attention to serious security of the medical equipment
The Israeli researchers created the virus applying images of tumors to MRT-pictures to draw attention to serious security of the medical equipment

Scientists from the Research center of cyber security of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Israel conducted a blind research with real KT-images of lungs. Three qualified radiologists did not manage to distinguish 70 changed images from normal: if the virus added a tumor on the picture, specialists in 99% cases diagnosed cancer if the virus removed this tumor, in 94% of cases radiologists considered these patients healthy. Even after radiologists were told about intervention of the malware and provided the second set of 20 pictures, a half of which was changed too, specialists continued to insist on the wrong diagnosis in 60% of cases. Besides, the virus managed to deceive the program for detection of lung cancer which radiologists often use for confirmation of diagnoses.

The research was concentrated only on detection of lung cancer, but scientists warn that anything – tumors of a brain, a heart trouble, blood clots on coronary angiography, spine injuries, bone fractures can appear a target. At the same time malefactors can easily implement a virus in hospital network thanks to vulnerabilities in the system of protection. Ideally hospitals should provide end-to-end enciphering in PACS network and append the digital signature on all images.[2]

2018

MRT reveals early injuries of a brain at the cocaine use

On April 25, 2018 results of clinical trial according to which MRT-scanning using a diffusion and tensor technique of visualization (DTI) is capable to reveal microstructural changes in white substance of a brain at the people taking cocaine were published. Read more here.

As medical visualization becomes portable

In 2018 mobile means of medical visualization gain ground. The publication in the DOTmed edition is devoted to it. Read more here.

2017

Conversion of MRT-devices for children's hospitals

In November, 2017 information that the industrial designer Doug Dietz jointly with the colleagues from GE Healthcare implemented the project on complex conversion of devices for KT-, MRT- and PET-scanning especially for 27 children's hospitals in the USA appeared. Devices were stylized by efforts of employees of GE Healthcare under spaceships, islands of pirates and other favourite places of kids. By GE Healthcare estimates, the embodiment in life of this idea costed the company about $50 thousand.[3]

The designer of GE Healthcare turned the MRT-device for children into the island of pirates
The designer of GE Healthcare turned the MRT-device for children into the island of pirates

Transformation concerned not only appearance of constructions, but also creation of the correct atmosphere. For example, prior to PET-scanning which takes 45 minutes specialists tell the child a mini-story that he will get on the spaceship which engines work very loudly. These parenthesises and a favorable type of the device significantly calm children.

«
We used children's imagination in our interests — Cathleen Kapsin, the director of radiology of Children's hospital of Pittsburgh told. — Instead of going for KT-scanning, you go to the island of pirates. We have even a monkey on a swing with whom it is possible to play.
»

The GE Healthcare company developed separate subjects for specific hospitals. For example, for children's clinic in San Francisco designers designed the cableway near the device. And in other medical centers of children try to prepare for scanning in advance, giving them a thematic coloring a day before the beginning of the procedure.

Technology of compressed sounding for acceleration of MRT

In October, 2017 the German producer of the medical equipment Siemens Healthineers purchased the license to use of technology of compressed sounding which allows to lower significantly time of stay of the patient in the scanner of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) — from 45 to several minutes or even seconds — without damage to quality of researches. New development was created and patented in Rice University in  Texas (USA).

Thanks to technology of compressed sounding time necessary for scanning of heart in the MRT-device is only 25 seconds. At the same time the patient does not need to hold the breath or somehow in a different way to change it to receive exact results.

Siemens Healthineers applies technology to acceleration of MRT several times
Siemens Healthineers applies technology to acceleration of MRT several times

In other MRT-equipment equipped with traditional methods of acceleration of researches, patients should lie not movably within four minutes or longer, to hold the breath from 7 to 12 times during one assessment procedure of cardiovascular pathologies.

According to developers, the technique of compressed sounding can change processes of magnetic resonance imaging of an abdominal cavity that is very important for some groups of patients.

For example, children and people with problems with lungs cannot do MRT   of abdominal organs because of their inability during a short period several times to hold the breath on a progressive tense. At compressed sounding the number of the data necessary for high-quality diagnostic imaging is significantly reduced, allowing patients to breathe and receive freely at the same time contrast images of an abdominal cavity in high resolution.

According to professor of Rice University Richard Baraniuk, modern MRT-devices use the mathematical algorithms created in the 1930th years and providing scanning during up to 45 minutes, at the same time patients need to lie not movably that not easy for children and people feeling severe pains.

«
The new technology will also help patients with warm problems. Before low quality of diagnostics did not allow a great number of such patients to profit from MRT of heart, but now it is possible to register all warm cycle in real time for one breath exhalation — Baranyuk noted.
»

According to him, compressed sounding can find application outside medicine — for example, in a radar-location and  security systems — thanks to fast information processing and  creation of qualitative images from  the smaller number of input data.

The associate professor of electrical equipment and  ADP equipment of Rice University Kevin Kelly adds that by October, 2017 its laboratory also involves technology in nonlinear optical microscopy.

The Phys.org edition writes that Baranyuk and Kelly research technology of compressed sounding for a long time. In 2006 they created the first in the world one-pixel camera which became the proof of efficiency of technology. According to scientists, their development is "a big victory" for medicine.

Richard Baranyuk (at the left) and Kevin Kelly
Richard Baranyuk (at the left) and Kevin Kelly

In 2016 provided to Siemens Healthineers the MRT-scanners using mechanisms of compressed sounding thanks to which the company achieved the accelerated sampling for imagery, high resolution capability of visualization and decrease in time of all procedure of scanning.

«
It is pleasant to see that the idea passed from the theory to practice that will allow to improve life of patients around the world, said in Baranyuk and Kelly's joint statement.[4]
»

Use of MRT for determination of tendency to a depression

At the end March, 2017 scientists from the University of Texas told about the technology allowing to reveal tendency to a depression by means of magnetic resonance imaging and artificial intelligence.

Researchers use the supercomputer for improvement of an algorithm of the machine learning allowing to look for the general signs at people at whom the depression can develop. For this purpose MRT-images of a brain, data on genes and other necessary information are loaded into the computing system.

The tendency to a depression was learned to be defined through MRT and artificial intelligence
The tendency to a depression was learned to be defined through MRT and artificial intelligence

The tested technology received the name Support Vector Machine Learning. It provides to the computer a set of the training examples describing the signs inherent to healthy people and patients with a depression.

During the research data from a brain of 52 people with a mental disorder and 45 healthy people were analyzed. For the accuracy of an experiment the people separated into groups depending on age and a floor were compared.

Based on process of diffusion tensor MRT scientists compared the level of fractional anisotropy showing existence and density of white substance (i.e. accumulations of nervous cages) in a brain.

Results of a research confirmed an assumption of scientists that it is possible to determine risk of development of a depression by the analysis of cards of fractional anisotropy. Scales and complexity of a research did not allow a command to manually review all medical images therefore for automation of process machine learning was used, notes the DOTmed.com portal.

David Schnyer, the leading researcher, the cognitive neurobiologist and professor of the University of Texas, says that the received results are promising, however they cannot be used as means for clinical measurements so far. According to Schnyer, the algorithm will be able to work much better after increase in number of the processed genomic data.[5]

Europe saw danger in contrast substances on the basis of gadolinium

In March, 2017 the European regulator suggested to move away from the market several contrast agents on the basis of gadolinium (GBCA) because of concerns that this substance remains in a human body after the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is about the medicines, most widespread in medical visualization. Read more here.

Influence of MRT on DNA of the person

On February 14, 2017 the AuntMinnie.com edition published article devoted to influence of the magnintno-resonant tomography (MRT) on DNA of the person. Scientists study this question several years, however they managed to find few proofs of negative impact of MRT-devices on the genetic device of the person.

About 10 researches, six of which were published from 2013 to 2016, were studied. Data on damage of DNA (genotoxicity) from MRT are provided in two of them, in other works opposite conclusions are drawn.

Device MRT
Device MRT
«
According to us, the danger is not proved — John Moulder, Candidate of Technical Sciences, honored professor of department of radiation oncology in the Medical College of Wisconsin says. — Of course, we are not supporters of that patients refused useful medical visualization because of this still hypothetical problem.
»

Wide circulation of a x-ray computer tomography in clinical practice causes the concerns connected with influence of light doses of radiation on an organism. In 2015 scientists of Stanford Institute on studying of a cardiovascular system (Stanford Cardiovascular Institute) reported that diagnostic procedures can lead to damages of DNA of cages, to the mutations involving development of tumors.

The procedure of magnetic resonance imaging which is used for visualization and diagnostics of a status of all organism subjects patients to radiation, at least by 150 times to stronger, than happens at a chest X-ray, researchers noted.

At the same time, according to John Mulder, the researches conducted from 2007 to 2016 showed ambiguous results of genotoxicity at MRT, and works were rather small, they lacked measurements and comparisons. As for potential ghost effects from MRT, in researches generally focused on radio frequencies, static and gradient fields, he noted.[6]

Risks of carrying out MRT for patients with the implanted pumps

On January 11, 2017 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released official warning for the patients using the implanted infusional pumps. They are recommended to undergo the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carefully.

FDA published the document in which told about possible problems in work of infusional pumps after inspections of MRT. In particular, are possible a stop of the motor of pumps without a possibility of restart and incorrect dosing of medicines — excessive or insufficient and also inadvertent formation of lumps of drugs in devices.

Work of the implanted infusional pump
Work of the implanted infusional pump

The implanted infusional devices installed, as a rule, in belly area are used for planned introduction of medicines with set speed and in a certain period. Pumps can be applied to carrying out chemotherapy, antibiotic treatment, rehydration and also introduction of antiviral medicines and anesthetics. At the same time introduction of medicines can be performed intravenously, vnutriarterialno, epiduralno hypodermically or intramuscularly.

FDA urges doctors and patients to check carefully whether it is possible to carry out safely by MRT when using these or those pumps. For this purpose, first of all, it is necessary to pay attention to marking of a pump: in the instruction or on the device there has to be a designation MR-Conditional.

«
It is important to note that each model of the implanted pumps can have unique requirements which need to be observed for safe passing of inspection of MRT. Otherwise it can lead to serious injuries or death, said in the statement of FDA.
»

The Food and Drug Administration separately asks specialists in the field of radiodiagnosis carefully to estimate risks and need of carrying out MRT to patients who use various medical devices.[7]

2016

The international safety rules for MRT

In July, 2016 the group of the leading international organizations specializing in questions of radiological diagnostics submitted the draft of security requirements for medical institutions when using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Duties and requirements to heads of the MRT research laboratory, directors and experts in safety of MRT-inspections are listed in the document published on the website of the Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging edition. From these people will be required the high level of preparation on all aspects connected with MRT, advanced knowledge of technology and capability to monitor coordination of process of scanning of patients.

The head of MRT-laboratory will have to control safe carrying out inspections of each patient at any time, be responsible for operation not of one MRT-device and to be always in touch for MRI operators, technologists of doctors and radiologists.

The role of the head on MRT-security can be delegated to the laboratory assistant of radiological department, the MRT-technologist or other qualified specialist who will be able to be in touch 24 hours a day 7 days a week, providing proper medical instructions and procedures. Besides, MRT, responsible for security, will have to guarantee that the staff of organization working with magnetic resonance imaging is completely informed on security measures and behavior in emergency situations.

The group of the leading international organizations specializing in questions of radiological diagnostics submitted the draft of security requirements for medical institutions when using magnetic resonance imaging
The group of the leading international organizations specializing in questions of radiological diagnostics submitted the draft of security requirements for medical institutions when using magnetic resonance imaging

At last, the physicist or other specialist with technical experience in the field can be the expert in MRT-security. From it highly skilled consultations on engineering, scientific and administrative matters of safe use of the MRT-equipment will be required. He or she should have surely medical education or experience in a part of a holiday of medicines according to the recipe or in other aspects which are not connected with MRT.

«
A set of recommendations of how to create the correct organization structure for security management at MRT and also accurate casts and duties at last is presented in this long and necessary document — one of authors of the project Fernando Calamante, the doctor of science working at Institute of neurology and mental health (the State of Victoria, Australia) says. — It is important to note that this document is approved by the leading MRT-organizations worldwide therefore it has the strong importance and practical efficiency for the recommended structure.
»

The senior vice president for radiological planning and the founder of Gilk Radiology Consultants company Tobias Gilk notes that the rules developed in MRT-community have a wide scope as in terms of geography, and the markets which new standards are expected.

«
The industry protects itself. We understand that we need to define roles and duties to protect patients and to preserve organizations against the risks connected with security of MRT — Gilk notes.
»

These guidelines, the created several years, became a necessity because of increase in number of the ghost effects arising after magnetic resonance imaging. In 2004 in the USA 40 such incidents were recorded, and in the 2012th this quantity increased up to 164, data of the Food and Drug Administration (U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA) and the special MAUDE database (User Facility Device Experience) where information on complications at transactions and physical examinations is entered demonstrate.

Meanwhile, the European Union (EU) issued the directive on extreme values of the electric and magnetic fields influencing health workers. Europe charged to MRT-community to develop own rules and effective programs of professional training of specialists in this area.

The AuntMinne.com portal notes that to the middle of July, 2016 not clearly, how well radiological departments and the centers of medical visualization are familiar with security issues of MRT and are capable to follow new security guidelines.

Fernando Calamante says that it is difficult to judge experience of this or that organization as they strongly differ from each other in knowledge of MRT-security, the organization structure used by procedures for security and resources.[8]

Confirmation of influence of a prayer on alcoholics

At the end of March, 2016 the results of a research which showed that prayers help to reduce thirst for alcohol at the people having this addiction were published in the American magazine of drug addiction and alcoholism (American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse). Specialists of the Medical center Langon at the University of New York after holding a procedure of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of a brain of the former alcoholics came to such conclusion.

Researchers analyzed 20 members of one of club of anonymous alcoholics who drank not one year. During the experiment the special prayers developed by Society of anonymous alcoholics after viewing the images connected with binge asked to read them (bottles with alcohol, process of the consumption of alcoholic drinks, etc.).

MRT proved capability of a prayer to save from alcoholism
MRT proved capability of a prayer to save from alcoholism

Anonymous alcoholics prayed within a week after emergence of desire to drink. They recognized that prayers sharply reduced thirst for alcohol, generating indifference to it. Same showed results of MRT of a brain.

According to scientists, data of MRT showed positive changes in prefrontal cortex which controls attention and also the area which is responsible for control of emotions.

«
Passionate desire to drink at members of society of anonymous alcoholics after a prayer decreased in comparison with patients who stopped drinking for a certain period of time, but are subject to go to hard drinking repeatedly — the author of a research, professor of psychiatry and the head of the department of narcological dependence of New York University Marc Galanter reported.
»

According to him, results of an experiment open the new direction of the researches connected with influence of religion on physiology and also will help to develop effective techniques of treatment of alcoholism and other diseases.[9]

Creation of Siemens software for fast MRT

In March, 2016 the Siemens Healthcare company submitted the new software capable to accelerate performing magnetic resonance imaging in neurology. Read more here.

Accumulation of gadolinium in a brain at MRT

At the beginning of 2016 in Europe began to discuss actively a negative impact of gadolinium when using in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is supposed that this rare-earth metal can collect in tissues of a brain and to become the reason of serious diseases. In more detail about a problem here.

Notes