Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) Radio Frequency Identification (RFI)
Technology of unique identification of physical entities using radio tags. The radio tag comprises the microchip which stores a unique identifier and also the antenna capable to transfer this information to special radio readers. This technology optimizes capability of the company to provide to clients extensive information on any product thanks to installation of tags on each product and to tracking of a route of its movement. It allows to manage effectively warehouse stocks up to a single product.
In the industry the first users of RFID technology appeared only in the mid-fifties, during active discussion of this subject in scientific community. The limited number of solutions was at that time connected with the high cost and a krupnomasshtabnost of the equipment. the 70th years were characterized by active development of various modifications of RFID systems for application in logistics, libraries, the systems of identification of animals, transport, etc. In 80th and 90th there was an active development of passive tags and expansion of fields of their application.
At the beginning of 21st a century giant retail as Walmart, Target, Metro begins to be applied by RFID actively in retail trade and logistics such. Some state bodies, for example, the U.S. Department of Defense at the same time began to advance this technology among the suppliers. Growth of interest in technology was an incitement for formation of the organization which de facto is the developer of standards for RFID technology – EPCGlobal. And from this point the RFID technology began to win the market gradually.
RFID is the advanced solution in issues of automation of production and logistic business processes as the most effective instrument of obtaining information. On the basis of RFID supply chains are built now and there is a traffic control of appliances directly in the territory of production and warehouse complexes.
RFID is extremely interesting also to the state as the instrument of control and protection against a counterfeit, and to the private sector where RFID allows to lower sharply logistic costs and to increase efficiency of productions of different goods.
The system of total control of a goods turnover in Russia
Main article State information system of goods marking
The national standard on unique identification of RFID tags
The order of Federal Agency for Technical Regulation of Metrology No. of 56 St of 4/26/2011 approves the national standard of the Russian Federation by GOST P ISO/IEC 15963-2011 "Information technologies. Radio frequency identification for management of objects. Unique identification of radio-frequency tags" with Date of Introduction in action on January 1, 2012. The standard sets requirements to structure of identifiers which are stored radio-frequency tags, providing at the same time their unique identification. This standard can form a basis for development of regulating documents for specific applications in the field of radio frequency identification and is intended for developers and manufacturers of integrated microcircuits of radio-frequency tags and also for all users of technology of radio frequency identification. The standard is prepared by Association of automatic identification "Yuniskan/GS1 Rus".
Russian market of RFID
Market size in Sitronics company, one of his largest players in Russia, is estimated at 250 mln. dollars with the forecast of growth to 500 mln. dollars by 2015. However, this forecast will come true only if the corresponding plans of the government will be implemented — present rules of control of use of radio frequencies do not contribute to the bestrevozhny development of a RFID segment at all.
At the same time on a global scale contactless radio-frequency technologies get into more and more extensive spheres of economy — not only into logistics and retail as it was initial, but also in medicine, security, public transport, etc. The world market of RFID tags if to take different estimates into consideration, already exceeded 5 bln. dollars and grows at impressive rates — from about 15 to 25% for the last three-five years (besides, according to the different analytical agencies).
Exact analytics and prognostics of this market segment are complicated by the fact that he on himself is rather extensive. Specific implementations of RFID technology exists much, as well as the fields of its application; moreover, its penetration into new market niches in many respects is defined by state policy of these or those countries. At least, in Russia means of radio frequency identification got to 'The list of the technology platforms offered for the statement of Government Commission on High Technology and Innovation' as one of the priority directions of technology development of the country which is recently published by the Ministry of Economic Development.
Despite the long history of development of RFID technology, its implementation in Russia is on initial stage to this day. Active promotion of technology in the domestic market began in 2005-2006 when the companies integrators began not only to propose solutions based on RFID, but also to conduct active marketing policy on their promotion: publications of articles, creation of the Internet portals, participation and organization of exhibitions and seminars. Despite increase in awareness of the consumer on technology, level of its implementation was lower, than expected producers and integrators. As a result, if to analyze activity of promotion of technology after 2006, then the following peak was observed only in 2012 when the companies consumers began to recover gradually from crisis and looked for new ways of improving competitiveness in the market.
It is rather difficult to estimate the volume of the Russian market of RFID technology as: first - unwillingness of manufacturing companies and integrators to share information in order to avoid the additional competition and, secondly - complexity in identification of the import equipment, in connection with the wide qualifier of the Commodity Nomenclature of Foreign Economic Activity codes which can be used when importing component parts and finished products for RFID systems. However, according to experts market size in 2012 exceeded indicators of 2010 for 45%.
Now (August, 2014 - the comment of TAdviser) in the market observes recession. A part planned to project implementation, is frozen till the best times so far.
Now in the domestic market there are several main types of the companies offering the RFID equipment: distributors (are not engaged directly in implementation of the equipment), integrators (are engaged in creation of complete solutions), producers (partly are engaged in implementation of the developed equipment). Today in Russia a large number of the foreign equipment is provided. To these there is no serial production of domestic UHF chips for tags (own design and development). By production of tags the Russian companies often use chips of the American company NXP. In 2015 one of the largest Russian companies which are engaged in production of products of RFID technology is going to start on production a full stroke from development of design of the UHF RFID chip before implementation of an end-to-end system on the customer's object. So far in the Russian market only chips of frequency range of HF are made.
By import consideration, It should be noted that the equipment of the American companies is the most popular in the Russian market. The European equipment is often more expensive owing to what buyers not always stop on it the choice. The Asian equipment is divided into two types: better and expensive - Hong Kong and South Korea and cheaper and often used for simple solutions - China. The Russian equipment is yet not so popular as foreign analogs.
Most the companies performing the activities for promotion of RFID technology are in Moscow and St. Petersburg. For expansion of geography of implementation distributors constantly provide regional training, lighting main advantages of use of RFID technology. As result growth of number of the companies integrators served in the cities: Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Krasnodar, Samara, Novosibirsk, Nizhny Novgorod.
The analysis of the existing situation in the market of RFID demonstrates that the most popular areas of implementation are logistics, production and access control. Also It should be noted pharmaceutics and the jewelry industry. Until recently one more successfully developing direction were libraries, implementation of RFID technology in which was supported by the state. Today state programs of financing in the field come to an end, decrease in interest of integrators and producers in this direction thereby is observed. According to opinion of experts, in the nearest future in the domestic market it will be possible to notice the following of "growth point" of RFID:
- mail. The Russian company RST-Invent together with FGUP Russian Post are going to start a pilot project on markings of mailings in such cities as Moscow, St. Petersburg, Nizhny Novgorod, Yekaterinburg, Rostov-on-Don and Novosibirsk in the nearest future.
- light industry. The government is going to mark all products of the easy industry in the territory of the Customs union. The pilot project on identification of fur products is going to start in 2015.
- war industry.
Despite vigorous activity of the companies of producers and integrators of RFID technology It should be noted that in the market there is a large number of the problems interfering its promotion:
- high cost of the equipment;
- the low level of the state support (providing the companies with market niches on sale);
- the low level of the technology base used at the enterprises of the consumer;
- shortage of the Russian standards;
- low awareness of consumers.
In 2015 in the Russian market renewed a vigorous marketing activity on promotion of technology: new articles began to be published in magazines, interest in technology at exhibitions increased.
However for large-scale promotion of technology of it it is not enough. If to review an example of our western colleagues, namely France and Germany which are some of the European countries of leaders in implementation of RFID should note that increase in interest in RFID technology from the consumer was connected first of all with the state support directed to providing market niches for implementation of technology and also with joint work of all players in the market for the purpose of promotion of technology, but not specifically product.
The western colleagues are positively configured for work with the Russian companies, and not only on sale of the products by them, but also on joint development of new solutions. However all of them note backwardness of the domestic market approximately for 7-10 years and emphasize initial stage of its development. This fact reminds of need to be verified with foreign experience, to study development approaches of the innovative solutions, to promotion. It will allow to expand quicker scopes of technology of radio frequency identification in Russia.
World market of RFID
2017: Data of IDTechEx: 11.2 billion dollars
According to IDTechEx research company the volume of international market of solutions based on technologies of radio frequency identification, RFID, is estimated at the end of 2017 in the amount of $11.2 billion. By 2022 it is predicted that it will reach $14.9 billion.
2016: Forecast: Sizes of the market of RFID by 2016 will exceed $3 billion
The research entitled by Chipless RFID Market (2011 - 2016) - Global Forecasts by Applications (2013), considers market prospects of RFID technologies in retail trade, aircraft, health care, on public transport and other segments in which technologies of smart cards are applied.
Analysts predicted future income from sale of RFID technologies in all main territories, including the USA, Europe, the Pacific Rim and other countries of the world.
As is declared in the report, the need for RFID technologies significantly increased thanks to their available cost, compatibility with the existing infrastructures worldwide, capabilities to work in any conditions, accuracy in work with data and simplicity.
Global market of RFID technologies, according to Markets & Markets, at the end of 2011 brought income in $1.087 billion. By 2016 it is expected that volumes of this market will reach $3.925 billion, at the same time the annual gain will make 29.3%.
The lion share of income is necessary on the market of the readers RFID which at the end of 2011 already brings not less than $417 million. In the next two years income from this market will be about $1.205 billion with an annual gain in 23.6%.
Beschipovy RFID technologies which size of the market will grow approximately for 83.5% a year will become the most fast-growing segment. By 2016 total income from them should be $375 million worldwide, analysts predict.
The greatest market share – 44% - is necessary to North America. Just the same market share will be separated among themselves by Europe and the Pacific Rim. In the last, however, the promptest gain of the market – approximately for 37% a year is expected.
The forecast for the market of RFID this week was published also by other analytical company – TechNavio. According to analysts, the annual average growth of the market of RFID technologies during the period till 2018 will be 22.4%.
Not the segment of smart cards will become the main sphere of use of RFID, however, and retail and logistics, the company believes.
The leading positions in the market of RFID will be taken by companies Alien Technology, Intermec, Impinj and NXP Semiconductor. RF Code, RFID4U, UPM raflatac and Zebra Technologies will become other vendors which successfully found the niche in the market of RFID tags Motorola Solutions.
2019: Forecast of Transparency Market Research of 2015
The sphere of use of RFID tags extends. So, the market of use of RFID tags for tracking and control of containers with the blood and medicines made of blood on all logistics chain quickly grows during exchange of similar products of transfusion and medical institutions between centers. Tags contain data on contents of a container and storage lives. Systems using RFID allow to increase efficiency of workflow, to optimize exchange of accounting information and to increase security for patients.
The Transparency Market Research company counted that till 2019 the world market of means of RFID for tracking of containers with blood (RFID Blood Monitoring Systems Market) will grow with a speed of 22.8% a year and will reach the volume of $174.2 million by 2019. Key players of this market, according to Transparency Market Research, – Biolog ID, Terso Solutions and Magellan technologies companies.
It is noted that now many systems for tracking of blood and products from blood use barcoding.
According to experts the total indicator of quantity of the sold tags from 1943 to 2014 was 26 billion pieces, and 25 billion from them passive. During this time control and management systems for access (ACS), retail, tickets (table 1) enjoyed the greatest popularity of RFID of a tag in such directions as.
Quantity of tags (one million pieces)
LF, active tags
Source: report of IDTechEx company
According to the report of IDTechEx company for 2014, the total amount of the market of RFID will be $8.89 billion in comparison with $7.7 billion in 2013 and $6.96 billion in 2012. This indicator includes indicators on the markets of tags, readers and the software and also other additional hardware. According to forecasts in 2024 the market will grow to $27.3 billion.
The most popular on is the direction on marking of clothes, (3 billion tags in 2014 are implemented), solutions for transport are in the second place (700 million tags in 2014). Identification of animals (for example, pigs, sheep and other pets) also becomes now more and more relevant. The procedure is legislatively necessary in a number of the countries (China, Australia). Thus about 425 million tags are annually used for this sector. In total in 2014 6.9 billion tags in comparison with 5.8 billion in 2013 will be sold. The most part of this growth will be made by superhigh-frequency passive tags (UHF range) which on sales volume in 2014 will exceed a total indicator of sales of 2012 of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) tags. Nevertheless in 2013 the sales volume of UHF of tags in value term was only 11% of the sales volume of HF of tags.
Analyzing distribution of volume of consumption of the market in value term, it is visible - the greatest number of means in this technology now (August, 2014 - comments of TAdviser) put in the field of finance and security where HF chips are used generally. (see fig. 1).
Fig. 1 Distribution of volume of consumption of RFID systems in value term (2014)
According to forecasts, in 2024 the situation will change a little and retail will be the most perspective direction for sales that, most likely will cause the consumption growth of UHF tags. (see fig. 2).
The fig. 2 Distribution of Volume of Consumption of RFID Systems in value term (2024)
As the J'son & Partners Consulting company believes, for 2014 the world market of RFID technologies grew by 14.5% to $11.1 billion. In a year in the world about 6.9 billion RFID tags were implemented.
RFID (engl. Radio Frequency IDentification, radio frequency identification) is a method of automatic identification of objects in which by means of radio signals the data which are stored in so-called transponders, or RFID tags are read out or register. Any RFID system consists of the reader device (the reader, the reader or an interrogator) and the transponder (it the RFID tag, sometimes is also applied the term the RFID tag).
The majority of RFID tags consists of two parts. The first — the integrated circuit (IC) for storage and information processing, modulation and demodulation of a radio-frequency (RF) signal and some other functions. The second — the antenna for acceptance and signal transmission.
A number of problems is connected with introduction of RFID tags to everyday life. For example, the consumers who do not have readers can not always detect the tags attached to goods at a production phase and packagings and to get rid of them. Though at sale, as a rule, such tags are destroyed, the fact of their existence causes concerns to the human rights and religious organizations.
As envisioned by developers of technology, on an object for its control or accounting the RFID tag with unique information fastens and allows to identify an object to which it is attached. This tag transmits information on "the" object in the computer database wirelessly that gives the chance in real time to trace its status. For the first time tags of RFID began to fix on baggage at the airports. But already the first experience of practical application showed bottlenecks of this technology: it turned out that on long runs more than a half of tags managed to degauss.
Restriction for use of RFID is also metal packaging and liquids which do not allow to guarantee quality of data reading from a tag.
Already known RFID applications (contactless smart cards in control systems of access control and in payment systems) receive additional popularity with development of Internet services.
The main advantages of RFID technology are:
- Possibility of unique identification of an object;
- Reading of a tag without direct visibility;
- Possibility of instant reading of a large number of tags;
- The volume of the data stored on a tag can reach several megabytes and be updated in real time.
Market development of means of radio frequency identification (RFID) restrains three objective factors: the cost of tags, difficulties with reading on different objects and also insufficient development of IT infrastructure – outputs of analysts of ID Expert are like that. Determination of the key directions of development of the solutions RFID became a research purpose, carried out by this information resource, in the near future. Most of respondents as such directions call warehouse logistics, transport logistics and control systems of access.
As experts emphasize, now most the companies has no tough need of transition from barcoding to RFID technology. Its use can give certain conveniences and advantages, however not everyone is ready for these advantages to pay.
Pioneers of implementation of RFID are those for whom are crucial information processing rate, - they are ready to pay for it the tag price. Already quite created RFID direction are a security system and access control and also fixed asset accounting. In this sphere development not less than for 10-20% a year is expected. Organization Universiady-2013, Olympic Games-2014 and the soccer-2018 World Cup can give a serious impulse of this industry.
RFID tags, unlike a barcode, are almost unreal to be forged. Therefore in the next years it is possible to expect the explosive growth of their application in the field of protection of goods against counterfeits: marking of drugs, alcoholic excise stamps and documents. Nevertheless, the most capacious and potentially interesting niche to players is retail. Implementation of RFID in hypermarkets will allow to reduce losses, to improve accounting and, the main thing, to eliminate queues, having accelerated processing of purchases.
The serious economic case of use of technology in this or that industry – often it unevident, if at all perhaps is necessary. Therefore before making the decision on implementation of RFID, the companies should be ready to carrying out preliminary researches. Often they show inexpediency of use of technology for a specific objective.
The enterprises where operational accounting of property is not automated, often face problems when accounting assets and carrying out inventory. Manual accounting of receipt, search, issue, movement and write-off of objects and also manual entry of information on them in the database are fraught with errors and force responsibles to live in tension 'from inventory before inventory'.
The question of the automated accounting and inventory of property (furniture, the computer park, telephone exchanges, office equipment, etc.) and also a maintenance and repair of the equipment is equally relevant practically for any enterprise if the quantity of the considered objects exceeds several thousands. At the same time using technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) it is possible to accelerate time of carrying out the inventory, reconciliation and search of the necessary objects in tens of times, to provide accuracy of the data and transparency of fixed asset accounting.
At all visible advantages of RFID technology in our country it did not become the standard de facto yet. Though potential customers show great interest to this technology, many of them save care in its mastering. As a result, public declarations of project completion based on RFID are quite rare.
Economic effect of system implementation
- Quality control at all production phases, reducing defects percent.
- Reducing costs of personnel. Control of technology processes on all sections will be exercised by a RFID system automatically, having excluded a human factor.
- Effective management of all nodes of a logistics chain.
- Minimization of costs for operational accounting.
Scopes of RFID
The system of barcoding of goods which is still widely applied around the world not bad proves in the retail trade and other service industries aimed at interaction with the end buyer (especially in new, two-dimensional, its incarnation). And here for fast processing of a significant amount of goods in warehouses, for accounting and control of movements of objects in adverse environments (in the conditions of impurity and the increased humidity), for multiple identification of units of storage barcodes are already not so good. Their unconditional advantage — ischezayushche small cost, but in logistic, medical and other serious scopes it remains nearly only.
Contactless radio tags, on the other hand, manage in very noticeable amounts — a little (to ten) cents of the USA apiece even at multimillion order amounts. The equipment for their reading is also expensive; besides it is necessary to make sure every time that it corresponds to the restrictions imposed by official bodies of this or that country. For example, in Russia any use of the radio equipment in VHF range (in which just and readers of radio tags work) with power more than 0.1 W whereas the typical power of the stationary RFID reader — 2 W, and figurative — 0.5 W is not allowed.
However advantages of this technology often outweigh and conceal all shortcomings inherent in it. The algorithm of anti-collisions which is specially provided by the RFID standards allows to read out (and it is sure) many tens of tags at once, processing, for example, for one pass by the warehouse stationary reader I kiss a paletta with goods. As there is no need for direct visibility of a RFID tag (unlike the barcode), it is not necessary to develop in a special way the object bearing a tag, and the tag can be placed in the depth of packaging that increases its protection against adverse external effects.
The main difference between the Russian and western experience of implementation of RFID (except that Russia began to apply technology later) is the fact that in our country the culture of risks assessment and losses is much more weakly developed. The losses caused by poor control of business in the West are estimated, and the reasons of their emergence are established and eliminated. At us still treat such losses as to 'a God's penalty' which it is impossible neither to expect nor to prevent even if similar losses arise with enviable constancy. Because of it it is very difficult to estimate cost efficiency of RFID projects which generally offer decrease in level of errors. The enterprise does not know how many it loses, and, therefore, cannot estimate, how effectively RFID can reduce these costs.
Nevertheless serious interest in RFID is shown by the large retail companies, producers and sellers of clothes, footwear, furniture and medicines. Also considerable market share is occupied by projects of automation of libraries and archives. Full-scale use of this technology in the field of retail will become the next big stride of market development of RFID. It can occur in two-three years.
Additional incentive to try advanced technology of RFID with the possible costs, minimum for itself from the point of view of potential customers the fact that the solution on fixed asset accounting is aimed at automation of internal processes of the enterprise is. Even if when commissioning a new system there will also be any failures or pads, they will hardly lead to a stop of all enterprise and considerable costs unlike violations in the normal course of the processes connected, for example, with industrial automation or external logistics.
Analysis of possible scopes of RFID technology
The technology of radio frequency identification (RFID) enjoys popularity as from her producers, and consumers recently. Solutions on the basis of its use gradually extend in all the new directions. For assessment of its prospects among consumers the European scientists conducted a research among 55 companies from the different European Union countries which are engaged in various types of business activity. Based on this research it was revealed that 79% from the polled companies already invested in the projects based on RFID technology which remained 21% are going to make it in the next 1-3 years. In fig. 1 percentage distribution of extent of implementation of the RFID project depending on the purpose pursued by the consumer is provided. As it is possible to notice, implementation most actively happens now to the purpose of tracking of movement (ACS system) and also for simplification of control of company assets. In comparison with 2011 in 2014 these indicators in all directions on average increased twice. As the most demanded directions of implementation of RFID technology in Europe are considered: retail (17%), logistics (15.1%), production (15.1%). The fields of medicine and power make 11.3% and 7.5% .
At implementation of technology of 73.6% of respondents expect rather fast payback of the investments. The following areas of implementation are considered the paid most back in Europe: war industry, retail (clothes), production and medicine. However producers complain that 25% of primary requests for RFID solutions nevertheless are not implemented for the different reasons, for example, high cost of the equipment, complexity of embedding in the existing technology process, uncertainty of the consumer in further development of RFID technology. Unfortunately, in Russia this indicator reaches 75% that has an adverse effect on the rate of development of technology, but demonstrates existence of interest in it. So often, addressing to the company on implementation of RFID, the consumer up to the end cannot define for himself need of this technology. The purpose of article is representation of the directions of implementation of RFID technology and also fields of activity of the company most popular today for its implementation. The table describing the main areas of implementation of RFID technology, the direction, the frequency responses requested most often system parameters and also the main players who are engaged in implementation of solutions in the Russian market is given below.
A RFID system for industrial automation
Implementation of RFID systems – one their most demanded directions in automation of production processes at the enterprises. Use of RFID technologies allows to influence in a complex intra production processes therefore qualitative results of work of the enterprise are achieved.
What opportunities does use of a RFID system give? Tasks
- Control systems of a production cycle on pipelines (jit/jis). The tag is used as the electronic passport of an object and transactions;
- Logistics of trade inventories, accounting of the used raw materials. The objects marked by tags are considered at any movements;
- Personification of transactions on the pipeline. In a tag it is possible to enter data on the one who worked with the marked object;
- Cost optimization from idle time, monitoring of the actual terms of production. Observation system behind a production line in real time;
- Control of use of counterfeit component parts. Protection of reputation in the situations caused by use not of original component parts;
- Optimization of warehouse economy; Explain?
- Implementation of the principles of FIFO ( First In, First Out — "the first came — the first left").
Processings of transfer baggage
RFID will help to save the aviaindustries more than $3 billion
In the middle of October, 2016 in Dubai on the world symposium of IATA World Passenger the joint program of SITA company and International Air Transport Association (IATA) – SITA/IATA Business Case according to which application of radio tags will lead to reduction of quantity of the lost baggage by 25% till 2022 was published.
One of basic reasons of loss and untimely delivery of baggage is the error at accomplishment of connection flights. The RFID technology allows to improve quality of processing of transfer baggage and to reduce quantity of errors. With its help the airports, airlines and the enterprises of land service will be able reliably to trace baggage at all stages of transportation. The radio-frequency technology of identification conforms to requirements of the Resolution of IATA 753 which becomes effective in 2018 and orders to airlines to trace each unit of baggage from the moment of registration and to a terminal point of delivery along all route of transportation.
Systems based on RFID technology will be integrated into intelligent systems of management and processing of baggage which use already helped airlines to save considerably. According to the annual report of SITA company on quality of processing of baggage on air SITA Baggage Report 2016 transport, the luggage systems helped to reduce quantity of errors by 50% in comparison with 2007 when the record number of incorrectly processed baggage (46.9 million units) was recorded. Thanks to the reduction of quantity of errors reached even despite high growth rates of a passenger traffic, the general economy of the world aviaindustry for this period made $22.4 billion.
The experience of use of technology of radio frequency identification got by Delta Air Lines shows that RFID tags allow to trace 99% of baggage correctly.
The area director of luggage transactions of Delta Air Lines David Hosford told: "We invest in RFID systems for the purpose of further improvement of quality of processing of baggage and increase in the service level of passengers. Use of this technology gives us the additional information about baggage and its location at all stages of transportation".
According to calculations of SITA and IATA, upgrade of processing systems of baggage will not involve big finance costs. At the cost of installation of the RFID systems on average of $0.1 at the rate on one passenger, the expected economy makes more than $0.2 for the passenger. Some large airlines and the airports already implemented RFID technology, at the same time it is completely compatible to the existing technology of barcoding therefore distribution of RFID at all airports will be profitable to airlines as will reduce costs and will increase service quality of passengers.
All calculations of SITA and IATA are based that the radio-frequency technology of tracking baggage will be implemented during 2016 - 2021 at 722 airports of the world servicing 95% of a world passenger traffic. The amount of economy of airlines is expected the seven-year period – from 2016 to 2022. At data collection for 2016 it was taken into account both already unrolled RFID infrastructure and which is just created.
Logistics and supply chains
RFID is applied in a supply chain of goods to increase efficiency of transactions and to reduce quantity of possible errors. For example, the big industrial enterprise locates tens of the containers necessary for delivery of materials on workshops. The built-in tags of RFID in the automatic mode make calculation of number of free and busy containers, it is possible to trace all stages of movement and participation of containers in technology processes. Data on use of containers can is stored on the tag or in databases of the organization. The territory of movement of containers, as well as information on use of containers, is not limited: it can be, both enterprise platforms, and the different countries customers of products. The company can also punish partners for failure of term of return of containers.
If the profile of the enterprise is connected with release of the complex products requiring assembly, then the RFID technology helps with identification of the nodes and parts which are in different workshops. The unique protected tags allow to number identical parts not to mix what of them and when it has to be involved.
RFID tags can be used for preventive maintenance of the equipment. For example, in December, 2016 the Russian State Research Institute of the aviation systems (GOSNIIAS) announced developed electronic RFID chips for an aircraft equipment and mechanisms of the Russian airplanes.
Use of such tags solves several problems at once:
- Control of technical condition of machines;
- Timely replacement of the failed parts;
- Reduction in cost of service of airplanes;
- Minimization of possible use of counterfeit parts.
RFID tags tested in the fall of 2016 by the airplane of the United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) which is used as the flying laboratory. Such tags do not require a power supply, legally they are considered as a normal sticker, reported in GOSNIIAS.
As for the aviation industry in general, use of RFID at the airports will allow to cut down expenses in the next seven years for $3 billion. The results of the research SITA and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) provided in November, 2016 are like that. So, till 2022 using the RFID airports will be able to reduce quantity of the lost baggage by a quarter.
Organization of mass actions
RFID tags are used in bracelets for an input and cashless payment of goods and services on platforms of actions. For example, at a festival of science and modern Maker Faire New York technologies, at the moments of a peak input 30 people with bracelets of RFID were scanned that allowed to reduce queues. The technology is capable to make 120 scannings a minute.
The RFID technology is more exact, than scanners of barcodes, and identifies participants 10 times quicker. RFID also simplifies access to several zones in an event – from VIP-platforms to the scenes.
Organizers also gain complete idea of routes of movement of participants, reveal bottlenecks, for example, a lack of dry closets on the platform, remoteness of mobile cafes from the main flow of public.
In a RFID tag it is possible to write also payment information to pay purchases in one contact. It allows to secure visitors against thefts or loss of purses. Experts counted that fans can spend up to 20% more if you pay with a bracelet, than cash.
In Russia the RFID technology was used for the electronic passport of the fan (FAN ID) of the Cup of Confederations-2017. FAN ID is supplied with a RFID tag and conforms to international standards. With such document it is possible to pass on stadiums, to pay travel by public transport, etc.
Social integration and marketing
Visitors in electronic bracelets of RFID can set the profiles on social networks, configure automatic tweets or messages on Facebook. All that is necessary - it are to carry out by a bracelet or an icon, for example, near a special rack. Having touched an object, the user tells audience of social networks that a certain place had he or loves the goods which are on sale in this place.
The example of the New York marathon is indicative. Friends and family members could write messages of support for participants. The RFID element was attached to boots of each participant. At the passings of a certain section of the message which are earlier left support group were started on big screens to encourage participants. Several hundreds of people left to marathoners from 17 countries of the world.
The Budweiser company producing beer implemented RFID chips in a bottom of specially developed beer cups of Budweiser Buddy CUP. It helped users to simplify social communications. "Having knocked" by glasses, LED indicators blinked that meant the beginning of the friendly relations on Facebook. The campaign was started in Brazil by Agencia Africa and was available in bars through the whole country.
Tracking of movement of objects on workshops or on warehouses is rather relevant task. For tracking of movement of objects across the territory we recommend application of superhigh-frequency UHF tags. It is possible to apply both one tag, and group of tags to accounting of movement. At the same time also other approach when the group of goods can be identified one tag is possible.
Advantages of use of RFID technologies in warehouses:
- Organization of effective accounting of Inventory items;
- Control of movement of products on a warehouse;
- Considerable reduction of human errors at a complete set of orders;
- Prevention of plunders;
- Reduction of personnel and other housekeeping overheads of a warehouse.
Carrying out inventory
RFID helps to trace goods on all supply chain. Thanks to the system of the inventory providing data on all business units, owners of the enterprises receive really effective tool. Pocket RFID сканнеры simplify a task of accounting of goods and materials.
For example, RFID is used for inventory of expensive construction materials or tools of whom the most part of expenses, as a rule, are the share at construction of buildings. Possibilities of tracking depend on the level of complexity of the systems of tracking by tools and materials. Systems can distinguish employees who used material values, usage time and return on a warehouse.
Also RFID found application in management of a uniform of employees. As a rule, large retail chain stores involve thousands of forms. RFID tags help to monitor return of a uniform, the number of washings, to identify the lost clothes, etc.
The museums use RFID to ensure safety of exhibits. Individual tags are applied on exhibits, are read out by the scanner later and displayed in the database. Information in tags can tell about belonging of exhibits to this or that museum, authenticity, to protect from theft if a special framework at the exit from special premises is set. The similar functionality is implemented by libraries: RFID facilitates a problem of scanning of books as tags, unlike barcodes, can be schitana under several corners.
Also equip with tags of RFID balls for golf. It not only allows to find balls, but also to record result of a competition.
FIOP will teach to work cultural institutions with RFID tags
The fund of infrastructure and educational programs (FIOP) initiated at the beginning of 2017 the project within which the staff of cultural institutions, private collectors, representatives of security companies and IT companies will be able to learn to use modern technologies of radio frequency identification (RFID) for protection, accounting and control of movement of objects of art. The agreement on development of the program of advanced training was signed by the CEO of fund Andrey Svinarenko and Taras Kustov, the vice rector for additional education of the St. Petersburg state electrotechnical university (LETI).
In particular, fall of 2016 it was announced that the technology FIOP "Technology of Identification" engineering company will develop a RFID system for Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts (Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts).
Essential obstacle in a way of implementation of RFID technologies is the shortage of knowledge and competences of this area at the staff of cultural institutions. For elimination of deficit of this knowledge of the order of LETI fund together with Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts of A.S. Pushkin began creation of the educational program for those who should implement technologies of radio frequency identification (RFID) in cultural institutions, told in FIOP.
Listeners of the program will learn methods of digitization of data and managements of digital resources, automation of accounting of museum, library and archive stocks, learn how to protect museum objects from theft how to control storage conditions and transportation of exhibits how to monitor movements of visitors and to provide for them navigation in exhibition space.
It is planned that the first, pilot, the group into which about 100 people — heads of cultural institutions will enter, private collectors, representatives of the companies integrators, logistic and security companies, the staff of the museums, libraries and archives — will finish training in September, 2017.
Tracking of animals
Already long time is used by RFID in the USA and Europe for identification of the lost pets. Either implant to animals RFID, or put on a collar with a tag. If the pet is far from the house, then police officers can just scan the chip and find contact information of the owner.
Began to install to cows on dairy farms of Ekoniva company since 2017 RFID chips in an ear. Earlier bulky collars were for this purpose used. Chips will have the unique 15-unit code which cannot be reprogrammed or erased. Earlier, when using collars, it was necessary to use stationary scanners therefore livestock specialists had to write a part of data in a notepad, and then to transfer manually to computer systems. It is enough to take the mobile scanner with which it is possible to work directly in stalls. The livestock specialist brings the scanner to an ear of an animal, and then detailed data on a cow or a calf are displayed on the display of the mobile computer. Ear chips in comparison with those that are set in collars serve all life, but store less information.
In April, 2017 it became known that the federal law draft "About Responsible Treatment of Animals" provides several options of identification of pets: RFID, tattoo, etc. The special-purpose committee of the State Duma suggested to chipirovat only animals who constitute danger to the person, for example, of dogs of security breeds.
Identification of drones
The system of identification of small drones was provided in November, 2016 by experts of Federal State Unitary Enterprise ProtectionInfoTrans (ZIT). Will install an active RFID tag on the drone – the microtransponder with which information can be read out from distance in 300 meters. Special devices catch signals from a tag and identify owners. A system is tested.
Protection against counterfeits
For example, in December, 2016 it became known that legal turnover of fur coats in Russia grew three times. It became possible thanks to RFID tags. Marking of products from fur in the countries of EEU became obligatory since August, 2016. Market turnover from August to December grew to 22.5 billion rubles. Before implementation of tags experts noted that nearly 70% of such products are on sale illegally.
Representatives of the Eurasian Economic Commission (EEC) are going to extend use of RFID tags to vital drugs which cost exceeds 500 rubles. The Russian Ministry of Industry and Trade in January suggested to mark goods of light industry, including footwear from skin. Rosrybolovstvo suggests to enter obligatory marking on products from a salmon which poachers catch most often.
- State information system of goods marking
- System of accounting (marking) of tobacco products
- Monitoring of the movement of medicines
- TwinTag and TwinTag, Bookos (RFID)
Using technology of radio frequency identification problems of accurate accounting of jewelry are very effectively solved. The technology of RFID identification allows to perform precisely and quickly acceptance and shipment of goods, to accelerate process of inventory of products both in a warehouse, and in a trading floor and also to considerably lower time expenditure and labor input in the course of carrying out inventory.
The Access Control System (ACS) based on RFID
In the simplest cases where the high level of security is not required, and the budget selected for the organization of a system is small, for creation of SKD the EM Marine standard is used. All cards and readers of this standard work at frequency of 125 kHz, and they are set at most small and medium-sized enterprises. In addition to low cost such systems are attractive to the user also a variety of proposed solutions. At least, they allow to organize access control through one-two doors and as at most — to create modern network IP solutions with a scaling option. In such cases IP controllers (for example, Smartec, Perco, Parsec) which allow to connect to the general control system of access not only one local office, but also geographically distributed filial structure are used.
In general in the field of the ACS at implementation of RFID projects it is not necessary to face any particular problems. As for operation, it is initially necessary to find out here that degree of security of an object which the customer wants to achieve. For example, it is pretty easy to copy low-frequency RFID cards, but the bulk of users has neither special knowledge, nor the equipment allowing to make it. The ACS working at frequency of 13.56 MHz are already best of all protected from cracking, and those companies which want to achieve really high level of security on the objects can advise to use smart cards. Treat data encryption at exchange between the card and the reader their advantages and also presence at smart cards of the internal memory where it is possible to write identification keys and different applications.
Radio frequency identification in laundries
RFID identification in laundries and on textile productions repeatedly provides optimization of workflows. Researches show that after implementation of RFID growth of efficiency exceeds 20%.
For application in laundries special radio-frequency tags, the moisture-proof, resistant to high temperatures, combining rigidity and flexibility are used. It is mentioned that thanks to use of radio frequency identification of products the speed of processes of acceptance in washing, sortings, automatic drawing of accounts considerably increases, labor costs on search of the gone things and materials decrease.
Internet of Things
Every year more and more objects are issued with RFID – the identifier working at a radio frequency. The idea of this project is simple: equip all objects produced by the person, the RFID chip and trace them by means of the scanners connected to the Internet. If this idea is completely embodied, it will open for itself a chasm of conveniences and opportunities of control.
RFID chips are a chip with data and the antenna. They can be active and work on the battery, and can be and completely passive and reflect radio waves from the scanning device. Today RFID chips are already used quite widely. For example, they are built in modern passports – both American, and foreign Russian. It facilitates passport control and prevents counterfeits of passports, but at the same time opens an opportunity to monitor movement of the person on all parts of the world.
Similar chips are also used in car tires. They serve for inventory and determination of low pressure in buses. Their code unambiguously corresponds to unique number VIN which is by each machine.
One more use of RFID chips in the USA – payment of driving through roads. Some (but not all) roads to the USA paid. So, for example, Highway I-95 laid along all east coast from Miami to the State of Maine, paid between Washington and New York. The payment is levied on sections, and in rush hours points of payment create on the road of a stopper if payment is made by cash. By many machines in the USA on a windshield the chip which number defines the amount on the account is installed. Scanners read out information from the chip on the run, and the machine does not need to stop. In some cities it is now the only way to pay driving through the road, cash is not accepted any more. Besides, the reverse side of it is movement of machines with such chips easily completely to trace.
RFID chips can also be implanted under a skin of pets – and if the canine friend was lost, in the chip it is easily possible to recognize its nickname and also a name and the owner's address by information.
In goods of huge retail network Wal-Mart there are also similar chips. By the way, this company was among the organizations financing the research Auto-ID Center developing Internet of Things. In 2003 this center was separated into two new organizations: Auto-ID Labs and EPCGlobal. The purpose of Auto-ID Labs consists in further development of so-called Electronic Product Code (EPC). It is the technology designed to replace the barcode used in trade and the industry. Research and development in this sphere is conducted in several countries – the USA, Great Britain, Japan, China, South Korea and Switzerland.
Development of this technology is connected with implementation of IPv6 Internet protocol. It differs from IPv4 in big space of the addresses. In IPv4 the address keeps within 32 bits, the addresses in the 6th protocol 128-bit. Thus, the protocol supports 2128 or 3.4×1038 addresses. These are about 5×1028 addresses on each inhabitant of the earth that more than it is enough to select the address for each of several thousand objects falling on the person.
Thus, there are no serious technical obstacles for creation of Internet of Things. The question rests against balance of benefits and undesirable effects and also costs. If the current trend remains, it is possible to expect that there will be standards and laws obliging to use them. It will also be a signal to gradual resettlement in Internet of Things in which each subject will be on accounting.
Classification of RFID tags
- On operating frequency
- On the power source
- As memory
- On 
On the power source
How to select the correct RFID system: step-by-step tutorial
RFID Journal issued the step-by-step tutorial for users at the choice of a RFID system. Save hundreds hours on a research of the existing RFID systems with this new management which tells about strong and weaknesses of the different Rfidtekhnology types and explains how to define what of them best of all meets your requirements.
- Edition: April, 2011
- Number of pages: 37
The choice of a proper system of automatic identification for the applications can result you in despondency, and some system integrators which try to sell to clients the solution, approaching it is very formal, also cannot help with this work. And here for the first time RFID Journal offers the management for the choice of the system corresponding to your requirements and explains professionally and systemically a difference of RFID solutions for different applications.
This report details many RFID types of technologies, including passive low-frequency (LF), high-frequency (HF) and ultra high-frequency (UHF) 433 MHz, 900 MHz and 2.4 GHz the active systems; ultra broadband (UWB); ZigBee; Wi-fi; and others. In addition, the book gives the description covering a broad spectrum of different hybrid tags including tags which combine RFID with the infrared radiation, GPS and sensors. This last management will help you to select the system, most suitable for work, on the bottom price.
Editors of RFIDJournal created this special report to help businesses to select RFID technology which can meet in the best way their requirements now and in the future. This management will carry out the companies through process of determination of their requirements and then, will help to bring into accord with these requirements of the requirement to a RFID system. This book provides with the detailed information concerning characteristics of performance, standards, strong and weaknesses and the general applications for each type passive, active and RFID systems.
The report cannot finally define the correct RFID system for special needs of the company, but this management will help with the choice of exact options for a system. Our purpose – to reduce the customer's time spent for studying of the corresponding systems and to provide with information which is necessary for the choice of the system integrator and, perhaps of equipment supplier and the software (the good system integrator will help with selection process of technology).
From the systems of shaped coding to RFID in the system of the retail supplies
The technology of radio frequency identification is, probably, the most fashionable trend in goods marking. RFID in trade is applied as the tool of the analysis of movement of goods and offers all new prospects created by a dream of engineers and technologists. The most obvious advantages - full control over merchandising, service quality improvement, minimization of errors and protection against thefts. What else opportunities will be opened by implementation of RFID, will show time. At the western retailers experience of use of radio-frequency tags is already acquired, the first ambitious RFID projects and in Russia are started. What opportunities are opened by use of the RFID system in a trading floor of shop, in a warehouse and the distribution center? What equipment is necessary for the organization of process of purchase of goods with RFID tags in a trading floor? What should the distribution center or a warehouse for implementation and use of a RFID system be equipped with?
Task of IT specialists of the company when choosing RFID is integration of technology with system management of deliveries (SCM), customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP), i.e. with all system in general. Besides, IT specialists need to acquaint sales managers with the mechanism of work and advantages of use of RFID technologies. The main problem of implementation of new technology consists that to lay the bridge between the closed systems existing and which are actively used in the market today and the extending role of new technologies in completely integrated open systems including perfectly picked up devices and IT infrastructure, not so simply. On the other hand, retailers need to manage not only a goods turnover at the enterprise, but also the range of the used retail store equipment to optimize and increase profitability of the enterprise. Purchasing managers need to deal with real data not to sustain losses. Besides, for any enterprise the situation when the necessary goods are unavailable in a warehouse, is simply inadmissible and forces the retailer to address other supplier. The RFID technology gives an opportunity to avoid similar errors to specialists and provides unobstructed and exact sight of goods in all system of the retail supplies.
The idea of automation of retailers far is not new any more. Shaped coding became the most popular technology of automation from the moment of emergence and implementation on the market of a retail store equipment. Use of a barcode at the enterprises of absolutely different industries promoted the performance improvement and, as a result, profitability of any organization due to decrease in quantity of errors and time spent for accomplishment of the tasks connected with a goods turnover. Today barcodes began to meet practically everywhere. Being modified and developing over time, this technology allows to monitor today already all production processes, distribution channels, deliveries and retail sales. The value of shaped coding is defined by both popularity, and the number of users.
The RFID technology has great opportunities in comparison with the system of shaped coding: coding of bigger amount of data, a possibility of change and rewriting of information, identification of objects without direct contact and out of a visibility range, including moving, impossibility of counterfeit. Despite certain benefits which are received by the enterprise when using RFID technology it is necessary to be ready and to monetary investments as not only RFID labels, but also special readers and printers, an ERP system are necessary for full integration into the trading system of new technology. You should not forget also about increase in operating capabilities of a system. Such full implementation will allow to provide a read and write of bigger amount of information.
The primary branch of use of RFID technologies is, of course, a logistics and warehouse complexes. Sharing of shaped coding and RFID technologies can have significant effect on producers, distributors and retailers. As soon as new technologies are completely integrated into already existing automation systems and will gain popularity and trust of end users, RFID will be able to become reliable addition to already existing systems and will help to cope where shaped coding is inconvenient.
Physical principles of work of technology of radio frequency identification
- ↑ What future waits for RFID technology in Russia?
- ↑ the sootvetstvennopolny version of article is published in the Tekhnologii Zashchity magazine (No. 2, 2015)
- ↑ Nine scenarios for RFID
- ↑ 
- ↑ 5,0 5,1 sistemsandip Lahiri. RFID. The guide to implementation = The RFID Sourcebook / Dudnikov S. — Moscow: Kudits-Press, 2007. — 312 pages are ISBN 5-91136-025-X Chapter 1, the paragraph 1.2.1 "Tag" and its subparagraphs
- ↑ ispolneniyuklaus Finkentseller, the Reference book on RFID, 2008, 496 p, it is illustrated, ISBN 978-5-94120-151-8, Dodeka-XXI Publishing house, 2008