Economy and Labour market in Russia
Small and medium entrepreneurship of the Russian Federation
Activity of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia is regulated by the Federal law 209-FZ adopted on July 24, 2007 "About development of a small and medium entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation" in which criteria of reference of the enterprise to a small entrepreneurship are specified].
The consumer cooperatives and the commercial organizations entered to the Unified State Register of Legal Entities (except for state and municipal unitary enterprises) and also the individuals entered to the Unified State Register of Private Entrepreneurs and performing business activity without formation of legal entity (further — individual entrepreneurs), the peasant farms corresponding to the listed below conditions treat small and medium-sized businesses.
Restriction on the status
For legal entities — total share of the Russian Federation, territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, municipal entities, foreign legal entities, foreign citizens, the public and religious organizations (associations), charitable and other foundations in the authorized (stacked) capital (share fund) of the specified legal entities should not exceed twenty five percent (except for assets of joint-stock investment funds and closed-end investment funds), the share belonging to one or several legal entities who are not small and medium-sized businesses should not exceed 49% (this restriction does not extend to business entities which activity consists in practical application (implementation) of results of intellectual activity (programs for electronic computers, databases, inventions, useful models, industrial samples, selection achievements, topology of integrated microcircuits, know-how (know-how)), the exclusive rights to which belong to founders (participants) of such business entities — to budget scientific institutions or scientific institutions or budget educational institutions of higher education or educational institutions of higher education created by the state academies of Sciences created by the state academies of Sciences).
(Paragraph 1 of Part 1 of Article 4,209-FZ "About Development of a Small and Medium Entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation").
Restriction on the number of workers
Depending on the average number of workers for calendar year of the enterprise are subdivided on :
- the microenterprises — up to 15 workers;
- small enterprises — up to 100 workers inclusive;
- medium-sized enterprises — from 101 to 250 workers inclusive.
Restriction on revenue
Since April 4, 2016 according to the Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 4, 2016 N 265 "About extreme values of income gained from implementation of business activity for each category of small and medium-sized businesses" extreme values of income gained from the implementation of business activity for the previous calendar year defined in the order set by the legislation of the Russian Federation on taxes and fees, which is summed up on all performed types of activity and applied on all tax modes for the following categories of small and medium-sized businesses:
- the microenterprises — 120 million rubles;
- small enterprises — 800 million rubles;
- medium-sized enterprises — 2 billion rubles.
Crediting of a small entrepreneurship
Raiffeisenbank: small business is going to recover turnovers until the end of the year
On June 9, 2020 it became known that according to survey of owners of the companies conducted by Raiffeisenbank, most of entrepreneurs of small and micro business expect to recover turnovers of the projects until the end of 2020. As support measures they wait for preferential rates on lease of premises and decrease in bureaucratic loading. During a quarantine of 40% of respondents could transfer many processes and employees to online, and it helped to save business. However after lifting of restrictions of 65% of entrepreneurs want to return to usual life and to recover work offline.
As it was reported, the restrictions connected with spread of a coronavirus did not concern only a third of small enterprises. Another 2% could even increase pace and increase the customer base. The majority — 65% — faced losses or other negative events.
Transfer of employees and processes to online became the main means to save and support business, in whole or in part — 40% of respondents so answered. 16% looked for the projects relevant at the time of the quarantine, and delivered core business on a pause. Another 13% laid off employees. 29% noted that in their business practically nothing changed – restrictions them either did not concern, or worked short time.
|The digital format is applied in the most unexpected segments now — for example, the online school of soccer appeared. Much had to develop these canals from scratch, self-isolation forced process. For June, 2020 practically everyone can impose simple landing through the designer, configure targeted advertizing on the Internet, build in payment by the QR code on the website and save so on acquiring. The quarantine changed also our priorities: for example, we in bank long thought making call center remote, and because of restrictions for several weeks transferred it to such format. Same concerns also other tasks: for June, 2020 we implemented formation of the declaration in online accounting and free shipping of references and statements that clients more rare left the house. Market conditions change a vector of development of many companies, and it concerns services first of all.|
Denis Skokov, the chief of the department on work with small business of Raiffeisenbank told
The top of processes which entrepreneurs could transfer to online was made: exchange of documents with bank and other partners, accounting, exchange of documents with tax and interaction with other state agencies.
Every fifth entrepreneur would like to refuse lease of office in the conditions of restrictions, however could not agree with the lessor. 60% reserved premises in full. Another 12.5% refused office completely and are not going to return. And 7.5% of respondents temporarily do not rent the premises — furniture and the equipment for June, 2020 are in a warehouse.
Without "the influence lever", i.e. an early withdrawal from a treaty or end of terms and terms of the contract, it is difficult to tenant to receive a discount, Natalya Nikitina, the partner, the Head of Department of office real estate of Cushman & Wakefield considers. According to the company, owners of offices of class B and lessors of the small areas in class A allow discounts for isolation time unlike owners of office real estate of class A more willingly.
|They most often meet halfway if the client has such lever, i.e., for example, the lease agreement will shortly end or if the client has a possibility of an early exit. The reasons by which owners are guided for June, 2020 it is their debt load and obligations to bank.|
Natalya Nikitina, the partner, the Head of Department of office real estate of Cushman & Wakefield explained
On this background demand for solution self-storage grew. As Mikhail Semyonov marked out, the CEO of service of warehouses with delivery of QB, since March, 2020 on storage a lot of furniture began to arrive, office equipment and other office utensils – the share of such orders grew by 30%.
|Somewhere we exported offices entirely, somewhere — several certain premises because the client moved to smaller space. But some clients after calculations understood that it is more profitable to their thing to sell, than to store several months of uncertainty.|
Mikhail Semyonov, service of warehouses with delivery of QB added
Most of the polled owners of business did not possess the credits for salaries and credit vacation. 57% of respondents do not want to re-structure the credit or to take vacation, being afraid to spoil credit history. Only 8% received a delay on credit payments. 34% said that they could not settle with banks the necessary terms. The credits for salaries are also necessary not to all: about 3% of respondents obtained such loan, 64% said that they manage by own efforts so far, and 33% for various reasons did not obtain a loan.
Most of all addresses arrive from borrowers from the industries most of which strongly suffered from the restrictive measures directed to control of a coronavirus, Yulia Yakupova, the leading analyst according to the bank ratings of the RAEX agency noted. These are such industries as non-grocery retail, activity of restaurants and cafe, tourism, hotel business, transport and transportations and also providing different services (beauty shops, dry-cleaners). Current limitations also had a negative impact and on borrowers who are engaged in construction and leasing of the real estate, the expert added.
|Credit vacation can receive only the companies from the affected industries, but turnovers decreased at all. Therefore also other mechanisms are necessary if suddenly by any formal criteria the company is not suitable for this program.|
Denis Skokov, the chief of the department on work with small business of Raiffeisenbank noted
According to the forecast of RAEX, entrepreneurs will continue to use an opportunity to re-structure the credit.
|On an economic recovery certain time will be required, at the same time borrowers took the credits proceeding from other expectations on a macroeconomic situation. Besides, the debts which collected during a pandemic will allow entrepreneurs to work not at a loss not soon to themselves therefore the possibility of reduction of the current payments on the credits will be demanded.|
Yulia Yakupova, the leading analyst according to the bank ratings of the RAEX agency told
Purchasing Managers' Index of small and medium business fell to the minimum values since 2014
These results of the monthly survey of entrepreneurs conducted Promsvyazbank together with Support of Russia and the Magram Market Research agency are like that reports RBC. If in January, 2020 the index reached value in 51.4 points, then in March it made 45, and in April – 38.5. This indicator – minimum for all the time of holding poll, i.e. since 2014.
Experts note that in April of the current year the number of the enterprises of small and medium business which dismissed a part of employees increased. Their share reached 35%, another 31% said that they plan staff reductions in the next quarter.
In March, 2020 the share of the companies which dismissed employees did not exceed 15%. Because of conducting restrictions against the background of spread of a koronavirusny infection began to fall demand and business activity slowed down. As a result heads of the enterprises began to send employees on unpaid leaves, to carry out dismissals.
Some kind of anti-record of the enterprise of small and medium business was shown in the field of sales. Revenue fell at 78% of respondents, further reduction of income expect 60% in the near future. At the same time drop in sales in a segment of small and medium business is noted since the end of 2019.
Most of all the microenterprises suffered from economic effects of a quarantine, among them falling was noted by 82% of respondents. In the sector of small and medium business falling was 74 and 75% respectively.
Amendments in 223-FZ will give self-employed opportunities for participation in state procurements
On March 26, 2020 the Moscow City Department of Competition Policy reported that changes in 223-FZ which will become effective on March 28, 2020 will allow self-employed citizens to participate in city biddings more actively. It was said by the Deputy Mayor of Moscow concerning economic policy and the land and property relations Vladimir Yefimov.
|The becoming effective amendments in 223-FZ will become an effective measure of support of the self-employed citizens wishing to participate in purchases. If earlier this category of entrepreneurs participated in purchases of state companies and state corporations in accordance with general practice, then now they are equated to small and medium-sized businesses and receive the corresponding preferences. Such step will allow to expand presence of self-employed citizens in the market of purchases, and, respectively, to increase number of the agreements signed with this category of suppliers,|
noted the vice-mayor
Among support measures which self-employed citizens after entry into force of changes will receive, the obligation of customers to perform a certain purchasing amount and also the fixed payment due date for the delivered products (no more than 15 working days from the moment of acceptance). For the end of March, 2020 amendments to the Administrative Code for violation by the customer of this term prepare.
|As access point to purchases of small volume self-employed citizens can use the portal of suppliers. On this Internet resource nearly 15 thousand individuals are registered for March, 2020. As practice shows, they are ready to render services in consulting, technical expertize, organization of events,|
added the Head of the Moscow Department for Competition Policy Ivan Scherbakov
Possibilities of the portal of suppliers are available for March, 2020 to users more than from 30 the Russian regions, the minister Governments of Moscow, the Head of Department emphasized information technologies Eduard Lysenko.
|As the uniform platform of purchases will give the Moscow Portal of suppliers to self-employed citizens, including inhabitants of other regions, an opportunity to get online and convenient access to the purchases which are carried out by the state organizations. The portal provides instruments of participation in procurement online and also an opportunity to configure a subscription for notifications on potentially interesting purchases and a large number of other convenient functions. The portal of suppliers dynamically develops, and we want to make it even more convenient for suppliers, including for self-employed citizens,|
noted Eduard Lysenko
Types of activity of small business in Russia
Raiffeisenbank  also found out core activities of the clients from small business what of them are most popular in Russia and whether there are features depending on the region or the specific city.
Raiffeisenbank services 120 thousand clients of small business in 43 cities with departments, and in more than 100 cities of Russia — remotely. And on all regions distribution of the industries in which our clients, about one and too work. In top-3 the most widespread industries across all Russia wholesale (22%), construction (15%) and retail (11%) got. The share of the companies which render transport services made 10% of the total number of clients. The real estate closes the five of the most popular types of activity, it was specified as the main RCEAP  5% of clients of Raiffeisenbank.
The interests of small business can differ after all depending on the region. For example, in Anapa the greatest share from all types of activity is occupied by catering establishments (OKVED 56.10) that is logical for the resort tourist city with a set of cafe and restaurants.
In Moscow, as well as in many regions, on the first place in popularity construction (OKVED 41.20), but second in share from all industries in the region occupy promotion services (OKVED 73.11). In one of regions advertizing is not included into the five of popular types of activity that allows to speak about concentration in Moscow of advertizing agencies.
In Belgorod, Zheleznogorsk, Oryol the leading place is taken by transportation of goods (OKVED 49.41) with more than 10% share from all industries in each region (Belgorod – 13%, Zheleznogorsk – 14%, Oryol – 10%). These regions the fact that cargo transportation occupies more than 45% from top-5 the most popular industries in the region, and in Zheleznogorsk even more than 50% are remarkable. It shows that this type of activity is much more popular than other of TOP 5 on the region.
IT industry did not gain the lead yet in one region of Russia, nevertheless it is possible to select five cities in which the companies which are engaged in development of the computer software (OKVED 62.01) enter at least in top-10. The first and second place is shared among themselves by Kazan and Oryol, IT in them takes the eighth position on a share from all industries in the region. They are followed by Moscow, Saratov and Tomsk (the 10th place).
"Pulse of small business": threat No. 1 is decrease in consumer capability of the population
Alfa-Bank provided the research "Pulse of Small Business" in December, 2019 , reflecting moods of entrepreneurs in the first half of 2019. At small business pessimism in the relation as current situation in economy (the index minus 73), and on a situation in home company amplified (minus 17). More negatively small business was configured only in crisis 2015.
However entrepreneurs save belief in the future — macroeconomic and market expectations for the first time in two years improved. As a result the general index of moods of small business in June, 2019 made minus 32 points, having remained at the level of the end of 2018.
- 86% of respondents consider that the current economic environment in the country slows down business development. 82% note decrease in consumer capability. More and more companies fix decrease in profit, the average check and number of clients.
- Reduction of consumer demand, tax burden (effect of increase in the VAT to 20% and also — indirectly — effect of obligatory implementation of online cash desks in small retail), competition aggravation for the client with the large companies — the main problems of small business. Representatives of retail and construction are most pessimistic.
- In 2019 small business had a new alarm — chipping / marking of clothes entered in top-5 the problems called by entrepreneurs.
- The main task of small business — customer retention. For this purpose entrepreneurs intend to increase quality of service, to expand a line of goods / services, to change pricing and formats of trade taking into account new requests of consumers.
- The number of respondents who perceive the state support as the driver of a small entrepreneurship was considerably reduced. The existing programs of support did not yield noticeable result, small business does not trust rhetoric of the state about decrease in load of business.
- Development of small business can be helped by decrease in tax burden, growth of consumer demand, mitigation of bank policy on financing of small business.
Threat No. 1 for small business is decrease in consumer capability and demand for goods / services. In 2019 the share of the entrepreneurs who called it the main problem sharply grew (48% against 37% at the end of 2018). Decrease in consumer capability comes to the forefront in the list of problems of small business. High tax burden disturbs 49% of respondents (this share did not exchange). On the third place — a lack of means for development (35%).
Increase in the VAT and deceleration of growth of the Russian economy (0.7% in annual terms in January-June, 2019) increased pessimism of entrepreneurs. The economic situation in general testifies to the low level of the aggregate demand in economy. Small business continues to work in adverse conditions of the external environment, and internal reserves of growth are almost exhausted.
The current economic environment in the country slows down business development, consider 86% of respondents, and will worsen in the next 6 months (52%). In the first half of 2019 consumer capability of the population in the country decreased (82% of respondents), and will continue to decrease (54%).
At the same time the share of those who expect improvement of a situation in the next half a year considerably grew. It is seasonal optimism — the second half of the year is traditional more actively, growth rates are stimulated in the second half of year with increase in budget expenses and also effect of decrease in a key interest rate of the Central Bank.
Nevertheless, more than a half of entrepreneurs still expect deterioration in a situation both in the industry, and over the country in general.
In an industry section the most pessimistic estimates are given by the representatives of retail and construction who are most sharply testing effects of decrease in demand, growth of tax burden and competition aggravation with large business. The smallest pessimism is noted in the IT sector. Increase in demand, stable throughout many years, for IT services, low specific weight of operating expenses, an opportunity to work with clients remotely and to be integrated on any market, tax benefits — all this allows the IT sector to be among the most perspective segments of small and medium business.
Describing a situation in home company, 53% of respondents recorded decrease in profit, 32% — reduction of the average check, 35% — reduction of number of clients.
Successful the business is considered by 21% of entrepreneurs – this share practically does not change for all history of measurements. A half of those who did not achieve success yet are ready to wait for no more than two years. At the same time the share of the confident in achievement planned business results is reduced (20% in 2019 against 23% at the end of 2018), and the share of persons interested to close or sell business grows (19% against 17% respectively).
Priorities for all industries are increase in profitability and customer acquisition. Against the background of low consumer capability, growth of tax burden and competition aggravation profitability of the companies decreases to critical level. Practically small business will be engaged in all spheres with increase in business performance and preserving of the customer base. Entrepreneurs intend to fight for clients first of all quality improvement of service and flexible pricing (payment with a payment deferral, reduction of prices, start of programs of loyalty).
In what industries which are most of all occupied in small and medium business
The number of the workers involved at the Russian enterprises of small and medium business on the middle of 2019, makes 18.3 million people, results of the research "Sberdannye" demonstrate. According to the experts, this sector provides 25.6% of jobs.
71% of the Russian entrepreneurs consider adverse conditions for business in Russia
On July 12, 2019 it became known that the All-Russian Public Opinion Research Center (ARPORC) provided data of poll of the Russian entrepreneurs on the modern conditions, factors and risks having an impact on business in the country and also on perspectives in this sphere. 71% of the Russian entrepreneurs consider that in Russia adverse conditions for business, and 51% - that in the next five years the situation will worsen. 80% of respondents answered that the state pays not enough attention to development of measures for support of entrepreneurs. Despite it, 76% at a possibility of the choice would prefer to have own case.
Only 15% of respondents consider that the state actively supports businessmen, 27% - that in the country for business good conditions and 20% - that these conditions will become even better further.
Among factors, worst of all influencing conditions for business, 81% of entrepreneurs called the low level of welfare of citizens, 72% - corruption, 71% - energy costs. 62% are dissatisfied with work of the judicial system and level of security of the owner, another 62% - legal regulation of an entrepreneurship, 63% - work of control supervisory authorities. Among positive factors for business of 47% called the competition in domestic market, 35% - stability of the power and domestic policy, 28% - availability of the credits.
Among the most probable risks of 72% called decrease in demand for products and services, 70% - increase in taxes, 64% - unpredictable changes of the legislation, 41% - emergence of problems with security officers, 25% - the probability of raider capture. 52% of respondents are afraid for own security against the background of imperfection of the judicial system and low interest of verdicts of not guilty. Least of all business is afraid of a default and destabilization of economy (20%) and changes of a political situation (22%).
10% of respondents called the best business plan the next three years - to contract case and to close the company. 33% of businessmen are going to support the business at the reached level, 26% consider correct to develop business with orientation to fast return, 23% prefer to invest in long-term development.
More than a half of respondents (51%) are skeptically configured concerning the future, and in five-year perspective expect deterioration in conditions for business. Implementation of long-term strategy is planned only by 23% of the Russian businessmen. In the closest three-year-old every third entrepreneur is going to support the business at the reached level, about the same (26%) are aimed at development with return in the short term. Another 10% think of closing of own business, 6% would like to sell it.
Representatives of large, medium and small business of the Russian Federation participated in poll. 500 respondents were polled. The maximum size of an error with the probability of 95 percent does not exceed 4.5 percent, specified in VCIOM.
Sberbank: Where the main long-livers of small and medium business in Russia work
- 64% of the MSP enterprises which actively worked in January, 2016 work and today.
- On average in Russia monthly there are 56 thousand new active businesses, and 28 thousand stop transactions.
- Probability that the enterprise will continue work is especially high after the first year of existence.
- Longer than others there live the MSP companies registered in the Far East.
- Main "long-livers" in small and medium business — in the medical sector and mining industry.
- On the most "active" businessman in Russia 167 companies operating now are registered.
Sberbank analyzed how many there lives small and medium business in Russia. According to analysts of the Sberdannye project (an initiative of Sberbank of processing and the analysis of Big Data), more than 70% of the companies live in the country three complete years and more. On average in the world about a half of the new small enterprises work up to 5 years, and a third – from 5 to 10 years. However in our country enormous dispersion of indicators depending on the region of registration and a field of activity.
Main "long-livers" in small and medium business, capable to work more than 3 years, are mentioned in both capitals and also on Kamchatka and Chukotka. At the same time the expected terms of life of the MSP enterprises maximum in the Far East (about 37 months on selection in 40 months). Analysts assume that at this boundary the European part lags behind as many will re-register the enterprises to avoid scheduled inspections. Thanks to specifics of the legislation the new companies face them less.
On the diagram of intensity of closing of businesses the splash in a wave of closings on reaching age in 36 months is well visible. As we analyzed selection of 40 months, there are no statistical data about the future of the enterprises yet. Most likely, process is quickly normalized. It is curious also that "death" of the companies abnormally often occurs before achievement of 6-month age. For the first half a year the market is left by 6.5% of the registered legal persons that is about one and a half times higher than regulation. Their considerable part probably phony companies.
The companies performing activity in the field of health care were the stablest (94 of 100 companies continue to work at the market more than three years). In top lines of rating — those directions where considerable capital investments are required: metallurgy, mining industry, power.
Less steady on the horizon of 36 months was a business in the field of land transport. For the first half of the year of activity 8.7% of the companies are closed, live only 58.4% up to age of three years that is 12 items lower than an average value on all RCEAP groups.
In the field of construction of 11.5% of the registered companies stop activity already within half a year. The similar situation is noted also in the non-bank financial sector, advertizing, the separate directions of retail.
However after closing of the legal entity Russians most often continue to do business. Nearly 20% of our fellow citizens who ever opened own case registered more than one legal person. 16% of active entrepreneurs — shareholders more than one enterprise, 1% have five companies more. By estimates of Sberdanny, participation of one person in 167 legal entities became at once a record, all of them work and today.
Rosstat for the first time opened a share of small and medium business in economy
The share of small and medium business in the Russian economy makes 21.9%. The relevant data on the website for the first time were published by Rosstat. It is assessment for 2017, the results of 2018 are not summed up yet.
The share of small and medium business is calculated as the relation of total volume of the gross added value created by medium-sized and small enterprises (including the microenterprises) and individual entrepreneurs, to gross added value in basis prices of all economic subjects, follows from the technique approved by Rosstat at the end of December, 2018. In money it is more than 20 trillion rub for 2017.
Rosstat published a contribution of small and medium business to GDP for the first time. Earlier Rosstat and the Ministry of Economic Development carried out the analysis of a share of MSP in gross added value, however did not publish its results, it was told in the report of Accounts Chamber. According to these data, the contribution of small and medium business to economy in 2014 was 19%, in the 2015th — 19.9%, in the 2016th — 21.6%.
The share of small and medium business in GDP of the developed countries makes 50–60%. So, in Great Britain it is 51%, in Germany — 53%, in Finland — 60%, in the Netherlands — 63% ( data of Institute of economy of growth).
Siluanov: the share of small and medium business in economy will make 23%
The share of small and medium business in economy of Russia in 2019 will make 23%. It at a meeting of the president Vladimir Putin with members of the government was said by the first Deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of Finance Anton Siluanov, RBC reports in January. Last year the share of a small entrepreneurship in GDP reached 20%.
The authorities want to increase number of employees of the small companies this year up to 19.6 million people. By 2024 the government is going to increase a share of a small and medium entrepreneurship in economy to 32%, the minister added.
Research Tinkoff and Inc.
Growth of business and profit
Nearly a half of respondents noted profit increase last year (47%), at the fifth part answered the questions Tinkoff and Inc. Russia in 2018 of changes did not occur (20.4%). That profit fell, less than a third of entrepreneurs (28.7%) said. Nearly another 3.9% could not give the specific answer as they work at the market the first 
As for scaling, here as it became clear, generally business remained at the same level (about 40%) or grew (37%). Optimize processes in order that business remained afloat, it was necessary only to every fifth company (19.7%). About another 3.7% of respondents noted that they had to close the case.
Relationship with state agencies
Nearly 86% of the polled entrepreneurs said that in 2018 they in the activity did not face the corruption facts. Only about 12% announced similar cases in their practice with participation of officials. Besides, some entrepreneurs noted that they in general try not to deal with state orders that in the principle to avoid corruption risks. Several survey participants told about the corresponding hints from representatives of state agencies, but in their case case did not reach concrete facts of corruption.
Fiscal bodies, judging by survey results, cause most of all complaints in the Russian business. Almost every third company (about 30%) faced the problems anyway connected with activity of FTS. Entrepreneurs criticize tax specialists for unfair, according to them, penalties, errors and confusion with documents, bureaucracy and also unclear and sometimes absurd requests. But at the same time two thirds of respondents (67%) of particular problems in communication with tax administration in 2018 had no.
More than a half (57.6%) of the entrepreneurs participating in poll said that sanctions for their business did not affect in any way. About 37% of respondents answered that it became more difficult to them to earn. At the same time every tenth survey participant noted sanctions as the indirect reason of falling arrived — clients had less money, the average bill decreased. Other negative effects of sanctions are difficulties with import of raw materials and the equipment, a problem because of jumps of currency rates, impossibility to attract the foreign investments.
Entrepreneurs who, on the contrary, earned from the current environment the main advantage of sanctions called import substitution — in some markets the foreign companies were succeeded by domestic manufacturers. The truth won it appeared a little — the positive effect of sanctions was noted by only 5.3% of the owners of business participating in poll.
The main output which can be made on survey results — two thirds of the Russian small and medium companies do not reduce turnovers or increase profit. The main noises for development are insufficiently distinct actions and requirements from tax specialists and other officials. Problems of entrepreneurs as it appeared, are substantially connected not so much with corruption how many with bureaucracy, insufficiently configured tax administration and effects of sanctions.
Alfa-Bank: Index of moods of small business
The index of moods of small business in November, 2018 made minus 32 points. Is more pessimistic entrepreneurs were are configured only in November, 2015 (minus 38). At moderate and negative assessment of a current economic environment at entrepreneurs forecasts for the next six months sharply worsened – the index of business expectations reached minus 54 points. It is the lowest mark during measurements.
- Dominance of negative expectations concerning perspectives of an economic situation and consumer capability of the population in the next 6 months. Increase in the VAT from 18% to 20%, sharp reduction of prices of oil in November, weakening of ruble exchange rate and acceleration of inflation influences.
- Since 2015 the share of the companies which activity is connected with import decreased from 36% to 22%. Nevertheless, the companies of small business – in particular in wholesale and retail trade and production – save dependence on import and in the majority do not aim to change anything.
- In comparison with the first half of year became more companies noting sales growth, the average check and, as a result, – increase in profit and revenue.
- High taxes and lack of financial resources for business development - the most current problems in all industries. At the same time the IT companies suffer from a lack of qualified personnel. Key tasks for themselves entrepreneurs see expansion of the customer base and increase in profitability of business in the conditions of the growing tax burden.
- Entrepreneurs sensitively reacted to deceleration of growth of the Russian economy (according to the Ministry of Economic Development, growth rates of GDP in the III quarter were 1.3% against 1.8% in the II quarter) and sharp falling of price of oil in November, 2018 and gave more negative assessments of the situation in economy, than half a year ago.
- 85% of respondents consider that the current economic environment in the country slows down business development and will worsen also in the next 6 months (63%). Since the beginning of year consumer capability of the population in the country worsened (78% of respondents), and will continue to decrease (68%).
- Representatives wholesale and retail which are under pressure of inflation expectations are most negative in estimates on the future.
- Describing a situation in home company, 47% of respondents noted decrease in profit, 28% - reduction of the average check, 30% - reduction of number of clients.
- At the same time for the last half a year the number of the companies which managed to increase profit (18% of respondents), the number of clients (28%) and an average bill (24%) grew.
- Expansion of the state is planned by every fourth company, 12% of entrepreneurs expressed the intention to raise salaries.
- Successful the business is considered by 21% of entrepreneurs – this share practically does not change.
- The Russian entrepreneurs understand "high income", "a possibility of expansion of business" and "creation of products or best quality services" as success. These are three main signs of success which are most often called by our respondents.
- However, in November, 2018 in the conditions of slowdown in economic growth of the company of small business became more rare to speak about creation of high-quality products as criterion of success and a thicket - about stability and preserving of the current volumes of business.
- The share of the companies ready to continue activity for achievement of success was significantly reduced for the last year, – from 41% to 35%.
- 17% are ready to close or sell business if do not achieve success in the foreseeable future (1-5 years). 31% and 24% respectively are ready change a business model or a type of activity.
- The main problems entrepreneurs call high taxes (49%), a lack of means for development (38%) and decrease in demand (37%).
Markswebb: What banks open a checking account to small business quickly and simply?
Time of opening of a checking account in the Russian banks varies from several hours to several weeks. In some online is enough to fill several fields, to load couple of scans and to certify documents which will be prepared by bank and the client manager will bring. In others to open a checking account, it is necessary to fill independently piles of documents (sometimes by hand), to go to department 2-4 times and to wait in the days and in the weeks until the bank considers the request.
To what bank to address to the entrepreneur who wants to open a checking account as fast as possible, remotely and simply? Based on the research Business Bank Account Opening 2017 conducted by Markswebb it is Modulbank, Alfa-Bank, Tochka Bank, Tinkoff Bank and Promsvyazbankiz  
Characteristics of leaders and outsiders of rating
The best results on set of factors were shown by Modulbank, the Point, Alfa-Bank and Tinkoff Bank. All four banks offer an opportunity of opening of the account without visit of offices of bank, however for the rest, despite similar rating estimates, strongly differ on the organization of process of opening of the account and for separate key metrics.
In the Point the simplest process of opening of the account for the client which consists of 12 of "conditional actions":
- 6 actions at a stage of filling of the request on the website: the client enters the phone number, e-mail and a TIN, loads the scan of the passport, the Insurance Number of Individual Ledger Account and the income statement;
- 3 actions during the following contact: the client answers the manager on 3 questions on phone: a type of activity of the company, the system of taxation, turnovers (real or expected);
- 3 actions during the meeting with the client manager: 1 signature, confirmation of access to Internet bank the code from the SMS, confirmation of email.
The first in simplicity of process of Vesta Bank opens a checking account after 23 of "conditional actions", and Modulbank after 28. At the same time, the Point among top four showed the biggest waiting time of reaction of bank – nearly 68 hours of which the most part was made by waiting time of a meeting with the client manager which it was impossible to appoint earlier, than in 2 days after filling of the request.
Alfa-Bank showed the shortest total time for contacts with bank in the course of opening of the account — 31 minutes, including a meeting with the client manager. The Bank showed to Tinkoff the shortest time waiting of reaction of bank among the banks opening accounts with departure of the client manager – slightly less than 26 hours.
Process of opening of a checking account in banks outsiders drama differs from the organization in leading banks. First of all it is expressed in the number of visits of offices of bank for complete opening of a checking account: it can vary from 1 to 4. Considering time expenses (on average 1 hour 10 minutes on a trip there and back), need to go to office of bank increases time expenditure of the client by opening of the account for 5 and more hours.
In the banks which took the last places of rating from the client much more forces and time are required to open a checking account for small business. One of the key factors significantly increasing complexity of process – filling of long paper or electronic questionnaires. For example, in the Asian-Pacific Bank it is necessary to fill out 11 different documents electronically (totally about 150 fields). In VTB 24 at filing of application at office of bank it is necessary to fill in in duplicate the application form for opening of the account and the questionnaire of the individual entrepreneur (by hand to fill more than 30 fields, including PSRNSP and a TIN).
The important difference of the leaders of the rating from outsiders that process of opening of a checking account is organized on a centralized basis and influence of a human factor comes down to zero. The point, Modulbank and Tinkoff Bank process each request according to the same scheme and automate the majority of processes.
When the request becomes attached to a certain office of bank and the specific person is responsible for the client, probability is high that something will go not so. For example, time for processing of the statement stated by bank upon is significantly higher: The Uralsib bank promised to make verification of documents in 5 days, and upon reported the solution 15 working days later after an independent call of the client to bank.
Alfa-Bank: Index of moods of small business
The index of moods of small business calculated by experts of Alfa-Bank together with the International Research Center MARC for own technique for June, 2017 was the highest in two years of carrying out a research and 21 points made minus (the value of the index can change from minus 100 up to 100).
During the online poll of 2.3 thousand clients of bank — entrepreneurs and heads of the companies — impact assessment of the happened changes in economy on small business was received, pacing factors are analyzed and forecasts for the future are collected.
"Negative moods of rather economic situation for two years are left practically without changes. Based on a research it is visible that entrepreneurs became a little more positively configured concerning the business and perspectives of its development, at the same time, they expect only themselves. Every third company for the last half a year changed model of sales. The companies actively invest in development of the employees and building of examination. Also entrepreneurs began to say more often that they invest in digital technologies and business process automation – nearly 70%. Now only 23% of the companies of small business say one more trend which we observe since 2015 – reduction of number of the companies whose activity is connected with import that they buy goods in foreign markets, for June, 2015 this indicator was 36%" - Denis Osin, the head of the Mass Business block of Alfa-Bank told.
For two years the companies in spheres of marketing, business services (minus 15) and IT feel more surely (minus 14). The index of moods of representatives of wholesale and production returned on the level of one-year-old prescription – minus 20 and minus 19. Growth, in comparison with last fall, was 8 and 7 points respectively.
The final index is created by four intermediate indexes characterizing assessment of the current situation in economy and in own business and also expectations the next six months over the country and on the company:
- the index of a current economic environment minus 64, in November, 2016 minus 67;
- the index of business expectations minus 28, in November, 2016 minus 35;
- the index of the current situation on the company minus 12, in November, 2016 minus 15;
- the index of expectations on company 20, in November 2016 – 9.
Assessment of a current economic environment both over the country, and on the industries, in comparison with November, 2016 increased on 3 points and made minus 64. The companies of small business almost in all regions note growth of consumer capability of the population practically at the same level as expected (5% over the country against 8% expected, and 7% in the industry against 10% expected). In many respects improvement was promoted by deceleration of inflation and reduction of arrears on salary (by data Rosstat - for 3.7%).
Assessment of business expectations over the country and the industries in comparison with November, 2016 also became more positive. In many respects this results from the fact that effects of cold summer will affect increase in prices only in 2018 - because of weather conditions of this summer the harvest of fruit and vegetable products can be partially lost, and the next year will pass less stocks.
The companies of the sphere of cargo transportation gave more negative outlook concerning an economic situation, than half a year ago. In spheres of construction, production and wholesale expect some revival in the next 6 months. As for regional specifics – expectations at entrepreneurs of the Central and Ural regions noticeably improved.
The companies assess a situation in the business more positively in comparison with November, 2016, but expectations of entrepreneurs were better than a real situation half a year ago. In many respects it is connected with the fact that a third of the companies note stagnation. At the same time representatives of small business speak about a negative impact of sanctions, despite prolongation of sanctions of the European Union against Russia and expansion of the sanctions list from the USA less often.
In November, 2016 entrepreneurs were more constrained in assessments of the situation for the next six months, then the value of the index reached 9, in June of this year the index of expectations made 20. Entrepreneurs with optimism look forward: more and more players are aimed at profit increase, revenues, frequencies of purchases and the customer base. First of all, it is connected with the expected improvement of consumer capability of the population (including in connection with increase in the minimum wage rate).
2016: Alfa-Bank: Index of moods of small business
Assessment of a current economic environment both over the country, and on the industries, became more positive in comparison with November, 2015. At the same time the companies are more constrained in assessment of consumer capability. Traditionally assessment of the current situation over the country more negative, than assessment of the situation in the industry. It can be result of both the general negative information background, and more profound knowledge entrepreneurs of the industry.
The negative impact of sanctions was noted by representatives of all companies, except IT and cargo transportation
The index of moods of small businesscalculated by experts of Alfa-Bank together with the International Research Center MARC for own technique for the end of 2016 slightly decreased in comparison with June of this year – (-27) and (-24) respectively (the value of the index can change from-100 to 100) 
During the online poll of clients of bank — entrepreneurs and heads of the companies — impact assessment of the happened changes in economy on small business was received, pacing factors are analyzed and forecasts for the future are collected.
The final index is created by four intermediate indexes characterizing assessment of the current situation in economy and in own business and also expectations the next six months over the country and on the company:
- The index of a current economic environment (-67), in June (-68);
- The index of business expectations (-35), in June (-27);
- The index of the current situation on the company (-15), in June (-16);
- The index of expectations on the company (9), in June (17).
The index of moods on the industries
For two years the companies in spheres of marketing, business services and IT (-17) and (-19) respectively feel more surely. Much better the companies which are engaged in cargo transportation (-24) – the highest rate according to the results of two years, in June, 2016 feel (-32). It is connected with import which wins the positions, at the same time slows down development of production (-26), summer of this year (-19). Against the background of falling of a real income of the population, deterioration in a situation expect wholesale (-28), retail (-33) and the construction (-31) companies.
Assessment of a current economic environment both over the country, and on the industries, in comparison with June, 2016 practically did not change – (-67). At the same time optimistic moods concerning growth of consumer capability which entrepreneurs had 6 months ago did not come true: only 2% noted improvement that is 5 times lower than expectations.
Assessment of business expectations over the country and the industries decreased on all indicators – (-35). Also the wholesale (-33) companies are less optimistic production (-40), construction (-37). In the field of cargo transportation of waiting of the next six months are more optimistic – (-27).
Entrepreneurs assess a situation in the business approximately at the same level (-15), as in June, 2016, at the same time the real situation for the end of 2016 was worse, than they assumed in the summer. The negative impact of sanctions was noted by representatives of all companies, except IT and cargo transportation.
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In November, 2016 entrepreneurs were more constrained in assessments of the situation for the next six months (9), than in June of this year. However positive expectations prevail over negative on all business indicators, except profit and revenue, first of all it is connected with the expected growth of business expenses in 2017 (for compliance to requirements No. 54-FZ (in edition No. 290-FZ) entrepreneurs will have to replace the park of the cash registers) and tax burden.
The index of moods of small business according to the results of the I half-year 2016 considerably grew
The index of moods of small business, calculated by experts of Alfa-Bank together with the International Research Center MARC for own technique, according to the results of the second half of the year 2016 grew to (-24) points, having returned to the level of year prescription. Half a year ago its value was (-38) points, a year ago — (-25) points. The index of expectations on the company returned to a positive zone, having risen up to 17 points.
Made a contribution to recovery of the index as assessment by respondents of the current situation, and more optimistic, than at the beginning of a year, forecasts of entrepreneurs. At the end of 2015 the research showed that entrepreneurs were configured on long recovery.
"One of the reasons of increase in level of moods according to the results of the first half of the year 2016 are signs of stabilization of an economic situation and information background. Practically all Purchasing Managers' Indices calculated by the infrastructure and analytical organizations also considerably grew in comparison with November, 2015 that indicates improvement of shared state of the business environment" — analysts of the block of mass business of Alfa-Bank according to the results of the third wave of the research "Pulse of Small Business" note.
The final index is created by four intermediate indexes characterizing assessment of the current situation in economy and in own business and also expectations the next six months countrywide and on the company:
- The index of the current situation in economy: (-68) points, growth on 10 points;
- The index of expectations in economy: (-28) points, growth on 19 points;
- The index of the current situation on the company: (-16) points, growth on 8 points;
- The index of expectations on the company: 17 points, growth on 18 points.
"Now we see more companies of the turnovers planning increase and entry into the new markets — their share for half a year grew from 42% to 46% of respondents. Small business differs in flexibility and fast reaction to change of conditions, and the current recovery of optimism reflects susceptibility of entrepreneurs even to small positive signals of the markets. At the same time, small business continues to be focused at work with costs and profit, to increase in customer focus and quality of service and products. — the head of the block of mass business of Alfa-Bank Denis Osin speaks. — Alfa-Bank selected for itself a way of support of our clients entrepreneurs in development of their business. One of instruments of support are business conferences and seminars with participation of marketing experts, to promotion on the Internet, to management of finance and personnel. Within these meetings the best practices of attraction and creation of customer relations and also practical cases become available to entrepreneurs through the whole country".
The research also revealed pressure decrease on small business of such problems as reduction in demand for goods and services — this factor was called by 49% of respondents against 55% half a year ago and also a lack of financial resources on development — 40% against 42%. Among other current problems entrepreneurs still call high taxes, difficulties with search of the personnel and premises, etc. No difficulties are experienced by 3% of the polled companies (against 1% half a year ago).
For calculation of the Index of moods of small business and its components clients of the Mass Business block of Alfa-Bank — individual entrepreneurs and the companies with revenue to 350 million rubles a year were polled. The bank occupies 4.7% of this market on average in the country and more than 10% in the largest cities. During the online poll experts found out estimates of changes of such indicators as profit, revenue, the size of the average check, the number of clients, frequency of purchases and others, asked questions of development plans for the companies and criteria of success. Impact assessment of changes in economy on small business is received and forecasts for the future are collected. Statistical selection of a research kept 2554 companies in the cities of Russia Positive values of the index mean dominance of positive estimates, negative values — negative moods over positive. Range of the index is from 100 up to (-100) percent points.
- ↑ the Share of a small and medium entrepreneurship in gross domestic product
- ↑ Rosstat for the first time opened a share of small and medium business in economy
- ↑ [http://stolypin.institute/novosti/sektor-malogo-i-srednego-predprinimatelstva-rossiya-i-mir/ the Institute of economy of growth of Stolypin P.A. provides
- ↑ a relevant research "The sector of a small and medium entrepreneurship: Russia and world"]
- ↑ Siluanov: the share of small and medium business in economy will make 23%
- ↑ godtinkoff and the Inc. magazine more than 1000 Russian entrepreneurs, clients of an ecosystem of Tinkoff Business conducted large-scale survey to find out what for them was 2018. Results of a research showed that despite surrounding pessimism and developments of stagnation in economy, the Russian business feels not so badly. Tinkoff Business — the ecosystem for entrepreneurs giving full support to small and medium business. Now the number of clients of Tinkoff of Business exceeds 500,000, and the product line includes all services necessary for entrepreneurs: settlement and cash services, service of ruble and currency accounts, accounting, the designer of the websites and documents, the salary project, trade and Internet acquiring, bank guarantees for participants of state procurements and also the CRM system for sales management. 1038 Russian entrepreneurs from 53 regions of Russia took part in joint survey of Tinkoff and Inc.Russia. Survey was conducted by mailing of questionnaires to the owners of business who are clients of Tinkoff.
- ↑ of 20 participating banks it was succeeded to open a checking account for SP in 18 banks. In Rosbank the request was approved, but it was not succeeded to open the account within a month after filing of application. Zapsibkombank refused opening of a checking account to two mystery shopping which independently of each other submitted applications for opening of the account.
- ↑ Technique of data collection and calculation of estimates. Participants of a research — the same banks that participate in the researches Business Internet Banking Rank 2017 and Business Mobile Banking Rank 2017: the taken high positions in last year's researches of Internet banks for small business, banks with the greatest number of search queries of a type "the account for SP a %nazvaniye of bank of %", Vesta Bank participates in a research on own initiative. The research is conducted in June-August, 2017 by method of the secret buyer. The banks participating in a research were distributed on mystery shopping which had to open in them accounts of individual entrepreneurs, step by step fixing all contacts with bank, their duration, all actions from bank and required actions from the client. A starting point of opening of the account is presence at the secret buyer of the documents issued at registration of SP in FTS. An endpoint – presence at the secret buyer of the opened active checking account and the connected Internet bank with a possibility of carrying out payments on the account. Three individuals registered as individual entrepreneurs in 2017 in Moscow acted as mystery shopping. Restriction on the region can affect results of banks which home region is not in Moscow – ATB, St. Petersburg Bank, UBRIR and Zapsibkombank. Process of opening of the account was modelled, proceeding from the purpose of the client to implement a task as fast as possible and most remotely. In all cases when the secret buyer had a choice of the next step, that option which is implemented remotely (preferably online) and quicker was selected. For banks in which it is possible to open a checking account, without coming to office, the scenario when the client makes the decision not to wait for the manager and to arrive to office independently was not investigated.
- ↑ the Pulse of small business 2016
- ↑ the Note: For calculation of indexes clients of the Mass Business block of Alfa-Bank — the companies and individual entrepreneurs with revenue to 350 million rubles a year were polled. Statistical selection was 1417 companies in the cities of presence of Alfa-Bank: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Krasnodar and others. During the poll experts found out estimates of changes of such indicators as profit, revenue, the size of the average check, the number of clients, frequency of purchases and others and also asked questions of development plans for the companies and criteria of success. Positive values of the index mean dominance of positive estimates, negative values — negative moods over positive.
- ↑ the Index of moods of small business according to the results of the I half-year 2016 considerably grew
- ↑ Alfa-Bank provided results of the research "Pulse of Small Business"
- ↑ Alfa-Bank released the second wave of the research "Pulse of Small Business"