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2020/05/13 11:16:12

Smart cities of Smart cities

The smart city is a town-planning concept of integration of a set of the information and communication technologies (CT), including systems of Internet of Things (IoT) for management of city infrastructure: transport, education, health care, systems of housing and public utilities, security and td. The creation purpose of "the smart city" is improvement of quality of life of inhabitants using technology of urban information science for increase in efficiency of service and satisfaction of needs of residents.

Content

What is the smart city?

The British Standards Institute (British Standard Institution, BSI) describes the smart city as "effective integration of the physical, digital and human systems in artificially created environment with the purpose to provide the steady, safe and comprehensive future for citizens".

ICT allow the city authorities to interact directly with communities and city infrastructure and to monitor what occurs in the city as the city develops and what methods allow to improve quality of life. Due to use of the sensors integrated in real time the saved-up data from city dwellers and devices are processed and analyzed. Collected information is a key to problem solving of inefficiency[1].

The ICT uses for quality improvement, productivities and interactivities of city services, expense reduction and resource consumption, improvement of communication between city dwellers and the state.

Use of technology of "the smart city" develops for the purpose of improvement of management of city flows and fast reaction to difficult tasks. Therefore "the smart city" is more prepared for problem solving, than at the simple "operational" relation with the citizens. Nevertheless, the term remains not clear in the specifics, and, therefore, assumes a set of interpretation and discussions[2].

Properties of the smart city

Components and functional areas of the projects "Smart City"

As the vice president for strategic initiatives of Rostelecom Glazkov Boris explained in the spring of 2018, those technologies which at the same time cover several trends or the industries, in this specific case from the point of view of management of the cities belong to the end-to-end technologies influencing development of "The smart cities". Therefore, emergence and development of cross-functional and cross-industry solutions depends on them. From contact and mutual enrichment of different knowledge domains there are new effective technologies and application solutions defining development perspectives of "The smart cities". Competent use of end-to-end technologies will stimulate finally quality improvement of life, comfort of the urban environment, management of the different industries of municipal economy at resource consumption reduction.

"Behind each end-to-end technology with the difficult name there are specific solutions for quality improvement of life. For example, geoinformation technologies and ultraprecise navigation together with a 5G are a basis for emergence of pilotless public transport. Digital technologies of decision support and processing of unstructured data, machine learning are necessary for creation of smart management systems for the road and transport infrastructure including forecasting of traffic, smart traffic lights and even control of fatigue of drivers of buses. For this reason end-to-end technologies should be in attention focus during the developing and implementation of concepts of "The smart cities", – Boris Glazkov noted.

Determination of the smart city is treated by experts ambiguously. And still their formulations meet in one: the smart city is controlled data, and data management allows municipal services to increase quality of life of the population. Data cover such spheres of life of citizens as security, transport, medical services, municipal services, improvement, etc. Video cameras, different sensors, sensors, information systems and other[3] are data sources].

By estimates of the UN, by 2050 67% of the population of Earth will live in the cities. Already now some megalopolises of the world are overpopulated. Municipalities not always cope with garbage collection, delivery of utility resources and the electric power from the area to the area is heterogeneous, etc. To provide to the population high-quality city services, administrations even more often implement different information systems.

Along with the term "smart city", analysts of PwC suggest to use this term. However and there is a problem: there is no uniform standard or a standard by which it would be possible to determine unambiguously as far as the city well or badly is controlled data. Experts explain it with the fact that the technology landscape of megalopolises constantly changes, diverse information which becomes base for implementation of the concept DDC, becomes more and more.

Big Data for the state

Most the Russian departments already saved up enough data bulks and now can use their potential for quality improvement of the made decisions. In recent years for increase in security in Russia a number of infrastructure projects which are connected, first of all, with installation of surveillance cameras is implemented. However the data arriving from cameras are only one channel of data. High-quality increased security requires transition to the pro-vigorous activity allowing to predict crime and in advance to plan resource allocation for its prevention. It is possible in the analysis of historical data on precedents for creation of profiles of risk – conditions under which this or that event is reproduced or a crime is committed. Creation of such profiles is possible using modeling of dependence between a set of the characteristics describing an object and the studied phenomenon[4].

You watch article Big Data.

ISO standards 37120:2014 and 37151:2015

With the state support of upgrade of infrastructure of the company have an opportunity to invest in commercially profitable projects. Projects within the concept of the smart city can become an example of effective implementation of public-private partnership. In 2014-2015 the ISO standards in which it is mentioned that there are three levels of projects are developed: infrastructure level, object level and level of city services.

In standards the list of target indicators which measurement and control allows the cities to estimate their development is defined. ISO 37120:2014 "Sustainable development of community. Indicators of city services and quality of life" are regulated by 46 obligatory and 56 auxiliary indicators in 17 directions.

 
 

ISO 37151:2015 "Intellectual infrastructures of municipal services. The principles and requirements to the system of working indicators" contains a technique of assessment of performance of utility infrastructure of the smart cities on 14 categories of basic needs of community (from the point of view of inhabitants, heads and the environment).

Data collection from the cities and their analysis is performed by the international organization of the World council for city data of World Council on City Data (WCCD) performing functions of certification of the cities on compliance to the ISO standards.

Use of standards helps to measure quantitatively a status of the different directions in the cities and to define problem areas. Using the decision making based on data, the cities improve key indicators and strengthen positions in the international register of WCCD.

Metrics of the ISO standards reflect work in the different directions: quality improvement of services, efficiency of infrastructure and separate objects. It assumes optimization of the systems of power supply, water supply, public transport, lighting, etc. that requires complex use of analytics.

Russia

Main article: Smart city: development in Russia

Kazakhstan

Main article: The smart cities in Kazakhstan

China. Beijing

By December, 2019 in China about 250 million cars appeared, however the number of parking spaces far does not correspond to real needs of city dwellers. On average less than 0.8 parking spaces are the share of each machine in China, and deficit is especially sharply felt in the cities of the first and second level. Therefore China solves parking problems using artificial intelligence and other technologies. Read more here.

Kyrgyzstan. Bishkek

At the beginning of 2018 the Government of Kyrgyzstan and the Chinese corporation Huawei signed the agreement on project implementation "The smart city". Writes Interfax about it. The corresponding systems will be installed in the cities of Bishkek and Osh and also on three automobile routes in the territory of the country.

In addition the agreement assumes installation of the systems of survey observation Anti-terror and complexes of automatic photo and video fixing of traffic offenses. Project implementation will take about one and a half years. In particular, the systems of fixing of violations of traffic regulations will be installed at 70 intersections.

Investments of Huawei will make 60 million dollars. It is going to compensate corporations of costs approximately in five years including due to payment of penalties. "The preliminary analysis showed that we will beat off before this term, but we were reinsured" — the prime minister of Kyrgyzstan Sapar Isakov (the quote by Kabar news Agency) noted.

Uzbekistan. Tashkent

2017

By 2023 all localities of Uzbekistan will be safe

In Tashkent one of projects of "The safe city" works: the "smart" surveillance cameras fixing violations work at 120 intersections. Information from cameras is transferred to the center of monitoring of offenses which earned in July, 2017. Till 2019 this project completely will cover Tashkent, and then and regions[5].

Further development of a software package will be engaged Information Security Center and assistance in ensuring public order. Also the deputy minister's position on development of ICT, responsible for project implementation "The safe city" will be created.

The first stage of the project will be implemented in 2017-2019. It is during this time going to create the systems of video analytics, to set video surveillance and to automate acceptance of messages about incidents in Tashkent. In 2019-2021 "The safe city" will be implemented in all regional centers, and in 2021-2023 – will cover the whole country.

The complex will be integrated with information systems of state agencies, video surveillance systems, analytics sensors, data processing centers. The Uniform dispatching service for the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Emergency Situations, ambulance, fire safety which will receive calls by number 112 and signals of SOS buttons and to solve whom to cause on the scene will be created. Installation of SOS buttons will continue till September 1, 2019 in Tashkent, and till 2021 – in all areas. All incidents recorded by sensors and video cameras will be reflected in the situational center. Then on the interactive map in the online mode it will be possible to analyze security status in the capital.

Until the end of this year in Tashkent the analytical video surveillance system in public transport will be implemented, and in 2018-2019 parkings with online payment and the system of recognition of numbers of cars will be created.

IBM partner of the government of Uzbekistan in implementation of "the smart cities"

On deployment of the program "" in smart cities Uzbekistan the company will assist the republic IBM East Europe/Asia. It is reported in the summer of 2017 on the official site of the Ministry of development information technologies and communications Uzbekistan.

During negotiations on establishing cooperation of the party defined as the main directions of interaction such as development of technology of "the smart cities", training of highly skilled IT specialists, development of software products, "cloud" technologies and support and financing of startups. It is expected that the relevant agreement between IBM East Europe/Asia and the Ministry of information technology development and communications of the republic will be shortly signed.

In July, 2017 the Ministry of information technology development and communications of Uzbekistan signed the memorandum of understanding and cooperation with SAP CIS company. The document allows vendor to train specialists and to participate in projects on improvement of conditions for information technology development in the republic. The company can expect privileges which are defined by the decree of the president "About Measures for Radical Improvement of Conditions for Development of the Information Technology Industry in the Republic"[6].

The capital of Uzbekistan will be turned into "the safe city"

In July, 2017 the President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoev proposed to turn the capital of the country into "the safe city". In the nearest future the government will prepare the resolution on creation of new division in structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the republic which will work with the video surveillance systems installed in public places.[7]

In the address to the Interior Minister the president emphasized: "You will create one system which will execute the concept "Tashkent there is a safe city". One deputy minister and his command will be engaged only in this case. In Tashkent from September 1, 2017 to 2019 the experiment will be made. Beijing created such excellent system, they are close to our mentality".

According to the head of state, approbation of command center will take place within two years, and then is going to implement a system in all cities of the country. The Tashkent university of information technologies and Inkh's University in the capital of Uzbekistan will train specialists of the corresponding qualification for work in this structure.

Azerbaijan. To a tank

The Smart City project is unrolled in Baku Huawei company and the Ministry of Transport, communication and high technologies of Azerbaijan. It was said at a press conference on March 18, 2017 by the vice president of Huawei for Central Asia and the region of the Caucasus Marko Hou. He noted: "In Azerbaijan the Concept of development "Azerbaijan – is developed 2020: a prospection" and the strategic road map on development of telecommunication and information technologies. We as the company also try to make the contribution to transformation of the republic into the regional leader"[8].

So, the Public Wi-fi project which is already started in the capital of Azerbaijan served as the beginning for implementation of "The smart city". The role which is pursued by Huawei company is in helping Ministry of Communications of the republic with formation of the project. "In the subsequent stages such components as "Smart transport", Smart port, "Smart trade", etc. will be implemented, on each of which there are specific solutions which will be implemented step by step", – Marko Hou told.

Georgia. Batumi

In the fall of 2016 it became known that in the Georgian Batumi it is going to implement the "smart city" system which will monitor a climatic status in the city and to make recommendations in cases of deterioration in weather conditions[9].

Batumi will become one of the first "the smart cities" in the world in which using a monitoring system of a climatic status it will be possible to plan architectural development of the city, to predict risk of natural cataclysms, to improve tourist infrastructure of the city, to inform drivers on change of a road situation because of weather conditions and also to develop the agro-industrial sector.

Seven synoptic automatic command centers are already set in Batumi and its neighborhoods. They will accumulate all range of weather data and to create different forecasts and also through specially developed system of warnings for services and district administrations to inform on the coming meteorological danger.

City authorities perform this project together with Your Forest non-profit organization.

Singapore. Smart Nation

In October, 2017 Igor Shuvalov the deputy prime minister noted that experience of Singapore is important for Russia first of all in the field of creation of the safe and comfortable urban environment, quality improvement of city services and life of citizens. The Russian cities actively adopt the standards by training and to health care adopted in the unique city-state.
"So it happened that since 1998 I regularly visit Singapore and I cannot but note that today interaction of Russia and Singapore reached new level. We reach mutual enrichment. At the same time there are spheres, in particular, tax in which Russia comes to the leading positions, setting high standards", – the First Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation noted.

In 2014 the government of Singapore began project implementation of Smart Nation integrating officials, entrepreneurs and scientists. The project should stimulate implementation of innovations to the government sector, improve quality of public services and establish relation with citizens. One of authors of the Clever Nation project, the CEO of GovTech – the government technology agency of Singapore – Jacqueline Poe during the panel discussion told how the Smart Nation program allows the "smart" ideas to serve the nation.

According to madam Po, Smart nation assumes that all – economy, the government and society – should become digital. All documents and payments are transferred to an electronic form. On a single platform services in the field of health care, educations and other spheres are rendered. "Today we enter the fourth industrial revolution which driving force is the artificial intelligence", – Jacqueline Poe noted.

Britain. London

  • In London the fire service uses social and demographic data for assessment and prevention of fire risks. Such indicators of inhabitants as age, education, income, an employment type, type of housing and others allow to construct the predictive model increasing quality of risk assessments of the fire on districts of the city.
  • The initiative of Smart London is proclaimed city administration in 2013. Thanks to it many sectors of municipal economy, and especially – the transport industry develop. Management of transport of the capital of Great Britain, obtaining diverse data, makes optimal routes for city transport and timely notifies the population on change in routes of the movement, on a roadwork and emergencies. Analysts of PwC note that several tens of mobile services are available to Londoners to passengers.
  • Over 300 cameras of outside video surveillance are the share of 1 sq.km. of London. The Statistical Analytical System (SAS) helps with preguessing of a fire-dangerous situation. Static analysis which is the cornerstone of SAS helps to detect the buildings, most unprotected from fire, and dysfunctional families. Demographic, geological, historical and other data (60 criteria are considered) are used when modeling each area. It significantly reduced cases of ignitions of residential constructions.
  • Management of transport of London (Transport for London – TfL) on the basis of these data plans city routes and informs citizens on carrying out repair work and other non-staff situations. Open data on a transport situation allowed many independent developers to come to this market. In London about ten applications and online services for passengers work. They help to be guided with the difficult scheme of street transport, it is convenient to plan trips and just not to be late for the train.
  • In London the system of prediction of the fires similar to New York is also implemented. Here it is called "A statistical analytical system" – SAS. It allows to reveal the most fire-dangerous houses by means of statistical analysis. Modeling of each district of the city is carried out taking into account about 60 criteria, including demographic, geological and historical data. It allowed to reduce the number of fires considerably. So residents of London can not be afraid of repetition of an incident of 1666.

USA. New York

  • The single system of data analysis used by special department of administration of the government of New York (MODA), analysts of PwC hold up as an example to other megalopolises, data-driven. The complex of sensors installed on the city detects and defines vibrations from weapon shots. The police immediately obtain information on the area of firing and go to the scene.
  • The system of preguessing of the fires in the North American megalopolis uses the analysis of Big Data. Both fresh, and historical data are used for forecasting, for example, that, is how frequent and in what season in each considered square there are fires. A system allowed to increase by 70% efficiency of checks of objects regarding observance of fire protection regulations.
  • Daily 10.5 thousand tons of household and 13 thousand tons of industrial wastes gather in this North American megalopolis. That will cope with such volume, BigBelly – the system managing effective waste recycling is involved. It defines on what streets most of all accumulates garbage and whether manage to remove municipal services it. It allows to save human and material resources.
  • In Big Apple also medical technologies are well developed. The authorities of New York together with IBM company implemented the Watson Health project. It allows to collect and process state-of-health data of health of citizens from different wearable devices – fitness bracelets, the smartwatch, sensors. The analysis of these data allows doctors to diagnose more precisely diseases and, respectively, it is better to treat them.

Canada. Toronto

2020: The project of "the smart city" is cancelled by Google in Toronto

The Sidewalk Labs company — the "subsidiary" of the American IT giant Alphabet specializing in the innovative development of the cities — refused construction in Toronto of the "smart" area of Quayside. It is said in the statement of May, 2020 of its CEO Daniel Doktoroff.

"the unprecedented uncertainty which covered world economy and the real estate market of Toronto" became the reason of canceling of the project. So, according to Toronto Regional Real Estate Board, in April sales of housing in the largest city of Canada in comparison with the same month 2019 dropped by 67%.

File:Aquote1.png
Despite the made decision, Sidewalk Labs will continue researches on improvement of the urban environment, Doktoroff assured. "It is sure that the ideas on which we worked the last two and a half years will make a noticeable contribution to the solution of key problems of the modern cities, especially those which are connected with availability of housing and sustainable development" — the top manager of the company noted.
File:Aquote2.png

  • The Quayside project was announced in 2017 and initially assumed building of 77 hectares on the bank of Lake Ontario.
  • In November, 2019 the authorities of Toronto reduced its area to 5 hectares. It was reported that the discontent of the locals concerned by plans of the company for collecting and use of personal data became the reason of adjustment.

2019: The decision of the authorities of Toronto by 15 times to reduce the area of "the smart city" of Alphabet

As it became known on November 7, 2019, the municipal officials who are responsible for development of coastal territories Toronto made the decision to considerably reduce the area of "the smart city" of Sidewalk Labs. Initially "daughter" American IT- the giant Alphabet was going to master about 77 hectares on the bank of Lake Ontario, however got permission only to 5 hectares, writes The New York Times. In more detail here.

2017: Alphabet won tender for "the innovation improvement" of the territory at Lake Ontario

The Alphabet Inc holding which possesses the Google search engine won in 2017 tender for "the innovation improvement" of the territory on the bank of Lake Ontario in the Canadian Toronto. Writes TASS with reference to Financial Times about it. The project will cost the company 1 billion dollars. 1.25 billion more will select the authorities of Toronto.

The pilot project of "the innovation arrangement" will be implemented on section in 5 hectares with perspective of expansion to 323 hectares (3.2 sq.km). Here, in particular, pilotless public transport, adaptive traffic lights, robots couriers and modular houses, energy efficient, but available at cost, will appear.

"It is the test platform for new technologies which will help us to build more net, smart, eco-friendly cities" — the prime minister of Canada Justin Trudeau commented on creation of "the smart area" in Toronto. "For us it is not the just accidental project. It is result of nearly a decade of reflections how technologies can change human lives" — the chairman of the board of directors of Alphabet Eric Schmidt noted in turn
.

Exact project deadlines are still unknown. They will be defined at the initial stage of planning and testing of technologies. Costs for these purposes will make 50 million dollars.

You watch Alphabet in more detail : Construction of the hi-tech area

Australia. Sydney

  • In the capital of Australia for determination of degree of load of automobile routes the SCATS system is used. She calculates density of loading of roads using the sensors and sensors which are built in to a cloth. Information comes to special DPCs which, analyzing these systems, independently manage traffic lights. As a result the extent of traffic jams was reduced by 40%, transit time – for 20%, the volume of the burned fuel – for 12%, and the volume of exhaust gases – for 7%. In Australia the majority of intersections – about 11 thousand is connected to the SCATS system. According to authorities of the state New South Wales, use of adaptive system of regulation delay of machines allowed to reduce traffic jams by 20%, – for 40%, and the amount of the fuel burned in Sydney dropped by 12%. Respectively, the volume of exhaust gases was reduced by 7%.
  • Online services allow Australians to learn about an air status thanks to data integration of monitoring systems of the atmosphere with mobile services. This pilot project is also started only in one district of Sydney. Fourteen sensors which transfer data round the clock are responsible for providing information. A system can define chemical composition and the maintenance of harmful particles in air.
  • Condition monitoring of the city atmosphere – one more fad of Sydney. The national ICT center of Australia (NICTA) and Department of environment protection of the State of New South Wales (NSW EPA) started a pilot project on measurement of impurity of air in the field of Hunter Valley. Here installed 14 sensors which collect air state-of-health data in the round-the-clock mode. They can determine the content of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide gas, dioxide of sulfur and solid particles and also to measure an indicator of transparency of air. On the basis of these data the special algorithm calculates the index of air quality (AQI – air quality index). By this index it is possible to predict air pollution level in different parts of the state. This information is open so about an air status in the city residents of Sydney can learn the same as about a weather forecast – from computers or smartphones.

Spain

Madrid

Madrid is included into the five of the most densely inhabited municipalities of Europe. For reference, the city produces about 1 million tons of household waste a year, and its inhabitants consume about 15 million cubic meters of water in 12 months. Besides, the city is engaged in management of multiple property assets, for example, own park from 1.7 million transport units, more than 250 thousand lighting instruments and also monitors a status of 287 thousand trees.

In July, 2014 it became known that Madrid will use IBM Smarter Cities technologies for improvement of work of the services provided to citizens by the city administration and also operation of instruments of communication and interaction with inhabitants. The division of IBM, INSA, claims that this project is the largest in the field of creation of a service ecosystem in Spain, its main goal consists "in improvement of city life for all three-million population of Madrid".

Project cost - 14.7 million euros, the basis of the implemented solutions will be formed by technologies for the analysis and management of Big Data. With their help the city administration will manage work with each service provider and as appropriate to pay it depending on the service layer. It is about contractors of administration who monitor a status of streets, lighting, an irrigation, green plantings, perform cleaning of the territory and export and also waste recycling.

You See Also: Why to Madrid analytics and Big Data?

In the city more than 80 "smart" initiatives from the applied portal to schemes of encouragement of short-term use by free city lands are implemented. In Barcelona information from all city sensors, and them is more than 600, gathers the special integrated Sentilo platform.

These data – open, and on their basis the city authorities plan building of city line, laying of highways and utilities.

The system of collecting of garbage in this megalopolis also differs in intelligence. The ultrasonic sensors which are built in in garbage containers will notify municipal services that it is time to start export of waste. A system independently calculates the diagram of movement of public special transport to save fuel, human resources and timely to export waste.

Lately thanks to improvement of video surveillance systems safety of residents improved. According to official figures, in the city recession of criminal activity, at the same time a share of thefts to which in 2014 more than a half of all crimes fell is mentioned, in a year dropped by 30.2%.

Barcelona

  • The capital of Catalonia actively implements the solutions based on data. It is the only city where it is created and the general platform for collecting of indications from all sensors works. The integrated Sentilo system (in translation from language of Esperanto - "sensor") integrates devices of observation of water supply, light, energy drinks, a road situation, noise level, etc. – only about 550 sensors which collect information on a situation in the city. All data open. So they not only help the authorities to plan urban development, laying of new roads and utilities, but also are good the main for developments of independent business companies.
  • In Barcelona the advanced system of smart collecting of garbage is implemented. Containers are equipped with ultrasonic sensors which give a signal when the container is complete. Garbage-disposal machines come according to the diagram made using this system that allows to save fuel and working time considerably.
  • Barcelona takes the second place after New York on the level of development of city network Wi-fi. In the city 590 access points, including 220 – in city parks are set. By the end of this year will equip with access points city transport. As a result in the city there will be already more than 1500 access points that it is displaid Barcelona in undisputed leaders of rating.
  • In general experts of PwC note the high level of readiness of Barcelona for implementation of the systems of the smart city. For this purpose there is both a data collection system, and the powerful centers of their processing, but the main thing – well developed Competence Centers: universities and research institutes.

Brazil. Rio de Janeiro

Experience of the implementing solutions Smarter Cities in Rio de Janeiro is indicative. The decision on need of the organization for the city of Rio Operations Center arose after the next descent of a mudflow from the hill on which a part of urban areas were located. Due to the heavy rains mudflows descended quite often, but one of them was especially destructive, many people died, houses were destroyed. By agreement with IBM the city administration made the decision to organize the center in which information on weather, a status of soils would be flown down situations on roads, etc. – all in the center data more than 30 departments were delivered and, respectively, there was an opportunity to provide a feedback, having connected among themselves all these departments.

Now when obtaining information on the coming heavy rain city services precisely know to what section it is necessary to send the maximum number of rescuers where it is necessary to organize quickly evacuation of people what ways it is better to use, etc.

In November, 2011 a system was still improved: the warning system of the city authorities and abnormal services about change of weather conditions was automated (to this notification were sent manually). Besides, information from Rio Operations Center is daily published in social networks and sent on mobile devices of users. Besides, on Facebook and Twitter constantly updated weather reports, a status on roads also other useful information is published.

You See Also: IBM Smarter Cities (Reasonable cities)

Qatar. Fur-coat

On March 2, 2017 the Orange Business Services company announced the multimillion contract which it signed with MEEZA company on creation of "smart services" and applications for the region of Msheireb in Doha. Around Msheyreb the project of "the smart city" is implemented. It is supposed that as a result of reconstruction of the area more than 500 thousand sensors connected and managed by the set of applications will work there. In more detail about the project you look - Meeza began the project of creation of "the smart city".

Saudi Arabia. New city of Neom

The Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia Muhammad Salman al Saod announced in October, 2017 construction of a new supergorod which is called "the most ambitious project in the history". The state is going to spend 500 billion dollars for its construction and actively looks for investors, promising to create from scratch on the empty earth the hi-tech settlement of new type with own laws. It will be called Neom. The Russian Direct Investment Fund promised to participate in the project[10].

Main article: NEOM

The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) will become one of co-investors of construction of "future megalopolis" to Neom in Saudi Arabia. It was said by the CEO of fund Kirill Dmitriyev, TASS writes. "Together with partners several billion dollars are ready to invest RDIF in this project" — Dmitriyev explained.

The fund sees specific objects of investments in solar power, health care, construction of port infrastructure and in the field of artificial intelligence. Separately Dmitriyev selected high-speed transport, in particular, the Hyperloop project. Let's remind the cochairman of Board of Directors of the leading innovative company on construction of such routes Hyperloop One there was the Russian billionaire Ziyavudin Magomedov. Also the fund intends to involve the leading domestic companies working in the field of high technologies in project implementation, Dmitriyev added. About what companies there is a speech, it is not clear yet.

The new city of Neom is offered to be built on a ground of 25 thousand square kilometers (the square, say, of New York — 1200 square kilometers) on the bank of the Red Sea at borders of Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Egypt. In the project description it is said that the city will be located in the territory of all three countries though so far these plans did not comment on either Cairo, or Amman.

The city will receive electricity at the expense of solar batteries and other renewable energy sources. Scientists of the new city will develop new methods of storage of natural resources and energy — both on the basis of the existing technologies, and using about what the world did not hear yet.

In Neom there will be completely eco-friendly transport, and the city will become a link between Africa and Asia. The city will provide itself with food due to new technologies and also farms using sea water. Scientific laboratories Neom will be focused on development of biotechnologies and the innovation methods of production. It is supposed that the city will attract talents from all spheres, including art.

In the presentation note that the ground assumed under city building is successful in terms of climate as average temperature is 10 degrees lower here, than in other territory of Gulf States. Cool wind from the Red Sea does climate pleasant, it "the idealistic and peaceful desert".

It is supposed that Neom will be some kind of state in the state, or even independent education with own laws and tax rules and "the electronic government"; creation of "idealistic society" is called a main objective of the project.

As all this will be implemented, there is no idea. Neom is a list of the promises issued in beautiful slides without explanations right now as these promises to execute. The situation and with investors is not really clear; so far announced the Russian Direct Investment Fund — but on what conditions, it is not reported participation in the project.

UAE. Abu Dhabi

On December 11, 2018 the Software AG company announced end of the large-scale project "Smart City" which was executed together with the partner — Technology Strategies Middle East (TSME) company. The city of Abu Dhabi — the capital of the United Arab Emirates became the place of project implementation, and as the basic IoT-platform the Cumulocity IoT platform was selected. Read more here.

Netherlands

In April, 2014 the Netherlands as an experiment created road section long about 500 meters which, according to developers, became a prototype of the highway of new generation. LED lamps which catch using the miniature solar batteries installed directly on the road and special "wind-driven generators" became feature of the highway. Such method of the organization of lighting saves road services from need to pull electric cables to support. At the same time lamps light up only at the time of approach of cars, and in the rest of the time — burn with the minimum power.[11]

The project of Umnaya Road in the Netherlands. Source: novate.ru

In addition to LED lamps, on the road the special marking which is executed using fluorescent paint is used. It allows it "be loaded" from a daylight and shine for all night. On roadsides developers drew special snowflakes which begin to shine at a low temperature that allows to inform drivers on ice.

Reaction of Umnaya Road to ice. Source: novate.ru

Israel. Tel Aviv

In Tel Aviv decided to construct the road which will be capable to load electric vehicles directly in the direction of travel in 2016. As you know, the biggest lack of such cars is permanent need for recharge. As envisioned by the Israeli scientists, energy will be developed using a special roadbed. For this purpose when laying roads it is supposed to use the special machine which will dig small trenches about 8 cm in depth for induction coils. Further the trench will be asphalted, a field of what the coils installed in it will begin to interact with the passing cars, transferring them the electric power. It is supposed that radiation from coils will not exceed 25 cm — it will be enough that "reach" the car, and, at the same time, it is not enough to do much harm to health of the driver.

"Power" band. Source: sc-os.ru

The Electroad company already held complex testing of the solution in the laboratories. At the first stage the "power" band is going to be created for public transport. Further other sections of roads will be modified. On belief of specialists of Electroad, the developed technology has several advantages to become a basis for creation of road and transport infrastructure of the near future. So, the weight of the battery of the electric bus can be up to 5 tons, and cost — several thousand dollars. At the same time the range of a trip of such bus will be all the same limited to battery capacity. The solution Electroad allows to make electric buses easier and to increase the maximum range of trips.

Japan. Super Smart Society 5.0

As of 2017, in Japan the large-scale long-term strategy of reforming of society Super Smart Society, or Society 5.0 ("Society 5.0") developed by the government of the country in response to relevant calls to its development, for example, aging of the population is implemented.

"Society 5.0" assumes active use of the advanced technology achievements, including industrial Internet of Things, robotization and artificial intelligence, in everyday life of the person, production, health care and other areas.

As of October, 2017, one of the most important instruments of creation of comfortable and safe society within strategy implementation Society 5.0 in Japan is development and deployment of the innovative technologies in the field of autonomous driving.

General news and researches

2020: Russia will become the coeditor of the international standard on emergency response in the megalopolis

On April 2, 2020 Ruselectronics reported that the Russian experts from the Technical committee "Cyber-physical Systems" created based on RVC will become coeditors of the international standard which will define the best practices of use of the city centers of emergency response. The standard is developed within committee on technologies of the smart city at the International Electrotechnical Commission (an IEC, IEC). Read more here.

2019

Expenses on the smart cities reached $104.3 billion — IDC

In 2019 global expenses on projects of the smart cities reached about $104.3 billion, counted in IDC analytical company.

Experts did not specify dynamics and only announced growth. In 2020 world costs for initiatives of development of the intellectual urban environment will be measured by $124 billion, i.e. will increase by 18.9%.

About 29% of investments into such projects at the end of 2019 were necessary on 100 most active cities in this plan which will remain the main drivers of growth of the considered market in the near future. However the smart cities develop not only in megalopolises, but also in small regions that indicates strong fragmentation of the market.

Regions with the greatest expenses on projects of the smart cities, data of IDC

In 2019 about a third of expenses on the smart cities was the share of use options connected with eco-friendly power and infrastructure. Projects of intelligent power supply systems first of all here are selected. Public security and smart transport made 18% and 14% in the total costs respectively.

As for the most widespread options of use, intelligent power supply systems (the integrated electric power and gas) still attract the lion share of investments though their relative importance will decrease in process of market development over time, and other scenarios will become the main.

On the volume of expenses on technologies of the smart cities follow projects of the fixed video surveillance, the advanced public transport, smart management of road traffic and the connected back office, in 2019 was the share about a half of investments in smart goroda Of these five directions.

As for projects with the potential of the greatest growth rates, communications of V2X (when cars interact among themselves and also with road infrastructure), digital doubles and wearable electronics for police officers belong to them. Sales of such solutions will grow how fast, in a research it is not specified.

Among the cities on investments into intellectual city infrastructure Singapore is in the lead, it will remain on the first place at least several more years. On the second position Tokyo where in July-August, 2020 will play the XXXII summer Olympic Games is located. The third and fourth places will be taken by New York and London. According to forecasts of IDC, each of the listed megalopolises will spend more than $1 billion for programs of development of the smart cities.

In 2019 global expenses on projects of the smart cities reached about $104.3 billion

The analysis from the regional point of view shows that the USA, Western Europe and China will be in the top three. More than 70% of world costs for the corresponding projects will fall to their share in the amount. At the same time most quicker investments into the smart cities will grow in Latin America and Japan, IDC predict.[12]

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Regional and municipal authorities make all efforts to go in step with technology progress and to use new opportunities in the context of risk management and expectations of the population and also for financing for large-scale initiatives — the vice president of the IDC Government Insights and Smart Cities and Communities direction Ruthbea Yesner says. — Many aim to turn on options of use of technologies of the smart cities in budgets or to finance projects with the help of traditional means. It promotes growth of investments in the market.
File:Aquote2.png

Also follows from the report of IDC that among more than 200 explored cities about 80 of them spend for projects of smart city infrastructure more than $100 million a year. At the same time 70% of world expenses are concentrated in the cities with budgets to $1 million for Smart City initiatives.

Experts called the main cyberthreats for "the smart city"

In 2024 on financial, the information and communication technologies (ICT) and defense industry 56% of the predicted total costs of cyber security of critical infrastructure of the USA will have. The remained 44% will fall on the enterprises of the electrical power industry, health care, the transport sector and the systems of water purification.

As[2] specialists of ABI Research company consider[13], because of a lack of financing the above described industries will be extremely vulnerable to cyber attacks. In particular, under the threat there can be "smart cities"[14].

According to the estimates of experts, by 2024 the number of geographically distributed networks of "the smart cities" will make about 1.3 billion. Nearly a half of them will represent LPWA-LTE and LPWA.

A number of the LPWA protocols, for example NB-IoT, try to solve at least some security concerns. However a main goal of these easy cellular protocols is reduction in cost of bandwidth, increase in a covering and reduction of delays, and they are simply not capable to cope with the increased number of cyberthreats in the field of "the smart city".

"'The smart cities' even more often are exposed to different threats. Here difficult cyber attacks to critical infrastructure by a stop of work of an APCS, use not to destination of LPWAN of LPWAN, cracking of communications between devices, blocking of systems using racketeering software, change of these sensors (for example, the abnormal systems) with the purpose to cause mass panic, kidnapping of these citizens, patients and consumers, personally identified information and so forth enter", - the analyst of ABI Research Dimitrios Pavlakis noted.

Among the key factors promoting growth of cyberthreats in ecosystems of "the smart city", Pavlakis called a lack of cryptographic means of protecting, inadequate key management of enciphering, use of machine learning with the harmful purpose, a lack of knowledge of methods of social engineering and lack of protection against DDoS attacks.

The concept of the "smart" city from the Danish minister: people will have neither a property, nor privacy

Speaking at a session of the World economic forum, the minister of ecology of Denmark Ida Auken said that by 2030 the privacy completely will disappear from human life. According to her, there will be no property, the individual transport, usual work and  environmental pollution. Such forecast became known in April, 2019.

Ida Auken considers that residents of the cities will not pay 2030 for lease of the apartment because during absence of the owner of the real estate the space will be used by other people.

Miinistr of ecology of Denmark Ida Auken considers that by 2030 people will have no property, the individual transport, usual work and environmental pollution
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For example, when I  leave, in  my living room there take place business meetings — she reported.
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In addition to housing, people will be able to use free of charge and transport  — UAVs or the flying machines, and the privately owned vehicle will become a senseless thing. On roads there will be no traffic jams. The volume of "traditional work" thanks to robots and artificial intelligence  will be reduced, and people will be able  to eat, get enough sleep better and to communicate with each other more, the minister is sure.

According to her, in the cities there will be everywhere trees and green zones as all will understand importance of their existence. The sense will disappear to fill the free territory with concrete.

It will be possible to work in any, time, convenient for itself. And it will be directed to creation, development of the person.

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We lost many forces and time to understand the value of this method of life — Ida Auken considers.
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According to the Danish minister, the way of life will allow mankind to get rid of such serious problems as climate change, migration crisis, deterioration in ecology, unemployment and overpopulation of the cities.

People will cease to go to shops as computer algorithms will help to select the necessary goods which can be ordered on the Internet, it continues.

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Before all looked for only entertainments, and  people  did not want to stuff themselves the head with questions more difficult. However  at the last minute   all of us understood how to use technologies to ourselves  for the good, but  not  just to kill time — Auken emphasized.[15]
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2018

Frost & Sullivan: The smart cities by 2025 will cost $2 trillion

The total market value of the smart cities by 2025 will exceed a mark of $2 trillion. Such data contain in the research of Frost & Sullivan company devoted to trends in the field of the artificial intelligence (AI). According to analysts, AI will become one of the corner technologies used at creation of the smart cities along with the personalized health care, robotics distributed by energy and the advanced systems of the help to drivers.

"Creation of the smart cities — one of the key directions of digital economy around the world. Russia is not an exception: at the end of 2017 the largest state corporations and educational institutions signed the memorandum of creation of 50 first smart cities in which pilotless transport will be implemented, the efficiency of housing and public utilities is increased and favorable conditions for development of the innovative companies are created. Such interest is attracted by opportunities which open before society in the conditions of technological city infrastructure: it both increase in comfort of life, and saving of time and resources, for example, electric power and water" — the director of Hitachi Vantara technologies in the region of North EMEA Yakhina considers Irina Stoimost[16].


Experts of Frost & Sullivan note that now the most successful moment for activation of similar technology conversions. At least, it corresponds to calculations according to which by 2050 80% of the population of the developed countries of the planet will live in the cities.

Most of all smart cities will create in China

Researchers note that not only different innovations, but also attraction to process of citizens will become an important factor of creation of the smart cities. On this background different experts suggest to begin extensive discussion in China between local authorities and the population. Frost & Sullivan notes that these appeals are not accidental: more than a half of the smart cities will be located in this country and by 2025 will bring to economy $320 billion.

"One of the most important issues at design of the smart cities — safety of citizens. Already now in the IT sphere there are solutions directed to protection of public wellbeing. For example, Hitachi Visualization Suite helps to prevent crimes, submitting broader and exact picture of what occurs in the city. And Hitachi Video Analytics (HVA) helps the organizations to receive valuable insights about a status of city space, a situation on roads and at the airports. Solutions adapt and scaled in process of change of needs of the city" — Irina Yakhina gives examples.

According to data of a research, the greatest investments into projects of the smart cities will be enclosed in Europe. But North America does not lag behind too — by 2020 the size of the market of smart houses will exceed $5 billion. Analysts note that Latin America will become one more region of rapid growth. The smart cities are already ready to create in Mekhik, Buenos Aires, Santiago and Rio de Janeiro.

Research Juniper Research and Intel

The rating from Juniper Research research company and the producer of Intel processors estimates the cities by such criteria as achievements in Internet technologies, their influence on life of people, health care and infrastructure in general.

Authors of rating noted that the intelligent system of control of transport in Singapore reduces idle standing time in traffic jams by 60 hours a year on average for each driver. Also Singapore exceeded other cities on prevalence of gadgets among elderly people. It allows to control their state of health, prolongs life and its quality.

The second place was taken by the world financial capital – London. Further the American cities follow: New York, San Francisco and Chicago. Ten winners, certainly, included the capitals of South Korea and Japan, and Seoul outstripped Tokyo. From beginners in similar ratings it is possible to note Barcelona – the second largest Spanish city. It took the ninth place in rating.

2017

Cisco submitted the program of financing of the "smart" cities for 1 billion dollars

In the cities which are called "smart", purer air, is safer than the street and the general quality of life is higher. At the same time many of those who are responsible for financial flows hardly find funds for financing of conversions which would make their cities "smart". Helping to cope with budget difficulties, Cisco offered the Program of acceleration of financing of city infrastructure[17] in November, 2017 dollars. The program purpose — to make more available to the cities in the different countries of the world financing and implementation of technologies which will promote conversions.

You look also Cisco Kinetic

Huawei will make the "smart" 60 cities

Within the Smart City Expo World Congress 2017 exhibition which is taking place in Barcelona from November 14 to November 16, 2017 the Huawei company presented a number of solutions for implementation of the concept of "the smart city". Also was contracts for implementation of such technologies in 60 cities of the world are signed.

Trend Micro: Main cyberthreats of the smart cities

Securing smart cities

Trend Micro analyzed what risks for cyber security arise when using smart technologies in critical infrastructure of such cities and also – what steps need to be taken that local government authorities and developers could make the smart cities safer[18].

Main outputs of the report:

  • By 2050 66% of all people will live in the cities. The urbanization can cause the shortage of energy, lead to traffic standstill, environmental pollution, etc. For the solution of social, economic and environmental problems both the state, and private sector is actively invested in technologies of the smart city.
  • Global investments into the smart cities will grow from $36.8 billion in 2016 to $88.7 billion by 2025.
  • Among motives of malefactors who induce them to attack the smart cities: desire to check the hacker capabilities, theft of money and personal data of users and also corporate information; espionage or organization of a haktivistsky campaign.
  • Among the purposes of hackers at attacks on critical infrastructure of the smart cities: road accident intended organization, organization of power supply failures; theft of personal information of users, theft of the electric power; interception of device management and systems; violation of the transport system and others.
  • An attack on the smart cities takes place in four stages: statistical analysis (the analysis of devices and systems, whose vulnerabilities can be used), scanning (detection of the purposes and points of entry), collection of information (data acquisition for access by a phishing, etc.), implementation of the cyber attack.
  • Weak spot of the smart cities is including incorrect use of smart technologies in its territory. Public online platforms, such as app stores, for example, can be infected if not to provide them with due protection, and devices with open ports or backdoors can be compromised obnaruzheny.

To ensure safety of the smart city it is necessary to take 10 steps:

  • Carry out regular quality control and test a system regarding penetration.
  • Pay special attention to security issues within the agreement on the service layer with all suppliers and providers.
  • Create the municipal center of response to computer incidents (CERT) or form a team of a computer security on response to incidents (CSIRT).
  • Provide a stable and safe software update.
  • Consider service life of smart infrastructure.
  • Organize data processing taking into account requirements of cyber security.
  • Cipher, configure authentication and regulate public channels of communication.
  • Configure function of manual control.
  • Develop a failsafe system.
  • Provide continued operation of main systems and services.

Bosch: Mobile solutions for megalopolises

  • The future of city mobility from Bosch: zero emissions, absence of a stress and accidents on roads
  • The company implemented 14 pilot projects of the smart cities worldwide

Bosch becomes the supplier of mobile services for city agglomerations. In the future the company will focus on development and providing mobile solutions for the smart cities connected to the Internet. In the world fast-growing demand in the field of conceptual transport solutions for city infrastructure is observed. Megalopolises are filled to the full worldwide. In many locations there is a danger of a complete stop of work of transport. More and more people return to the cities or intend to live there in the future. By 2050 more than six billion people – twice more, than will live today in megalopolises. By then traffic on streets of the cities will be created. Taking into account that about two thirds of world's population in 2050 will represent urban population and with the continuing growth of an urbanization, also the number of problems will increase.

Besides, increase in number of the people who are in limited space will cause gain of traffic, so air quality degradation, reduction of number of green zones, increase in noise and time which inhabitants will spend in traffic jams.

You watch Bosch Mobile solutions for megalopolises in more detail

Government Technology: Pluses and minuses of future "smart" cities

In the research Government Technology, under the name Evolution of Smart Cities and Connected Communities, Asia was called as the global leader in development of the "smart" cities of the future of[19][20].

Key factors

Two key factors of development of the "smart" cities, according to authors of a research, are the growth of the population and the proceeding global urbanization. More and more people select a city way of life, and therefore more and more urgent need in effective management of the cities is observed.

Data that projects of the smart cities grew by 30% from 2013 to 2016 are provided in a research. So it is a high time to glance in the future.

While it was quite a lot told about forecasts of dangers of "smart" houses, it is also important to estimate positive and negative sides of the "smart" cities, to especially focus the attention on problems of their security.

The connection level is higher, the it is more than vulnerabilities

Always the first problem for the governments, private companies and the public when it comes about something "smart", is, of course, hackers. They are capable to cause major damage to the companies and also to destroy life of ordinary people.

Whether the hacker can stop work of city infrastructure in the future?

In 2015 Caesar Tserrudo from IOActive Labs made an ambitious experiment to show round vulnerability "smart" the cities before hackers.

It reminded robbery in Italian or recent incidents with the video games Watch Dogs of Ubisoft company a little: Tserrudo walked on streets of Washington and "scanned" the local sensors of traffic used for the organization of traffic. He found out that data were not ciphered, and the level of protection was far from required. Then in laboratory he cracked devices and said that they can be manipulated to change operation of traffic lights therefore the city can face big problems, and people to have serious accidents.

"These problems with traffic can become the reason of real incidents, even from the death as a result of which there will be accidents or work of ambulance, firefighters or police which hurry on an urgent call will be complicated", - Tserrudo told.

The Sensys Networks company servicing these sensors reacted to Tserrudo's statements and accused him of exaggerations, however there was enough information on such potential danger in order that the authorities of Washington decided to check security of their management system for traffic.

It is good that this vulnerability was detected by the person who tries to help. If on its place there was a malefactor, then how he could use this information? In the future in increasing frequency authorities should resolve this issue and experts in security: the smart city with the high level of connections increases the probability that someone could manipulate the whole infrastructure if the due security level will not be provided.

The movement without drivers

The connected machines are of the greatest interest because they are one of the main features of the "smart" cities in the future. If everything is made correctly, then they could save thousands of lives daily. Imagine the future where people look back at cars of 21 centuries and are surprised how their ancestors could endanger people, allowing them to drive the cars manually. If to delete a human factor from traffic control, then thousands of the victims of the road accident occurring daily can become the remote memoirs. Of course, before such future it is still very far.

Meanwhile there are serious risks with which it is necessary to struggle. Time hackers can get into the IoT-systems of city infrastructure and cause problems, they can also manipulate and someone's car which is en route that can result in real danger in real time. For example, in 2015 Fiat Chrysler was necessary to recall 1.4 million cars after two researchers Chris Valashek and Charlie Miller found out that they can disconnect far off brakes at Jeep Cherokee and intercept control over the information and entertaining Uconnect system installed in the car.

Another story impresses: something similar was made by the hacker who for a moment could intercept control of the commercial airplane therefore that changed the course. Chris Roberts from One World Labs managed to intercept control over airplane when it was aboard in quality of the passenger, having connected through a cable to Seat Electronic Box which was at it under a seat and by that having got into the entertaining system of the airplane.

Roberts said in FBI that he cracked airplanes from 15 to 20 times and that he wanted to reveal only vulnerabilities which could be eliminated.

Security or control?

Applications of the "smart" city already began to be used for increase in safety of people around the world. One of examples of that is an initiative of NEC company which reduced the level of automobile thefts in the city the Tiger (Argentina). In the Tiger high-precision real-time analysis with a sensing technology of persons for identification of criminals and even for detection of suspicious behavior of people was used. "The city video surveillance system" reduced the number of thefts of cars in the city by 80% after it was implemented.

Of course, face recognition can make the world much safer. Though there is one nuance. What opportunities do we want to give to hands of authorities? Wikileaks is emphasized that for the last few years questions of online confidentiality became very relevant, and there is a mass of nuances.

There are political parties which want to solve an online confidentiality problem, but many of them consider enciphering as the tool which is more necessary for criminals than to raise the security level of people at protection against them. Whether it is worth sacrificing online confidentiality of millions of ordinary people to have an opportunity to keep track of online activity of criminals and terrorists? It is very difficult to answer this question, as Tim Cook's "fight" and Apple companies with FBI last year showed. There are big risks. Who exactly will have access to huge volume of "digital traces" for ordinary people with their everyday life which will be generated in the future? How will they use these data?

Besides, if today authorities behave not absolutely honesty, cracking our devices, and the Internet allows us to fall a victim of an impact of target advertizing, then how we will protect our data in the future?

Face recognition means that will constantly monitor us how in a case with UAVs which are already used for video control – all this draws terrible comparisons with the Big brother of Orwell. These technologies allow to create data on us without our permission, and we have no control over them.

Attractiveness of the "smart" cities

The connected vehicles which are operated without driver, video control using sensing technologies of persons …. All this little frightening perspectives. But what word here key? Perspective. It is easy to inflate fears concerning the future, having revaluated advantages of technologies which will appear. According to the recent editorial article in Chicago Tribune, is one of direct dangers of the smart cities.

There are no doubts that we live in incredibly technology century and that already there are technologies which lived only in imaginations of people earlier. Though on the other hand billions of dollars invest in projects of the "smart" cities, and they can distract from other important issues of which it is worth thinking. The prime minister of India Narendra Modi, for example, decided to spend 18 billion US dollars for connection of 250,000 villages to the Internet. Though at the same time, according to Chicago Tribune, many of these villages have no normal drinking water and stable power supply. The solution of these problems, certainly, should be more priority question in the agenda.

The European Commission, meanwhile, counted recently that implementation of a 5G in Europe can cost 56 billion euros. The fact that the predicted social and economic benefits of such implementation in the next 10 years will be about 113 billion euros pleases. Whether risks big here? The governments of the countries and public organizations should analyze carefully everything to understand what will be brought more by these technologies: advantage or harm.

2016

Gartner: by 2019 50% of residents of the large cities will share personal data within programs of "the smart city"

Fast rate of innovations in IT and changes in society created at Chief information officers in state bodies feeling of urgency and readiness to experiment within initiatives of "the smart city" and open data, Gartner notes. Being correctly planned, these aspirations will deliver pioneers in a public sector in the center of IT-Innovations in the society of[21].

"Citizens use technologies of personal data processing and social networks more and more widely better to organize the life therefore state bodies and the commercial organizations increase the investments into IT infrastructure and management of it — Anthony Mullen, the director of the research Gartner writes. — Creation of open platforms which give the chance to citizens, groups of people and companies to master new is result, it is better to interact, and eventually providing the solutions, useful to them, satisfying them requirements as residents".

As the result, Gartner predicts that by 2019 50% of residents of million-strong cities will feel a prize from programs of "the smart city", voluntarily providing the personal data. The volume and a variety of the data generated by citizens will continue to grow as a result of the growing prevalence of consumer devices and Internet of Things. Citizens will feel certain benefits of such passive providing data as a result of interaction of civil services and commercial organizations. However as this "hyper interaction" (hyperconnectivity) gains strength, citizens will understand more clearly the value of these data on the life and will be ready to share them for extraction of useful result "at the right time".

This process of providing data accelerates aspiration to efficiency and convenience. So, one of the main difficulties in interaction of citizens with civil services is the complexity of passing through a set of instances. The simple question "Whether I Have the Right to Vote?" can demand difficult procedures, studying of rules and visit of many websites.

As result, citizens give preference to dialogue platforms, such as virtual consultant or chat-bot, instead of traditional applications and websites. Civil services also adapt to these changes. For example, Management of public security of the State of Utah permits to take place examination on driver's licenses using Amazon Echo, and the authorities of Singapore in cooperation with Microsoft conduct work on the draft of "the colloquial platform", intending to create chat-bots for a number of state services.

One of effects of it is quickly growing volume of the generated machine-readable data on how citizens interact with civil services and services of the city that creates an enormous opportunity to develop portals of open data which can increase efficiency, conveniences to users, advancing at the same time an innovation and bringing income to the state organizations.

"Portals of open data in the cities are not something new, but many portals are machine-readable only in limited degree today and therefore have limited commercial value — Bettina Tratz-Ryan, the vice president of the research Gartner writes. — The city becomes "smart' when data are collected and controlled so that allow to provide valuable flows in real time, but not just retrospective statistics or reports".

Some cities already build the exchanges of data, especially in the light of the growing flows from IoT. Data Exchange of Copenhagen taking the very first steps for "connection" of citizens to data can serve as one of examples, providing access to city data on Network and tool kit ("lenses") to browse information.

The next step in creation of this marketplace is to provide and to organize these data so that to create a possibility of their commercial use. Gartner predicts that by 2020 20% of all local government authorities will gain income from "expanded" (value-added) of open data via portals ("markets") of data. A key to monetization — in automating and expanding the user interface, having given the chance to citizens and commercial clients to detect data, to execute their preparation, to reveal patterns and to share them with members of the group or in the organization.

"Users will have a number of options of payment for data access depending on their purposes — Trats-Ryan writes. — The normal citizen can just participate in [it on the principles] "democracies of data' and to have free access in response to providing own data whereas commercial use can demand to share income with the manager of data or purchases of the license for access to a source of the added data".

Nokia: Scenarios of development of smart cities

In November, 216 Nokia announced release of the strategic report "Scenarios of development of smart cities" in which the advanced practical techniques of the organization of work of smart cities are considered. The report describes specific steps which can undertake the city administrations for successful strategy implementation which use allowed the management of other cities to expand their intellectual opportunities, to increase security and stability of functioning. The report prepared by request of Nokia by Machina Research company, the supplier of strategic analytical data on the market of systems for Internet of Things (IoT) is made based on primary researches of strategy and the achieved results of 22 cities of the whole world[22][23].

The research detected a considerable variety of the strategy of the organization of smart city accepted in the different cities however allowed to define three main ways used for expansion of intellectual opportunities of the cities. The way, conditionally called "anchor", provides deployment in the city of one application for the solution of the most burning issue, such as congestion of roads, and then adding of other applications eventually. The way under the name "platform" consists in creation of a core infrastructure necessary for support of a wide number of intellectual applications and services. Contrary to these approaches so-called "beta cities" implement within pilot projects several applications at once to estimate their efficiency before decision making about long-term implementation.

During the research essential differences between the cities, and even those which follow the same way were found out. However it allowed to reveal a row specific the practician which are accepted in successful smart cities and, apparently, can be equally useful to all. In particular:

  • In the successful cities the open and transparent rules regulating use of data (on which functioning of any smart city depends) by public institutions and third parties, both within free exchange, and by the principle of monetization are applied to a covering of expenses on data management.
  • Many cities which far promoted on the way of creation of the intelligent city systems steadily aim to make the information and communication technologies (CT) and infrastructures of IoT available to users both from among the city administration, and out of it, and to them the separation manages to avoid between information resources of different departments.
  • The state bodies (and to their third-party partners) which are actively working on involvement of citizens to implementation of initiatives of creation of smart city managed to reach very high efficiency. Especially it concerns initiatives where advantages are most obvious, such as creation of intelligent systems of lighting or intellectual parkings.
  • Infrastructure of smart city should be scalable to provide a possibility of building and development according to future requirements, and safe to provide reliable data protection of state bodies and individuals.
  • The cities which as partners in technologies selected the companies capable to provide the necessary scale of innovations and having potential for investments and experience of the solution of real applied tasks, along with the open technology platforms allowing to avoid dependence on the specific supplier will get the maximum advantages.

According to forecasts, by 2050 66% of the population of Earth therefore it is vital to develop the strategies directed to more effective satisfaction of needs of their increasing population will live in the cities. During evolution of smart cities the irreplaceable role will be played by the ICT and IoT intellectual platforms. The research showed that many cities already use these technologies to optimize infrastructures and services, to make more reasoned decisions, to stimulate development of economy and social communications, to create safer and ecologically friendly communities, expanding at the same time a range of public services.

Jeremy Green, the leading analyst of Machina Research and the author of the collection "Scenarios of Development of Smart Cities", noted: "Nobody claims that to turn the city into intellectual – a simple task. For this purpose it is necessary to make a set of choices. Technologies and models of business develop promptly, and it results in uncertainty in many aspects. Standards already begin to appear, but their creation is still very far from end. Therefore easy way to provide intellectual opportunities does not exist. However there is an optimal way which needs to be done – considering all necessary factors, saving realistic expectations and desire to study on experience of others. It can be other cities solving the same problems, as you though in other context. It can be also the suppliers who already got some experience, in particular, in other vertically integrated industries. It can be also the young companies which often are beautiful innovators. And first of all, citizens are your correct assistants on this way".

You See Also

Notes

  1. Smart City Roadmap
  2. of#cite_note-academia.edu-1 Wikipedia
  3. [https://iot.ru/gorodskaya-sreda/-opyt-umnykh-gorodov-ili-praktika-megapolisov-upravlyaemykh-dannymi Experience of the smart cities, or the practician of megalopolises, data-driven
  4. As the analytics helps to create the safe and smart city
  5. By 2023 all localities of Uzbekistan will be safe
  6. the IBM Corporation became the partner of the government of Uzbekistan in implementation of "the smart cities"
  7. Since September 1 of the capital of Uzbekistan will do "the safe city"
  8. Huawei will help Azerbaijan to turn the capital into "the smart city"
  9. of Batumi will become "the smart city
  10. Saudi Arabia builds new supergorod Neom for 500 billion dollars (moreover and using Russia). What is it?
  11. The smart road – the future of road and transport infrastructure of Russia
  12. New IDC Spending Guide Forecasts of $124 Billion Will Be Spent on Smart Cities Initiatives in 2020
  13. Smart City Cyber Security
  14. Experts called the main cyberthreats for "the smart city"
  15. inistr Denmark: by  2030  people  will have neither  a property, nor  privacy
  16. of the smart cities by 2025 will exceed $2 trillion
  17. [1] of City Infrastructure Financing Acceleration Program Financing for smart cities and urban services with a total amount of 1 billion
  18. than Securing Smart Cities Moving Toward Utopia with Security in Mind
  19. '4 Cs' — Commitment, Collaboration, Consistency, Community — Crucial for Smart Cities Asia Leading The Way
  20. : Pros and Cons of Future Smart Cities
  21. Gartner: by 2019 50% of residents of the large cities will share personal data within programs of "the smart city"
  22. Results of the research of smart cities conducted by Machina Research – the brief summary Page of Nokia
  23. , devoted to solutions for smart city