Translated by
2019/06/16 08:58:59

UAV unmanned aerial vehicle (drone)

According to the determination approved by Assembly of ICAO "the unmanned aerial vehicle (drone) is the aircraft without pilot... which executes flight without commander of the aircraft onboard and or completely remotely is controlled from other place from the earth, from a board of other aircraft, from space, or is programmed and is completely autonomous".

Content

Aviation experts select three main types of aircrafts, except military rockets which fly without onboard pilots:

  • Managed remotely;
  • Programmed and working under control of navigation systems;
  • Developed with the imposed restrictions of flight and flying in a repeating way.

For the first time civil use of drones was announced by Amazon for delivery of consumer goods in 2013. Then the market began to develop promptly, opening new spheres of commercial and customized application. In addition to manufacturers of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) interest in a subject the companies-distributery of such devices, component manufacturers, optics and the systems of computer vision, the software, the company of cartographic services and aerial photography show, the agrarian sector, a wide range of public services (police, ambulance, fire, abnormal services), insurance and investment companies and others [1].

Classification of drones

It is difficult to classify unmanned aerial vehicles as they have very different characteristics. This variety comes from abundance of configurations and UAV components. Producers are not limited to any standards yet. As a result today there are no requirements from aviation regulators about how the UAV should be equipped.

UAVs remind the helicopter with 4 blades. They differ in dimensions, functionality, range of flights, level of autonomy and other characteristics.

Conditionally all drones can be divided into 4 groups:

  • Micro. Such UAVs weigh less than 10 kg, the maximum time spent in air – 60 minutes. Flight altitude – 1 kilometer.
  • Pass. The weight of these devices reaches 50 kg, time of stay in air reaches 5 hours. Flight altitude varies from 3 to 5 kilometers.
  • Midi. Unmanned aerial vehicles up to 1 ton, are expected 15 hours of flight. Such UAVs rise by height up to 10 kilometers.
  • Heavy UAVs. Their weight exceeds ton, devices are developed for distant flights by more than a day duration. Can move at the height of 20 kilometers.

In construction of the pilotless device there are a satellite navigator and the programmable module. If the UAV is used for receiving, preserving and information transfer on the operator console, in it the memory card and the transmitter in addition are installed.

Construction and functionality change depending on purpose of the device. There are models of drones which are able to accept teams of the person and to react to them. Special modules receivers of commands are installed in such devices.

J’son & Partners Consulting classifies drones (UAVs) by the following main characteristics:

  • on a design / configuration;
  • as take-off;
  • on purpose:
  • on technical characteristics;
  • as a power supply of the power unit;
  • on payload;
  • as the automation system;
  • on the crash avoidance system;
  • as navigation;
  • on types of protection against muffling of signals;
  • on capacity of a radio frequency spectrum;
  • on onboard data processing;
  • on specialization of the software.

Estimates of the market of the UAV

2018: Sales of drones in Russia made 160 thousand pieces (+70%) for the amount of 1.9 billion rubles (+53%)

In 2018 Russians purchased 160 thousand unmanned aerial vehicles that is 70% more, than the previous year that was promoted in many respects by high demand on cheap products. In money market size grew by 53% and reached 1.9 billion rubles, these groups "M of Video Eldorado" demonstrate. At the retailer annual sales of drones jumped up more than twice.

In 2018 budget UAVs worth up to 7 thousand rubles became the most popular. Due to their emergence in the market the average price on the UAV fell by 10% in comparison with 2017 and was 1.9 thousand rubles.

The popularity of video content on social networks provokes Russians to purchase of unmanned aerial vehicles
The popularity of video content on social networks provokes Russians to purchase of unmanned aerial vehicles

At the same time sale of the devices equipped with the camera with the resolution of 4K or FullHD, successor function for the owner and the shock-proof body grew three times. Such UAVs in 2018 occupied 10% of the market and are used mainly for professional shooting: records on actions, monitoring, logistics, protection or agrobusiness. 30% of the market are the share of the devices shooting video in standard permission. 

Analysts "M. of Video Eldorado" also note demand for drones growing from year to year with price labels from 30 thousand rubles. Devices weighing up to 250 grams occupied up to 70% of the Russian market of the UAV that is caused by legislative restrictions: heavier devices need to be registered.

According to the Head of Department "Entertainments and photo/video" the M of Video Eldorado groups of Oleg Reznikov, UAVs develop new spheres of use every year: from construction before protection and observation. However as the main driver of sales researchers call popularity of online video: daily 2  million videos are published in Russian-language social networks, follow from data of Brand Analytics to which the Kommersant newspaper refers.[2]

2016-2017

J’son & Partners Consulting

By estimates of J'son & Partners Consulting, the world market of the UAV in 2017 made $7.8 billion and will continue to grow actively. The most part of cost of the market is the share of military UAVs (53% of the market). In quantitative expression structure of the market specularly return: the main share in quantity is occupied by consumer UAVs (84%), 15% are the share of commercial UAVs and only 0.5% – on military drones. It is connected with what military UAVs cost an average in 200 times more of, than drones for civil needs.

Due to the gradual reduction in cost of the UAV component base and also entry into the market of numerous new players including in a military segment, the average cost of drones will continue to fall by 2020 on all segments by 7-27%. It will lead also to change of structure of the market of the UAV (both in monetary, and in quantitative expression) as will come hundreds of thousands and even millions of constantly cheapening consumer drones to the market, on functionality comparable already with commercial UAVs, and the military market will be entered by new players (for example, from China) who will offer necessary functionality at lower price, than at today's models.

In value term drones of civil appointment make already slightly less than a half of the market (47%), from them a half of total amount (24%), the rest - on consumer are the share of commercial UAVs (23%). Nevertheless, by estimates of J'son & Partners Consulting, the world market of the UAV will grow much more more in high gear in quantity, than in cost. And consumer UAVs will remain its main driver.

As for the Russian market of the UAV, at the end of 2017 our country occupied 3% in quantity and 2% in the cost of the world market. At the same time in a segment of military UAVs its share is multiply higher (15% in pieces). In 2017 the Russian market of the UAV is estimated at 163 million dollars (9.5 billion rubles) and by 2020 the market can grow by 1.5 times.

According to J’son & Partners Consulting, the share of drones of domestic production in the market of the Russian Federation makes 10% in 2017 and will increase to 11% by 2020. The main gain is necessary on a commercial segment where the big activity of the Russian producers is expected and which will increase twice to the current level. Thus, up to 40% of the commercial drones sold in the Russian Federation will be domestic production.

Still interfere with the further growth of the local market and the export potential of domestic solutions serious regulatory restrictions.

According to forecasts of the Japanese experts, the world market of remotely-controlled aircraft will grow by 2020 to $20.5 billion (80% more in comparison with 2015).

According to J’son & Partners Consulting, in 2016 the world market of the UAV is estimated at 7.3 billion dollars. It is predicted that it will grow to 9.5 billion dollars by 2020. The Russian market of the UAV in 2016 will make 147 million dollars with a potential of growth up to 224 million dollars by 2020.

Euroconsult

According to the estimates of analysts of Euroconsult made in 2016 the size of the market of release, services and sale far off of the piloted air devices (RPAS) by 2025 will grow to $26 billion that 10 times more indicators of 2015 ($1 billion).

By this time in the world about 600 thousand RPAS drones will be used. 39% of such devices are involved in the field of agriculture. The companies releasing UAVs gradually come also to the sphere of provision of services.

Analysts of Gartner in February, 2017 published results of a research according to which in 2017 the release of drones will grow to 3 million. For comparison: in 2016 2.1 million pilotless devices were produced. In 2017 revenue from deliveries of drones will grow to $6 billion, and by 2020 – to $11.2 billion. Annual average rates of a gain of the market (CAGR) during the forecast period are expected at the level of 34%.

Authors of a research noted that the share of drones for industrial monitoring during this period will remain the biggest – about 30%.

7% of UAVs is necessary on the market of agriculture. On commercial delivery, because of high costs of the made transactions, only 1% of drones is necessary.

Representatives of Tractica company predict that income from deliveries of drones and provision of services, will grow from $792 million in 2017 to $12.6 billion by 2025. Affirms as the report of the company that the most part of income are the share of sale of the equipment. Then this share will be displaced towards services and transactions.

The flying cars

Top trends of the market of drones

World

2019

Commercialization of drones can lead to increase in security risk of the population of Earth. Analysts of IOActive research company performed with such opinion. They insist that expansion of practice of use of UAVs business is connected with a number of invisible risks[3].

Experts of IOActive are based on the forecast of Technavio company which in 2018 predicted growth of the market of commercial UAVs by 36% ($11.61 billion in numeric expression) during the period between 2018 and 2022. According to IOActive, growth of popularity and availability of drones does not correspond to improvement from bezopastnostny characteristics. Among other things, experts consider probable cases of reprogramming of devices on flights on certain coordinates of GPS and for start of cyber attacks in Wi-fi networks (or other types of wireless networks). Besides, potential danger of carrying out man-in-the-middle attacks, distribution of malware, attacks on traffic intersections or violations of confidentiality of separate geographical locations for the purpose of carrying out industrial espionage is considered high.

Analysts of IOActive urge producers of drones to take all necessary measures for ensuring cyber security of aircraft. According to them, the similar products made by military had no such problem as in the Defense Ministries and intelligence services understand need of the maximum protection against hackers.

Commercial drones have no similar characteristics in view of the fact that, according to experts, the companies making them are aimed at a fast output of a product to the market more and give to security issues much less attention.

2017

  • There are new questions concerning legality of an ispolzovaniyabl in different situations as the range of use of drones constantly grows[4];
  • Transition of producers and service companies from a stage of studying of UAV technologies and the market to implementation of technologies and solutions;
  • Insurance of the UAV becomes a priority. Service companies began commercial operation of the UAV and get the wide park of drones that requires reduction of risk of their operation;
  • The world market of services based on the UAV begins to accept outlines. The service companies rendering services worldwide implement drones in the processes and offer them to the clients;
  • Civil and military UAVs began to kannibalizirovat the market of satellites and the piloted aircrafts, and this trend will accrue;
  • Demand for high-quality data increases;
  • Mass implementation of stabilization systems of flight in consumer UAVs;
  • And "analyze development of a segment of the market "make" (DIY) itself";
  • Consumer drones turned into a fashionable trend;
  • Thousands and tens of thousands of new jobs it will be created in the UAV industry in the different countries of the world;
  • Developments in the field of artificial intelligence and specialized sensors will allow to bring use of drones to new level.


Beryera of market development of the UAV

Development of the industry of the UAV meets a number of restrictions and barriers, both legal, and technical which significantly influence market development, both in the certain countries, and in the world in general. Problems of market development of the UAV are:

Legal barriers

  • Intervention of drones in private life and trade secret. Using even the consumer drone, it is possible to fly without effort on the private territory and to make photo and video filming, including using night vision, thermal imagers and other sensors that can break directly the principles of non-interference to private life and trade secret.
  • Need finding of a compromise between need of private consumers, business and the state. Exponential growth of the sold devices and their unlicensed operation can create threat of functioning of public services and create threat of national security.
  • Drones can be used not for designated purpose. For the purpose of theft, smuggling, transportation of the prohibited substances. And often to define what mission is executed by the drone which is even nearby, is not possible until its commission.

Russia

2017

At the end of 2017 Russia occupied 3% of a share in quantity and 2% of a share in the cost of the world market. In 2017 the Russian market of the UAV is estimated at 163 million dollars (9.5 billion rubles) and by 2020 the market can grow by 1.5 times. Russia occupies more powerful share in a segment of military UAVs – 15% in number of sales.

According to J’son & Partners Consulting, the share of drones of domestic production in the market of the Russian Federation makes 10% in 2017 and will increase to 11% by 2020. The main gain is necessary on a commercial segment where the big activity of the Russian producers is expected and which will increase twice to the current level – up to 40% of the commercial drones sold in the Russian Federation will be domestic production. Consumer mass segment will be controlled completely by popular brands of foreign production (as DJI) with insignificant presence of the Russian producers (5%). Military UAVs of foreign production which in piece copies are bought now by the Defense Ministries for studying of foreign experience can almost disappear by 2020.

According to AERONET Association, at the civil market there are 190 +/-20 companies working at the market of the civil UAVs having age no more than three years and having the state to five employees. Their total revenue is stated by Association in 1400 +/-500 million rubles. Activity of these companies includes:

  • production and sale of own UAVs and their component parts;
  • distribution of foreign drones and component parts;
  • provision of services based on the UAV (30% of the companies).

The specifics of the Russian market of the UAV consist in dominance of producers of military drones and extremely small presence of producers of consumer and commercial drones. At the same time the prevailing part of producers of military UAVs has in the portfolio or the models which were already outdate technically, or only pilot modern samples which are shown at exhibitions, but do not come to mass production (for needs of the state or for export). And, despite considerable budget injections from the state, products of the Russian companies of military industrial complex do not sustain the competition to the western samples, for example with drones of Israel now.

Similar picture and in a segment of consumer UAVs: all market is occupied with products of the foreign companies, more the Chinese. And, in spite of the fact that for the last 2–3 years in the country the companies startups, for example based on Skolkovo appeared, all of them are at a stage of development and testing of prototypes or at best the first piece orders and do not perform bulk sales.

If to speak about a commercial segment, then now not less than 58 domestic manufacturers having working models or at least prototypes work at the market of the Russian Federation. Most the companies turns out dual-use products – execute the state order and at the same time try to earn from the commercial market. Producers with the greatest number of the UAVs commercial models in a portfolio are Zala Aero Group, Bespilotnye sistemy LLC and "The Istra experimental mechanical plant".

In consumer segment of the market of the Russian Federation the UAVs foreign producers dominate. The main share of consumer market is occupied by cheap drones in a price segment to $250. It is more correct to tell that it is the radio-controlled toys purchased generally for entertainments.

2016

Russia occupies a small share in sales of drones in the world market, it makes about 2%, but has the high potential for further growth. It should be noted that in sales pattern of the Russian market more than 70% of the market in which the main share is occupied by consumer drones fall to the share of civil UAVs.

Analysts of J'son & Partners Consulting note the following key trends of market development of unmanned aerial vehicles:

  • Drones actively are implemented into segments which are serviced using satellites today and the piloted aircrafts, at the same time demand for high-quality data of air shooting increases;
  • Borders between professional and consumer drones began to be narrowed, and the average price will fall for all types of devices;
  • The new fast-growing segment - the market of services for geoinformation services forms, and developments in the field of artificial intelligence and specialized sensors will keep development of the UAV industry.

Advantages of pilotless devices

To estimate all advantages of the UAV, it is necessary to understand where and as they can be used. Today about 90% of the Russian market of UAVs are involved in two directions:

Mapping.

Diagnostic shooting of objects, in particular, pipelines, power transmission line, highways.

Pilotless devices and in the agricultural sector for collection of information about acreage, aero graphic shooting and also chemical treatment of shoots are actively used.

Maintenance and maintenance of the UAV costs cheaper similar expenses on the piloted aircraft. Airplanes and helicopters need maintenance of security systems and protection of pilots. The specialists managing and servicing airplanes and helicopters should be trained, retraining, the medical commission. Time and finance costs on UAVs it is incommensurable below.

Powerful advantage of UAVs is their passability and transport availability – they will reach those land plots where to reach by land or by the airplane, is problematic. For example, to almost deserted island of Hachin on Seliger.

Speed of cargo delivery – one more reasoned argument pro. The UAV reaches the remote land plot in 30 minutes, and the helicopter – in 2 hours.

For the piloted airplanes existence of the huge platform is important for take off and landing while for landing of UAVs there is enough band of 500-600 meters, and miniature drones will easily land even on steps near a threshold.

UAVs economically spend fuel thanks to compact dimensions that is also advantage.

The priority industries for implementing solutions based on drones

J’son & Partners Consulting selects the following scopes of drones in the report of 2016:

Key perspectives of market development of drones in Russia:

  • application of the large cities by police;
  • application by firefighters;
  • application in health care;
  • application in cartography;
  • geogiven to high definition;
  • urgent delivery of purchases, food, spare parts, batteries, cables;
  • courier services;
  • aerial photograph for needs of agrobusiness and exact agriculture;
  • monitoring of pipelines and power transmission line;
  • use as the last mile for improvement of a covering of networks;
  • entry into the market of the UAV of airlines;
  • use in media;
  • increase in commercial activity in software development;
  • sales increase of drones with high-quality cameras and stabilization systems.


At the same time, as well as any innovation industry, the market of the UAV meets difficulties which should be overcome. J’son & Partners Consulting selects the following barriers of market development of the UAV:

  • Insufficiently clear legislation in relation to use of consumer and commercial drones and prohibition of their free use (licensing) in airspace in Russia;
  • Absence in Russia the modern production base focused on the mass consumer and mass commercial market that leads to higher costs and value increase of devices;
  • Drones belong to type of goods which export from Russia is prohibited by the law. The similar situation is also in some other countries where there are customs import restrictions or export of these devices.

Besides, there is a danger of creation of problems to other participants of air traffic and also vehicles, infrastructure and people on the earth. There are serious concerns on use of drones not to destination for intervention in private life and a trade secret, whenever possible interception and receiving control of the drone by other persons. For decrease in the considered risks in a number of the countries there is a requirement of compulsory insurance of commercial UAVs. All this constrains development and as a result private venture investments into the UAV projects are still obviously insufficient.

UAVs in archeology

Archeologists resort to aerial photography for a long time and also to pictures from satellites and to laser ranging sensors of LiDAR (abbr. Light Identification Detection and Ranging is detection, identification and determination of range using light) by drawing up topographic maps of the area and determination of places for new excavation. However emergence of compact and inexpensive drones became this break for archeology.

The cameras mounted on drones with thermal imagers are capable to detect subjects to archaeological researches at a depth up to several meters
The cameras mounted on drones with thermal imagers are capable to detect subjects to archaeological researches at a depth up to several meters

Equipped with heat chambers, UAVs help scientists to find the remains of settlements and buildings hidden from eyes underground. In November, 2017 learned the ABC News agency about experience of use of the UAV by the American archeologists of Jesse Casana and Chad Chad Hill.

The cameras mounted on drones with thermal imagers are capable to detect subjects to archaeological researches at a depth up to several meters as temperature of a brick or stone laying is, as a rule, higher, than at the soil surrounding it. Besides UAVs significantly save time: inspection of the territory with their help takes minutes instead of several months, as at traditional methods.

«
The naked eye sees only an empty field, but big stone walls and other constructions which are not visible on a surface in any way underground disappear. Constructions have different thermal characteristics and if to remove in the necessary foreshortening and at the right time, all of you will see. It is simply amazing! — tells Jesse Kazan.
»

Archeologists experiment with technology not the first year and used drones in several projects. UAVs helped to make a number of important discoveries in Asia, America and in the Middle East. Among finds of scientists — the massive stone plate made by hands of the person which managed to be detected in the ancient city of Petra in Jordan.[5]

UAVs in the energootrasl

Global market of solutions for the power industry using UAVs in the fall of 2017 is estimated by consulting company PwC almost at 9 and a half billion dollars and has steady perspectives of growth.

Drones create a separate segment of the global energy market in connection with transition of the world industry to energy efficient technologies. Increase in this segment is promoted by energy saving policy on transition to renewable energy sources in China, India and the other countries. PwC noted that regulators of the leading power states collect essential penalties from the companies for forced shutdowns. And the annual losses of the industry connected with repair work and payments of compensations are about $169 billion. Experts note that use by power engineering specialists of the UAV allows to minimize losses. In particular, UAVs with the built-in flame thrower effectively use in elimination of the "blockages" burdening lines of power supply, they also help to monitor vegetation level on sections of power networks and to carry out predesigns of implementation of investments into new power plants.

PwC counted that the extent of the power supply networks shrouding all planet in total will increase by 15% – up to 6.8 million km[6].

Inspections of the NPP

Pilotless lethal devices (UAVs) help to preserve money and do safer work of employees, the Scottish company Dounreay Site Restoration Limited (DSRL) specializing in an output of the NPP from operation states. In November, 2017 DSRL reported that it will save 100 thousand feet sterlings (more than $130 thousand) due to use of the drone for high-rise inspection of objects of the NPP.

The drone equipped with cameras is capable to rise by height up to 120 meters so now the staff of Dounreay can perform high-rise inspections from the earth and not put itself at risk. Read more here.

UAVs and fire fighting

Scopes of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) constantly extend. At the end of August, 2017 the CNBC agency told how drones help with fire fighting.

Fire services in a number of the American cities send drones to the place of ignition, using them as intelligence agents. The specialized UAVs equipped with gas analyzers and cameras with thermal imagers allow not only to estimate disaster scales, but also to save lives.

Important advantage of UAVs — a possibility of their fast application.

Firefighters extinguish fire by means of the quadcopter
Firefighters extinguish fire by means of the quadcopter
«
On what earlier 10-15 minutes were required, using drones it is possible to make in two-three minutes — the chief of battalion of fire department of the city of Frimont, the State of North Carolina, Jeff Kleven reported in an interview to the agency.
»

Frimont — one of several hundred American cities where UAVs are in the service of firefighters. According to data of the SkyFire Consulting company specializing in training of firemen in work with drones in the USA from 300 to 400 police stations and fire services use the UAV, and this number quickly increases.

According to the head of SkyFire Consulting Matt Sloane, earlier during the fires it was necessary to involve hundreds of people in search and rescue works, and the drone now flying by air with the thermal imager helps to find the person very quickly.

The IK-image of the fire which is also received using drones allows to understand where the flame storms most strongly and on what suppression of sections it is necessary to concentrate efforts. Besides, at liquidation of ignitions during the railway crashes specialized drones can be used for identification of leak of chemicals.

One more advantage of the UAV — profitability. The UAV for couple of thousands of dollars is capable to replace at least partially helicopter service which involvement costs millions. Especially it is relevant for such towns as Frimont which are not able to afford so big expenditure, Jeff Kleven noted.[7]

UAVs for providing telecommunication services

According to the report of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), in 2015 57% of people around the world had no Internet access that means that two thirds of world's population are still not connected. Also will not be connected in the next years as construction of land telecommunication infrastructure to them will be more expensive, than potential income. The installation of traditional land infrastructure including the rights to a ground, the equipment, fiber optic cables / very high frequencies communications and access to power sources, is unprofitable here. In such regions much less potential clients and that to reach them, even more difficult infrastructure, and, despite a covering of more than 90% of the population of Earth will be required by networks 2G, increase in this indicator up to 100% when using traditional approaches seems improbable in the near future as investments of operators into creation of such traditional infrastructure will hardly pay off.

According to Json & Partners Consulting, the covering of the territory of Russia cellular networks makes about 10%. According to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, almost all localities are covered, but 1343 city settlements numbering inhabitants from 10 thousand to 500 thousand nevertheless are left without Internet access and mobile communication. Another 38%, or 6725 localities make the cities and villages where there is a voice cellular communication, but there is no both wire, and wireless Internet access. Therefore now for receiving communication services outside coverages of cellular networks, especially in hardly accessible areas satellite communication is, as a rule, used. Rates for satellite communication and data transmission are much higher than rates of mobile operators as design of satellites, their start and service require huge investments.

For the solution of needs for temporary expansion of network telecom operators use the mobile base stations (MBS) on wheels (COW, cow on wheels) or the mobile base stations (MBS). The feature of PBS consists in their big cost (lease can cost 170 thousand rubles/days), the size and limitation in application is normal in places with existence of highways. Therefore each of telecom operators, having tens of thousands of stationary BS, only several PBS own.

Rapid market development of consumer attached devices stimulated in recent years development of new miniature transmitters, antennas and standards of communication which allow to solve old problems in a new way. Now the need for permanent or temporary expansion of a coverage of a communication network can be implemented already not only at the expense of satellites or mobile BS, but also at the expense of more available solutions, for example UAVs (drones). Drones can become a part of telecommunication infrastructure of telecom operators, performing function of relaying of telecommunication signals. By estimates of PwC, the volume of the world market for implementing solutions using the UAV in the telecommunication industry is 6.3 billion US dollars in 2016.

Telecom operators do not use drones for relaying of telecommunication signals (radio, television, the Internet) on a permanent basis, but carry already out pilot starts of similar services. Large technology corporations (for example, Google, Facebook) buy the specialized companies and startups developing new technologies and on their base are going to start new telecom services. The expediency of use of drones for expansion of a covering of telecommunication services is connected with rather lower cost of such solutions in comparison with traditional base stations, lack of need of investments into land infrastructure and bigger universality of possible application.

By estimates of J'son & Partners, by 2020 cellular operators will use up to 3739 mobile base stations that on 1527 units or for 69% of stations it is more, than in 2016. Considering a gain the Internet of traffic in networks of mobile operators at the level of 40% for 2016 and its predicted increase more, than twice by 2020, operators will need increase in network transmission capacity and number of PBS/MBS. The most part from again purchased MBS there will be modern and compact stations of standards LTE/5G, including miniature MBS which can be attached on drones. Will depend on the strategy of each operator what there will be a share of these miniature MBS in the total number of MBS.

On the basis of the analysis of global trends in J'son & Partners Consulting selects the following options of expansions of telecommunication networks of mobile operators using drones:

  • use of the attached drones
  • use of drones for relaying of services in the territories which are not covered with communication networks;
  • deployment of communication services based on groupings of atmospheric satellites.

Miniature MBS of the LTE standard (5G) which will allow to provide cellular communication and the Internet in places where access to a cellular network is limited or a signal of low-quality network and also in the remote areas and on special events become a basis of providing telecom services based on drones.

The attached drones

Use of the so-called "the attached drones" of Flying COWs (Cell on Wings) to which on strong, but very easy cable voltage from a ground station moves that it allows to hold them in air at specified height and in the pre-determined location almost unlimited time allows to solve problems of a local cellular covering in any territory. Besides, on a cable connection of MBS to broadband access channel on the earth is made that allows to use the normal serial equipment of type of femtocells and repeaters/boosters in the solution.

Facebook announced in June, 2017 completion of the second tests of massive Aquila drones in the desert Arizona. Robot planes rose by height of 1 km though the world's largest social network calculates that they will be able to clear the bar from 18 km to 27 km. The weight of the drone is 400 kg, and wingspan - 43 meters that it is more, than at Boeing-737. The project is implemented for the organization of a wireless internet in rural areas in which there is no access to cellular communication.

Atmospheric satellites

Atmospheric satellites can be used as as the single drones relaying a signal in a binding to the specific area and in the form of the whole grouping from tens, hundreds and even thousands of AS covering with a radio signal certain areas, the countries and the whole regions. As communication systems and transfer can be used by radio - or optic communication.

UAVs in logistics (in tch delivery of sendings)

Mercedes-Benz

In November, 2017 it became known of a successful completion of the large-scale program of Mercedes-Benz for testing of the UAV for delivery of daily goods in Switzerland.

The Mercedes van with the specialized platform for landing of quadcopters
The Mercedes van with the specialized platform for landing of quadcopters

The program lasted three weeks, from September 25 to October 13, 2017, the press service of Daimler AG carmaker, parent company Mercedes-Benz reports. During this time drones executed 100 flights and delivered small purchases to the specialized Mercedes vans in different parts of Zurich. Within experimental service the high level of security was shown, and the concern is going to expand flights in 2018, Bloomberg tells.[8] Read more here.

3 years of prison for a marijuana transportation

The drug dealer by the name of Charlie Adifiyi using the drone trying to transport to one of prisons of London a load with marijuana and cell phones himself got to the places not so remote. In November, 2017 learned the British edition Daily Mail about it.[9]

Incident occurred in August, 2016. The drone with smuggling which flew on the territory of the London prison "Pentonvil" was marked by cameras of outside video surveillance. The UAV was intercepted by officers of division of Operation Airborne which is responsible for protection of airspace around prison. Read more here.

SKYF Pilotless airfreight platform

Russian Post and the company Skyf company at the end of 2017 is going to test delivery of sendings using drones. This press was announced by the director of Skyf Dmitry Arsentyev. The company will provide the pilotless airfreight platform with vertical take-off and landings about the maximum weighing load up to 250 kg. The maximum flying range of the drone with a load in 50 kg will make 350 km, and duration – till eight o'clock.

For delivery of material values Sberbank is going to use drones. In June, 2017 the experimental UAV performed successful real delivery of cash from the cash center to the collector car. Speed of the drone was 180 km/h. As Lev Hasis, the first deputy chairman of the board of Sberbank assured, tests will be continued. Permit to use UAVs for delivery of material values to banks should permit the Central Bank of Russia.

In the spring of 2017 the Swiss logistic company Matternet got permission to start of the delivery service using UAVs. The first Matternet-stations will service hospitals and the medical centers in the country. Delivery time of medical materials will make half an hour. Health facilities will be able to transport blood and samples of analyses between branches. Matternet sends drones to an exact point of landing on the platform of the station. After landing the drone is fixed on the platform, its battery is replaced, and the load is taken away only after scanning of the QR code[10].

Gazprom Neft

Gazprom Neft for the first time performed delivery of a load to the remote field using the unmanned aerial vehicle. The project was implemented jointly by specialists Gazpromneft Supply and Gazpromneft Noyabrskneftegaz with assistance of the MMS Radar scientific and production enterprise. You look in more detail here.

Since 2015 Gazprom Neft conducts commercial operation of unmanned aerial vehicles for monitoring of operation of pressure head oil pipelines. UAVs provide control of integrity of intra-field trunks, including on the remote sections of fields. Use of the modern equipment allows to monitor in real time a status of pipelines and to considerably reduce environmental risks, including during the fire-dangerous period.

Pilotless sea vessels in Japan

The Japanese company Mitsui OSK Lines ("Mitsui ou-es-key lines"), world leading manufacturer of marine cargo transport and tankers, together with other Nippon Yusen company (Nippon of yusen) is going to begin by 2025 equipment of the courts by the systems of pilotless management within the project on decrease in number of incidents at the sea. The Nikkey newspaper[11] reported about it[12].

It is supposed that the management system using artificial intelligence will be connected to Internet of Things that will allow it to collect instantly information on weather, technical condition of the vessel, obstacles in a way, to analyze them and depending on it to change a course and motion speed. The absolute exception of collisions of the ships in the universal sphere of shipping and also increase in profitability and, as a result, decrease in emissions of noxious gases will become a main goal.

According to the plan, the Japanese companies want to construct about 250 ships equipped with a new system by 2025. Estimates project cost at several hundred millions of dollars. It should increase demand for advanced technologies and attract interest of world cargo carriers that will promote return of Japan of the lost positions among the ship-building states. Nippon Yusen already started studying of technologies of prevention of collisions of sea vessels, and other companies work on creation of a system of forecasting of technical failures which keeps the continuous analysis of a status of the ship.

Japan in connection with reduction of the population and labor shortage now actively studies pilotless technologies of management to solve the imminent problem at the expense of completely automatic equipment. First of all, changes are going to be made to the agriculture most suffering from outflow of working hands. Land transport transportations should become other sphere for implementation of UAVs. This financial year (i.e. till March, 2018) it is going to test in usual conditions self-driving trucks. If the experiment comes to the end successfully, then they can appear on the Japanese roads by 2020.

The most fierce fight behind the fastest creation of passenger pilotless cars was unrolled between the Japanese carmakers. They are actively supported by the government as, as envisioned, it will help the elderly people living in areas, remote from the center, to visit, for example, the doctor or to go to shops and also to reduce the number of road accident.

The goods delivery drones in Reykjavík

On August 23 it became known of start in Reykjavík of the first-ever service on the goods delivery using drones, CNBC tells.[13]

Now residents of the Icelandic capital can receive products and other purchased goods directly at a threshold of the houses. As organizers of service assure, use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will allow to reduce delivery time of orders considerably.

In Iceland the first-ever service on the goods delivery is started by drones
In Iceland the first-ever service on the goods delivery is started by drones

Reykjavík is the coastal city which is separated by the extensive bay and several small rivers. Because of it transportation of goods turns into a difficult and expensive task on time.

UAVs will help to change a situation. By words Yariva Basha (Yariv Bash), the head and the cofounder of the Israeli startup of Flytrex which organized the delivery service drones, buyers will be able to receive goods almost also quickly how to do orders.

Now service is available to clients of AHA, the largest in Iceland of the trade online platform. Further experience is going to be extended also to other countries.

Start of service marks a victory of supporters of pilotless technologies. Today AHA registers 60 percent cost reduction on delivery drones in comparison with traditional methods of transportation on the ground and to the sea. Also it is reported that drones help to save up to 20 minutes on delivery in rush hours.

Earlier Transport management of Iceland granted permission for start of service. The regulator said that service will increase traffic safety.

«
Use of drones will lower load of transport infrastructure that will make roads safer. At the same time the better and fast delivery service will become available to people that is also advantage — said in department.
»

However, critics pilotless technologies continue to claim that similar services can pose a threat for security and frequent life of people.

Permission in the Russian Federation to commercial transportations

On August 23 there was information that the Government of the Russian Federation intends to provide to owners of light aircrafts and UAVs the right to transportation of passengers and loads on a commercial basis, Izvestia with reference to the "road map" prepared by Ministry of Transport tells.[14]

Photo: logdok.ru
Photo: logdok.ru

As you know, according to the current legislation such devices have no right to make commercial transportations that became an origin of "grey" schemes in this sector.

It is expected that the program providing creation of conditions for commercial use of UAVs and drones will be developed until the end of September, 2017. In particular, certain requirements to the organization of transportations by persons which own aviation equipment with a passenger capacity up to 19 places or with the maximum take-off weight of 5.7 tons will be stated in the program.

At the same time owners of UAVs and drones presumably will not need to register airline and to make out the air operator certificate — it it will be possible to receive according to the simplified diagram. Requirements to safety of flight will remain standard.

Sberbank and delivery of money

In June, 2017 the drone of Sberbank for the first time successfully delivered cash from the cash center to the collector car. On the page on Facebook Lev Hasis, the first deputy chairman of board of Sberbank reported about it. You look in more detail here.

Taxi drones

The Russian startup and the flying taxi for Singapore

In March it became known that residents of Singapore will have an opportunity to come back home from work by the flying taxi. According to New York Post with reference to the Singapore edition Business Times, the Ministry of Transport of the country conducts negotiations with several technology companies concerning carrying out test flights of pilotless taxi drones. Among them — the Russian company Hover Surf.

UAVs and identification of violations of traffic regulations in Russia

Tests of UAVs for control of observance of traffic regulations on roads in some subjects of Russia began in 2011-2012, however their application had no mass character and was not regulated. Use of UAVs was not stated in the regulations on supervision of observance of requirements in the field of traffic safety published by the Ministry of Internal Affairs in 2009 and its later versions. You watch further Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for identification of violations of traffic regulations in Russia.

"Patrol" of office space

In December, 2017 in Japan provided T-Frend service using the drone which will help to solve a problem of hours-long processings of employees, relevant for the country.

Fighting robots and UAVs

Main article - Fighting robots and UAVs.

Tiny drones murderers can make mass attacks on people (video)

In November, 2017 professor  of the University of California UC Berkeley   Stuart Russell submitted video showing the world in which nuclear weapon is replaced with a swarm of independent tiny drones murderers. The scientist said that these drones — already reality.

The video transfers the viewer to audience where the speaker from a scene shows the unmanned aerial vehicle of the size of a small bird.

Such drones are capable to lay independently a route to  the purpose, to recognize it   by sight, and  then the directed explosion to break the head and  to cause to the person  injuries of a brain incompatible with life.  Robots obtain data on the purpose from  the Internet and  social networks where people for years spread all necessary information on  themselves and  the life.

Video was created at Institute of life of the future (Future of Life Institute)  which is supported  by Stephen Hawking  and  Elon Musk. The roller was provided by professor Russell at the meeting of organization members of the united nations devoted to modern types of arms which took place in Geneva.  

«
Working in a command, drones can get into buildings, cars, trains and at the same time to evade from counteraction. They cannot be stopped — the person in the video says.
»

He adds that for $25 million it is possible to create the whole swarm of such tiny "ruthless murderers" who are capable to destroy the half-cities.

«
Potential of artificial intelligence for advantage of mankind is huge, especially in defense. Wide use of the machines taught to kill people will be destructive for our security and freedom. Thousands of my colleagues researchers agree. But an opportunity to work escapes quickly — Stewart Russell reported.[15]
»

UAVs on service of law enforcement agencies

Some of the first who began to use UAVs for protection of law and order of steel police officers of the USA. So far the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorized already more than 74 government agencies on use of UAVs in country airspace, 17 of which – law-enforcement. The most known among them – Montgomery County in Texas, Mesa County Sheriff's Department in Colorado and Grand Forks from Northern Dakota[16].

Permission of FAA allowed security officers to use UAVs for detailed inspection of crime scenes and search of injured people absolutely legally. However the American police officers actively involved the above-stated agencies earlier, before receiving the necessary legal rights by the agencies. It is known that since 2013 the Grand Forks group managed to process about 30 requests of law enforcement agencies among which 4 cases of collection of data on circumstances of suicides are registered. Using drones even the body of the gone hunter was found.

Police officers of the USA try to use drones and in more difficult transactions, for example, such as observation of potentially dangerous criminals. However here the American legislature needs to study the legal base in details. So, in the first recommendations for use of UAVs in law enforcement agencies which left in May, 2015, it was highlighted that "the respect for the rights and freedoms to citizens is a key quality of democracy". The fourth amendment to the Constitution of the USA protects citizens from unmotivated search and shadowing, and this fact significantly limits possibilities of the American police officers on use of drones.

Law enforcement agencies of Great Britain where, as we know, the systems of police observation of citizens are one of the most advanced in the world have far smaller legal problems in this question. Recently information leaked out into the press that the British police officers began to use almost silent multikopter of Black Hawk allowing a message a video with a sound.

Also it became known of plans of the British police to use UAVs in operations on prosecution of criminals. By different estimates, it will cost to security officers much more cheaper and more safely, than use of motorcycles, machines and helicopters. Purchase of the drone and its long operation will manage in the amount smaller, than one pursuit using the helicopter (that perhaps not always) and two police cars. In addition to it, use of UAVs does not threaten life of police officers in any way.

The first successful use of the quadcopter by the British police became known in February, 2010 when using the device AirRobot AR100B equipped with a video surveillance system and the thermal imaging camera, security officers of the County of Merseyside in the west of England could find in dense fog of the automobile thief. Similar drones are used in Great Britain still. It is known that the technology of the device was originally developed for needs of military investigation. It is almost noise-free, and can work at night, transferring the image in real time.

In France and Japan UAVs are actively used for remote observation of "accumulations of people". However separate divisions which are created in these countries for the purpose of fight against cases of unauthorized use of drones are of particular interest. In particular, the police of Tokyo stated quite recently that the quadcopters violating these or those rules of flights will be caught using special drones of the big size. The principle of work is extremely simple here: the network about 2х3 meters in size from below is attached to the big quadcopter. Further such device catches up small drones violators and, having caught them network, takes out from a prohibited zone.

For the first time in practice the similar method of hunt for drones violators was tested in February, 2016. From this point "drones-otlavlivateli" regularly serve in the ranks of security officers. According to police of Tokyo, a main objective of similar works – protection of important locations "taking into account the worst possible scenarios" from what it is possible to draw a conclusion that the speech here, perhaps, goes not so much about neutralization of the drones paparazzi observing private life of celebrities, how many about counteraction to serious threat from the drones terrorists armed with explosive. In modern conditions a thing very relevant, especially if to consider that according to the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, cases of use of the UAVs filled with explosive in Syria are already known. Also this summer FSB already warned about plans of terrorists to use drones for commission of terrorist attacks in Europe.

Development perspectives

Police officers do not use drones for conducting really difficult special operations. Work on practical application of UAVs is conducted pointwise that will allow to understand their actual potential. However, according to many experts, drones police officers can have very optimistic perspectives. Without any doubts it is possible to note that, having added drones with different types of arms, possibilities of their use in law-enforcement structures considerably will increase.

The armed drones can become really terrible force against criminals, and for this purpose in some countries the legislation is already studied. For example, legislature of Northern Dakota (USA) in August, 2015 permitted security officers to use any weapon on UAVs, except fire. In other words, police officers of this state had an opportunity to add drones with the shooting stun guns, powerful sprayers of gas and the traumatic weapon shooting rubber bullets.

Experiments on equipment of police drones are conducted by gas sprays. Moreover, the French company Drone Volt produces in lots the TEAR GAS UAV which is intended for spraying of gas or peppery extract. However similar practical use of drones is not known – the French security officers use these devices only for remote observation of "accumulations of people" so far.

It should be noted that the potential of use of UAVs in the ranks of law enforcement authorities can be limited not so much technically, how many legally. So, the American union of protection of civil liberties of ACLU already expressed a concern that arms of police UAVs can become the reason of unreasonable use of weapons as the operator of the drone is not present on site events personally, so will not be able adequately to be guided on a situation. Also at the moment discussions with civil human rights organizations concerning legality of use of drones for observation of suspects are actively conducted. Whether observation of potential criminals is invasion into their private life and whether there are in similar cases any exceptions?

Law enforcement authorities and legislature of the different countries still should resolve the legal issues connected with opportunities of use of drones. However it is already obvious that possibilities of security officers with attraction of UAVs will increase repeatedly. Today it is possible to select the following options of use of drones by law enforcement agencies:

  • Preventive video surveillance
  • Control of mass actions
  • Providing meetings the VIP, including summits
  • Prevention of acts of terrorism
  • Control of protest actions
  • Operations on fight against organized crime
  • Operations on capture of criminals
  • Search of the gone people
  • Studying of the crime scene
  • Support of an operative communication
  • Prevention of illegal immigration
  • Observation of land and sea lines of regular messages
  • Observation of traffic flows
  • Analysis of the reasons of road accident
  • Tracking of the stolen cars
  • Fight against sea pirates
  • Prevention of illegal mining

The Dutch police closed up the program for use of eagles for capture of drones

In December, 2017 it became known that the Dutch police closed up the program for training of eagles interceptors for capture of undesirable drones. The project failed because of high cost, complexity of training of birds and features of behavior of predators.

The experimental program it was announced in January, 2016. Within the project the police of Holland bought eagles and employed instructors for their training, Gizmodo with reference to the Netherlands NOS and NLTime Internet resources reports.[17]

The Dutch police closed up the program for training of eagles interceptors for capture of undesirable drones
The Dutch police closed up the program for training of eagles interceptors for capture of undesirable drones

As envisioned by the Dutch police officers, having noticed the UAV violator in not put place, for example, over big accumulation of people during the mass action, eagles had to intercept them and carry away to a certain place.

However during trainings it became clear that birds not always execute what from them is required. It raised serious doubts concerning whether eagles will be able to carry out the task in actual practice, but not on the training field.

Besides, zoodefenders stated concerns that at interception of drones of a bird can be seriously wounded by UAV blades, and trainers, aware habits of these predators, warned that without having caught the UAV, the eagle can attack the people who are nearby.

Possibly, for all these reasons in practice did not reach use of eagles interceptors though instructors with birds were on duty on several mass actions in Rotterdam and Brussels.

As a result at the end of 2017 the police of Holland decided to refuse further work in this direction and to look for other methods of interception of undesirable drones.

Meanwhile, observers of NOS note that the local police closed recently one more experimental program which provided use of rats for search of illegal pyrotechnics and remains of human bones. According to law enforcement authorities to prepare rodents for work for police it was unreal.[18]

The robots disguised under pigeons began shadowing the population

At the end of June, 2018 it became known that in China the robots disguised under pigeons began shadowing the population.

Radio-controlled aircraft which are a part of the program under the name Dove are already used by the military organizations and authorities in five provinces of China.

The robot pigeon in China
The robot pigeon in China

The wingspan of robotic birds reaches 50 cm and, they can gather speed to 40 km/h. Besides, devices are equipped with the module GPS, the speed sensor, the camera of high resolution turned down and the antenna using which operators can control movements "ptitsy". Robots also have a communication channel with a possibility of satellite contact.

According to Independent, these robots were developed by researchers of the Northwest polytechnical university in the Province of Shaanxi who worked on the hardly noticeable fighters used by the Air Force of China earlier. Before deployment of the program long tests were carried out. Robots are extremely realistic and at a look from the earth they cannot almost be distinguished from a real bird.

Aircraft are equipped with an advanced management system for flight which corrects unnatural movements, allowing robots to seem to the most plausible, providing at the same time high-quality video filming.

Robots pigeons for shadowing the population are started
Robots pigeons for shadowing the population are started

Researchers who work on the program, reported that use of such robots is still very limited. The technology still is at the earliest stages of development and its work can be complicated by strong winds, a rain or snow. It is also subject to influence of electromagnetic interferences. Nevertheless developers lay great hopes on its wide circulation in the future as civil, and in the military industry.[19]

UAVs in transactions of rescue and search of the gone people

During the beach season of 2018 security on beaches of Moscow will be monitored by unmanned aerial vehicles. In the project it is planned[20].

Using drones patrol in total of 11 beaches will be performed. It is the first case of so large-scale use of drones for observation of reservoirs in Moscow, the General Directorate of Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia across Moscow reports.

Quadcopters will fly over water and to broadcast video from the cameras on tablets of duty rescuers. Video surveillance will give to rescuers the chance in time to notice drowning or the child who was left without supervision of adults and also attempt to make fire in the place which is not intended for this purpose.

According to the Ministry of Emergency Situations, testing of UAVs over the water area of the Moskva River began in 2017, and the experiment was successful. In addition to observation of reservoirs the ministry uses drones for observation of the woods during the summer to trace ignition cases. Also UAVs are used for search of the mushroom pickers lost in the forest and in other cases.


In April, 2017 it became known that in Pechatniki based on a technopolis Moscow was created technology of the pilotless airplane drone for search of the lost people. Completely independent drone with the additional station for recharge was designed by scientists from Kopter express. Also the contribution to development was made by members of search group "Lisa Alert". The control of the robot plane makes an avatar about [21].

This development will allow to increase considerably the covering area of search of the gone person or group of persons. Scientists could overcome the difficulty connected with fast failure of drones and the small area of a covering of search.


The Chinese company DJI specializing in production of civil UAVs published[22] in March, 2017 the summary report on the registered cases of rescue of people using multikopter.

With distribution of civil UAVs many organizations began to use them for the help to people in dangerous situations. Drones can look for using normal and infrared cameras the lost people in forests or not evacuated from the city at a flood, UAVs can inspect hardly accessible areas and also are capable to transfer equipment for the help to victims by air when other ways of delivery pose a threat for rescuers.

In spite of the fact that news about similar incidents appear in media from time to time , they mix up with messages of the general type "the UAV was involved in a rescue operation" therefore it is difficult to estimate the real number of people who were really helped by multikopter with critical situation. Representatives of DJI collected in one report publicly available information on cases in which the number of the people rescued by the drone was accurately specified and also the danger of a situation in which they appeared was obvious.

In total information on 18 different situation in which drones saved 59 people was included in the report, 38 from which are saved for the last 10 months that approximately corresponds to one person a week. At the same time a third (20 people) are saved not by the search and rescue organizations, but ordinary people using own multikopter. 31 persons are saved at a flood — drones were used for search of people and delivery of equipment (life jackets, falls, ropes) which was crucial in this situation.

The report of DJI does not apply for completeness of the description — representatives of the company note that only incidents with specific information that use of the UAV was a key factor were included in the table. Besides, in the message about incident there had to be exact information on the number of the saved people to whom really were in a situation, life-threatening. So, for example, information on a flood at which about 200 people on different sources were saved was not included in the report due to the lack of exact data.

UAVs and search of minerals

Scientists of the Irkutsk national research technical university (IRNITU) announced at the beginning of 2017 the innovation methods of search of large diamonds without use of X-ray. On the basis of the received technologies creation of the special quadcopter which will investigate a high layer of the field is planned and to find diamonds.

The project manager Alexander Nemarov reported that drones can overcome long distances and work uninterruptedly for a long time and therefore they are ideal for the analysis of fields. In addition, unlike X-ray devices, quadcopters work independently that excludes a human factor, thereby considerably reducing error probability (not to mention that workers of the diamond-mining companies sometimes conceal the found stones what the robot is simply not capable of). At the same time the new method will be ecologically safe, and cost value of drones at mass production will be 30-50% lower, than at X-ray devices.

UAVs in agriculture

The main statyait in agro-industrial complex of Russia.

New mass profession in China — the operator of agricultural drones

By the end of March, 2019 in China there was a new profession gaining popularity — the operator of agricultural drones. Demand for them grows in process of development of technology, the qualified specialist is capable to service the much bigger area, than the normal worker. On a twist of fate distribution of a new profession is also promoted by labor shortage in rural areas.

The operator manages the drone for irrigation of a plant
The operator manages the drone for irrigation of a plant

Many young Chinese leave houses in poorer rural areas to get a job on factories in deltas of the Zhujiang or Yangtze River or on others less skilled workers of the place. The elderly farmers who stayed at home often cannot independently cultivate the soil and reap the harvest, and therefore prefer to lease the lands to the large companies. Those in queue consolidate the received sections and for increase in productivity and economy of means unroll in these territories the latest technologies – for example, use agricultural drones. China is not lonely in this undertaking: it is known that other countries, for example, in Japan, also address UAVs as the younger generation does not wish to work at normal farms.

Having used this trend, the DJI company which controls 70% of the world market of commercial drones, redirected the most part of resources on development of industrial drones. DJI provided UAVs, including Mavic 2 and Agras MG-1 in 2018 as intended for an industrial segment.

Operators of drones – only one of examples of the growing number of new professions. The popularity of sharing of vehicles led to emergence of the growing number of drivers while push applications of food, such as Ele.me of the Alibaba and Meituan Dianping group, created jobs for couriers in the Chinese market.[23]

UAVs power plants

The Dutch company Ampyx Power announced in the spring of 2017 development of new type of power plants in which for electricity production fastened unmanned aerial vehicles of plane type will be responsible. According to Aviation Week, in 2018 the company is going to show a prototype of power plant with a power of 250 kilowatts, and in the 2020th — to provide the first two megawatts system[24].

In the Netherlands the share of use of wind energy is high. For this purpose in the country at the coast wind power plants with air screws are set. Since December, 2016 at the Netherlands Frislandiya's coast the 600-megawatt wind power plant constructed on the Gemini project works in the experimental mode.

All wind power plants which construction can differ work by the general principle. Air flows rotate an air screw which, in turn, sets the generator in motion. Energy from the generator moves on substation where voltage stabilization is made. From there electricity comes already to the energy company, and then is redirected to end consumers.

According to the Ampyx Power project, power plant will represent small platforms. To them using a sliding rope pilotless devices will become attached. During wind these UAVs will fly up, and the air flows will be stronger, the devices will rise above.

Having gained height, UAVs will or fly about the platform around, or to describe the eight. At the same time devices will begin to rise and decrease, and the rope will be extended at the same time from the platform and to be involved back. The drum of a rope is supposed to be attached to the generator. Thus retraction and pulling of a rope will rotate a drum and to give the generator.

The project of the UAV for new power plant received designation AP3. It is supposed that it will be the device in a big way of a wing about 12 meters. It will be executed according to the double-beam scheme. The UAV is going to be certified in the European agency of aviation security. This device will be used in the 250-kilowatt version of power plant. Two-megawatt — will receive the device in a big way of a wing of 20 meters.

UAVs in medicine

Russia

The UAVs main producers in Russia

The J'son & Partners Consulting company analyzed the Russian UAV producers for consumer and commercial application. Around production of the UAV the whole ecosystem including producers of component parts, software developers, intergator, service companies, insurance companies, marketplaces was built.

The specifics of the Russian market of the UAV consist in dominance of producers of military drones and almost total absence of producers of consumer and commercial drones. At the same time the prevailing part of producers of military UAVs has in the portfolio, or the models which were already outdate technically, or only pilot modern samples which are shown at exhibitions, but do not come to mass production (for needs of the state or for export). And despite considerable budget injections from the state, products of the Russian companies of military industrial complex do not sustain the competition to the western samples, for example, with drones of Israel now.

Similar picture and in a segment of consumer UAVs – all market is engaged with products of the foreign companies, more the Chinese. And in spite of the fact that for the last 2-3 years in the country the companies startups, for example based on Skolkovo appeared, all of them are at a stage of development and a testrirovaniye of prototypes or at best the first piece orders and do not perform bulk sales.

Information on products more than forty Russian companies among which is reflected in the report:

Many developments connected with drones are dual-use technologies and are used as in the military, and civil sphere, and sometimes they are developed for military needs and then already pass into the civil sphere, and sometimes on the contrary. So, for example, the largest Russian state corporation "Rostec" has big plans for an output to the market of civil robotics of the military developments of drones of both plane, and helicopter type. And in ten years as specialists of the company assure, this market, as well as all new markets connected with robotics including any UAVs — for example, legal services, insurance — it will be measured by tens of billions of dollars.

2019

MGTS will develop the platform for control of UAVs

On April 24, 2019 it became known what provider MGTS which for 94.7% is controlled MTS, is going to develop and implement the platform for the organization of flights of drones over the cities. At the initial stage of investment are estimated at several billion rubles. In more detail here.

The authorities of Russia will permit to force down drones

The bill which suggests to limit flights of unmanned aerial vehicles in separate zones of airspace is introduced to the State Duma. Those devices which will fly after all on the prohibited territories law enforcement authorities will be able to damage or destroy[25] on legal grounds[26].

It is also allowed to suppress or transform signals of remote control of drones violators and to withdraw all system or its separate parts from owners. The text of the bill can be found on the website of the system of ensuring legislative activity (SELA).

According to the bill, drones it will be forbidden to fly over the objects of the state protection and routes of their journey protected by objects and adjacent zones. Also territories where urgent investigative actions, operational search and anti-terrorist actions are carried out are mentioned in the text.

Flights of UAVs will be limited or it is forbidden including over venues of mass actions. For this purpose it is necessary to send the adequate notice to body which controls use of airspace. Besides, drones will not be able to fly over places of accomplishment by troops by national guard of fighting tasks.

The bill was prepared according to the Strategy of the national security approved by the decree of the president on December 31, 2015, authors of the document note. It was entered by group of deputies among whom the Chairman of the State Duma Committee on security and anti-corruption Vasily Piskarev and the former head of FSB Nikolay Kovalyov are registered.

2018

In Moscow fratricidal war between UAVs begins

Fight against illegal UAVs in Russia reaches new level: in Moscow the package of measures for hijacking of the quadcopters which do not have permission to flights over the city is developed. The initiative includes use of special police drones, and, according to the Head of Department of regional security and anti-corruption of the capital Vladimir Chernikov, the first police UAVs already went into the disposal of capital law enforcement agencies, Izvestia[27] writes in December [28].

Police drones will be used first of all for patrol and high-rise observation including for survey of places of incidents. Also they will be equipped with special installation for neutralization of the UAV which are airborne illegally. Police kopter, for example, will be able to put out of action the drones keeping illegal shadowing people and objects or transporting the prohibited loads. Let's remind that some UAVs are specially designed for transportation of loads: for example, Amazon already has the whole flotilla of the drones delivering sendings, and Google in 2014 carried out successful tests on the goods delivery by air by means of kopter.

In Moscow within MKAD any flights of private user drones are prohibited. Only the UAVs belonging to emergency services can fly over the capital, and all others have the right to start kopter outside the ring highway and only after obtaining special permission department of regional security of Moscow. If it will not be detected in the operator of the airborne aircraft of such permission, it will be threatened by a penalty at the rate from 3 thousand up to 5 thousand rubles, and officials will have to pay already from 50 thousand to 50 thousand rubles. For the organizations the size of a penalty is from 300 thousand to 500 thousand rubles, and in addition to it activity of the company can be suspended for 90 days.

The Skolkovo Foundation and FAAR Industry will open the Russia's first laboratory of pilotless transport

In June, 2018 it became known that at the beginning of October in the Innovation center "Skolkovo" the Russia's first innovation laboratory in the field of the connected and autonomous mobility will open.

The open laboratory will work based on the solutions developed and implemented by the French company FAAR Industry using unique infocommunication technologies from residents of Skolkovo Foundation. The hardware and software system which does not have analogs in the world for control of multimodal and pilotless transport to be placed in Skolkovo. A part of transport infrastructure of the Innovation center will be controlled is centralized, in real time. The total amount of investments into the project in the next 3 years will be about 7.5 million euros.

Infrastructure of ensuring flights of the pilotless aviation systems (PAS)

Federal infrastructure for information support of flights of the pilotless aviation systems (PAS), is developed by Russian Space Systems holding (RKS, is included into Roskosmos State corporation).

Land infrastructure will allow to organize effective and safe mass use of UAVs in airspace of Russia. In real time it will accept, to process and distribute information on location, a route and parameters of flight of thousands of BAS over the territory of our country. It is expected that its implementation will lower operating costs of owners of BAS. Together with RKS the Rosaviatsiya, Rostelecom, the State corporation on air traffic management and NP GLONASS participate in creation of infrastructure.

The main statyainfrastruktura for information support of flights of the pilotless aviation systems (PAS)

"Helicopters of Russia" will begin to sell UAVs

The Helicopters of Russia holding (enters into Rostec state corporation) in April, 2018 provided the pilotless device VRT300 with the maximum take-off weight of 300 kg and with a target payload of 70 kg. UAVs – one of the most perspective and fast-growing directions in aircraft industry. "We created two prototypes of a pilotless aviation system of helicopter type – VRT300", – the CEO of Helicopters of Russia Boginsky Andrey[29] reported Vedomosti [30].

"Bench tests of the VRT300 UAV are already begun, the exit to flight and design tests is by the end of the year planned. The first test apparatus will become the flying laboratory for testing of all systems and the equipment, including working off of interaction with a land complex of management", – the CEO of VR-technologii design office Alexander Okhonko outlined plans.

The main statyavertoleta of Russia VRT UAVs

2017

Development of RKS will make the Russian UAVs more safely

The Russian Space Systems holding (RKS, is included into Roskosmos state corporation) announced on November 3, 2017 creation of a management system for operation of Li-ion rechargeable batteries (joint stock bank) of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). As envisioned by RKS, its application will increase security of the pilotless equipment in difficult conditions, will reduce the cost of its service and will increase the mass of payload. A system is completely executed on the Russian element base. Read more here.

Registration procedure of UAVs will earn in a month

Will be engaged in registration of drones subordinated to Ministry of Transport of Federal State Unitary Enterprise ProtectionInfoTrans. The head of development department of the pilotless systems of the enterprise, Alexander Drozd, told Hi-Tech Mail.ru that the procedure will begin to work as soon as the corresponding government decree passes several instances. According to Drozd, even considering urgency of a question, it can take at least a month. Up to this point also responsibility for start of drones is not provided.

Technically these issues are now handled. It is rather not registration, but registration of UAVs using a RFID tag. It will be with several degrees of protection.

To register the UAV, according to intention of Federal State Unitary Enterprise ProtectionInfoTrans, the buyer should do the following steps:

  • Come on the Gosuslugi portal
  • Register
  • Send the notification with all data on the drone and with personal data
  • Receive a tag in MFC or by mail
  • Paste a tag on the UAV body
  • The cost of the procedure will be about 200-300 rubles.

Why in general registration is necessary?

Statistics of violations of the UAV

Nikolay Ivashov, the representative of Federal State Unitary Enterprise State Corporation on Air Traffic Management which is responsible for flight safety in airspace, told Hi-Tech Mail.Ru that in 2016 - 2017 cases of violation of an order of use of airspace by pilotless aircrafts became frequent. Last year – 41 cases, and from January till May, 2017 – already 28 cases.

  • In March and November, 2016 at Sheremetyevo Airport unidentified BVS made unauthorized flight with intersection of two runways and the subsequent flight of process buildings of the airport. In May, 2017 at Sheremetyevo Airport flight of BVS over the parking lot of airplanes No. 84 was recorded again
  • In May, 2016 near Yekaterinburg when holding a training of an air part of a parade in honor of the celebration of the Victory Day the crew of the helicopter of the leader of group detected dangerous approach to the right board of the quadcopter in this connection it was forced to execute maneuver on leaving from collision.
  • In March, 2017 information on observation of flight of the UAV through a prohibited zone of the proving ground at the height of 50 m in the direction from the South on the North came to 20 km to the north of Novosibirsk from the orderly officer. Requests for use of airspace of a prohibited zone did not arrive, permissions were not issued.
  • In May, 2017 by production of demonstration flight "An immortal squadron" near the Erofy Arena Khabarovsk) in an area of responsibility of the Khabarovsk ZTs air traffic management of the EU the driver of the car started the unspecified drone directly in a system of airplanes.
  • At the end of June, 2017 at landing approach around airfield Surgut the crew of the B-737-800 airplane reported on observation of the quadcopter preventing decrease in a board. Flight plan and permission to IVP were absent.

When began to appear and the more so became available and consequently also mass drones, the situation demanded some solutions from state agencies. Oleg Panteleev, the head of the industry agency "Aviaport"[31]:

Security officers thought that the drone — ideal weapon for terrorists and even if the person has no malicious intent, insufficient qualification can become the reason of these or those actions which will result in deplorable results: here nearby and before collision of the drone with airplane.

Into the Russian Federation entered obligatory registration of UAVs

Amendments since July 5 entered obligatory registration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) weighing from 250 grams to 30 kilograms in Russia into the Air code.

Registration will be carried out by the ProtectionInfoTrans enterprise of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation.

Earlier it was supposed that will charge to FSB registration of the pilotless aircrafts (BPVS) made in the territory of the Russian Federation or imported into the country.

The law on obligatory registration of all UAVs is heavier than 250 grams was signed by the President of Russia Vladimir Putin on December 30, 2015, but the State Duma cancelled it in 2016 because of difficulties with its accomplishment.

Now ProtectionInfoTrans will identify UAVs on special RFID tags on which it is possible to obtain information on the drone and its owner at distance to 300 meters.

For abuse of regulations of the Air code - flight of the UAV without registration - for the individual the penalty at the rate from 2 thousand up to 5 thousand rubles, for the legal entity - a penalty from 300 thousand to 500 thousand rubles is provided.

Drone biathlon

In August, 2017 within the international military and technical forum "Army-2017" will pass the second championship on the drone biathlon on which operators of small UAVs will compete in ability to manage drones. The first drone biathlon took place in 2016: it was organized jointly by the Russian Defense Ministry and Fund of perspective researches.

In 2017 competitions on the drone biathlon will be held in qualitatively other conditions in comparison with 2016: in particular, if earlier drones competed in firing at conditional targets, then this time targets will be fixed on real objects of military equipment. UAVs will have to pass difficult routes with obstacles in high speed and also perform tasks in the conditions of the complicated availability of targets. Besides, there will be an augmented list of the nominations and a number of restrictions on technical characteristics of drones is removed: today developers use different platforms and materials for creation of drones that allows to create really unique devices. Competitions, in particular, in a format the drone biathlon, allow to select the most perspective solutions and the ideas and also to create opportunities for their development.

The deputy CEO – the head of physics and technology researches Fonda of perspective researches Igor Denisov tells about development of technologies in the field of creation and control of unmanned aerial vehicles: "As well as last year, the championship on the drone biathlon will become a competition not of independent UAVs, but operators of the UAV. There are practically no professional operators of drones today: in competitions the keen youth participates in the basic. Meanwhile in actual practice from operators of drones the ability is required not only to manage the drone, but also at the same time to solve other important and necessary problems: detect and distinguish the purpose, solve information problems, make the decisions connected using fire define the caused damage". It is planned that next year in the drone biathlon universities and other educational organizations of the Russian Defense Ministry will be recruited.

According to Igor Denisov, key questions in the context of development of unmanned aerial vehicles is an autonomy of drones, questions of management of groups of devices (royevy technologies) and issues of energy saving today. According to him, in the near future drones will have the increasing autonomy, and tasks of the operator will be reduced: generally they will consist in correct problem definition to group of drones.

"Area of the next development of unmanned aerial vehicles – all this that is connected with artificial intelligence: technologies of technical sight, questions of distributed control in group of drones, effective implementation of tasks devices which are independently coordinated among themselves communicate and solve the general problem", - Igor Denisov notes.

So far as concerns flights of drones on long distances and about transportation of loads, also the question of power supply of devices is relevant. In the long term for these purposes technologies of use of solar energy, fuel elements, hydrogen power engineering, etc. can be used. Considerable attention is paid to economic aspects, in particular, to questions of creation of functional inexpensive drones.

The fund of perspective researches develops the concept and the program of competitions for independent drones, including united in groups on the principle of royevy management. It is expected that in the next years independent drones will be able already to compete in the solution of different tasks not only under control of the person operator, but also acting independently and competing with the person including in those tasks which only the person is capable to solve today.

In Russia the control system of flights of UAVs will appear

The most part of the unmanned aerial vehicles implemented in the territory of the Russian Federation will be connected to a special control system — it was declared by the representative of "The Russian space systems" (a part of Roskosmos state corporation) Kirechko Mikhail.

According to Kirechko, the special equipment which will equip all UAVs weighing from two hundred fifty grams to thirty kilograms will be used to control of UAVs.

"Each civil unmanned aerial vehicle should be equipped with a control system which will interact with orbital navigation satellites. So it is about creation of a global monitoring system and control of the UAV" — the expert says [32].

Modern UAVs as Kirechko specifies, usually and are so equipped with systems about which there is a speech. It is only necessary to unify the applied standards and to create a single system. Which will be applied for the purpose of increase in security of airspace.

Generally, times when owners of UAVs could start freely the devices anywhere, it seems, come to an end — the control system assumes issue of permissions and approval of routes that, obviously, will lead to the mass of difficulties.

In Russia there are rules obliging owners of UAVs to register aircraft. The law on obligatory registration of small UAVs entered[33] owing to March 30, 2016 and initially required to register all aircrafts heavier than 250 grams. Later in 2016 appeared[34] a packet of amendments according to which "full" registration in the Russian Federation became necessary only for aircraft heavier than 30 kilograms, and accounting treatment for "easy" drones will be defined later. A register of "heavy" UAVs is maintained by Rosaviatsiya, however citizens and the companies which import or make pilotless civil aircrafts in the territory of Russia, should[35] to address for registration and obtaining the certificate of registration to FSB irrespective of the mass of the aircraft.

In Russia IT infrastructure is developed for control of flight of drones

The Russian Space Systems holding (enters into Roskosmos) developed  information infrastructure for control of the movement of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). Its tests will begin in 2017. It it was announced at the 11th international navigation forum "Navitech" 2017 (on April 25-28, Moscow).

The developments shown to RKS in the field of information support of flights of the small pilotless aviation systems will allow to organize effective and safe mass use of UAVs in airspace of Russia.

Unmanned aerial vehicle
Unmanned aerial vehicle

Using land infrastructure it will be possible to accept in real time, to process and distribute information on location, a route and parameters of flight of thousands of pilotless aviation systems over the territory of Russia. The route is built automatically according to the request of the operator of the aircraft.

«
Infrastructure of information support of traffic of the UAV consists of several components. Will be responsible for laying of a route the "Platform of navigation applications" and Geographic information system containing up-to-date information about the zones closed for flights and integrated with the state, departmental and industry information systems. Special applications for needs of operators of the UAV, content providers and insurance companies will be created on the basis of "The platform of complex applications — the chief of the center for project implementation in the field of use of results of space activity of RKS Vyacheslav Chistyakov reported.
»

2016

To UAVs will permit to fly over Moscow

The Moscow City Duma Commission on Science and Industry considered a question of creation of an end-to-end automated system for use of UAVs in the sky over the capital, the press service of the Moscow City Duma reports[36].

The head of department of the pilotless aviation systems of Academy of Sciences of aircraft and the CEO of Kosmotekhtrans LLC Alexander Ilyin submitted the project which, according to his developers, will allow not only to integrate the pilotless aviasystems into the general airspace, but also will provide cybersecurity. Besides, according to Ilyin, this project is end-to-end technology – it can conceptually integrate not only the pilotless air, but also space, automobile, railway and sea transport systems.

The commission chairman of the Moscow City Duma on science and the industry Leonid Zyuganov added that in the State Duma at the initiative of the aircraft designer Heinrich Novozhilov the commission which will be engaged in study of the questions connected with UAVs is already created.

Earlier the head of Sochi Anatoly Pakhomov said that over the city a ban on flights of UAVs will be imposed. He reasoned the solution with invasion of drones into private life of people.

World

2019

Drones began to patrol residential complexes

At the beginning of July, 2019 residential areas began to use drones for patrol of perimeter. The service provision contract on security in a number of residential complexes of the Republic of South Africa by the local government was signed with Drone Guards company. Read more here.

Japan introduced a penalty for control of the drone in a state of intoxication

In the middle of June, 2019 in Japan entered the new law according to which use of the UAV in alcohol intoxication can lead to a penalty or even imprisonment for up to one year.

The law is designed to bridle the growing use of unmanned aerial vehicles and concerns drones weighing over 200 grams. The persons managing the UAV in a state of intoxication can receive a penalty in the amount up to 300,000 yens (about 180,000 rubles). The representative of the Ministry of Transport of Japan proved introduction of the law, having compared control of the drone to driving of the car in a state of intoxication. Effects, consider in the ministry, can be not less serious.

In the middle of June, 2019 in Japan entered the new law according to which use of the UAV in alcohol intoxication can lead to a penalty or even imprisonment for up to one year
In the middle of June, 2019 in Japan entered the new law according to which use of the UAV in alcohol intoxication can lead to a penalty or even imprisonment for up to one year

In addition to penalties for control of the drone in a state of intoxication, the legislation also imposes punishment on the pilots executing dangerous tricks using drones. The persons convicted of abrupt dive in the direction of people are threatened by a penalty in the amount up to 500,000 yens (about 300 00 rubles).

Besides, to owners of drones prohibited to use UAVs in a radius of 300 meters from objects of armed forces of Japan and the USA and also any of "defense objects" without obtaining special permission. Before the power imposed a ban on flights of UAVs near nuclear power stations, buildings of the National Diet and the residence of the prime minister. Stadiums and other platforms for holding the Olympic Games of 2020 also are under a ban.

Now owners of drones in Japan do not need the license to use of UAVs, but they are obliged to follow a number of rules – drones should not rise higher than 150 meters, to leave a viewing field of the operator or to be used at night. Besides, drones are forbidden to appear in a zone of the airports. Violation of these rules threatens with a penalty in the amount up to 500,000 yens.[37]

MVB of the USA: Drones can pose a threat for the American companies

On May 21, 2019 it became known that the drones made in China can send important data to producers to China which, in turn, can transfer these data to the government. Such warning released the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Read more here.

Green monkeys borrowed at a vervetok separate "word" for the drone

On May 28, 2019 it became known that the German scientists detected in the system of communication of green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) separate sounds using which they announce relatives that they saw the drone. The sounds written by scientists did not resemble one of used by this type, but on space and time response characteristics were similar to shouts a vervetok (Chlorocebus pygerythrus) at the sight of danger in air.

The communications system of social animals is rather various: depending on a type and the habitat in their lexicon there can be sounds signaling about location of food, about existence of danger or just about own provision. At the same time it is unclear whether language of animals as quickly is capable to develop as human: in other words, it is unknown how quickly in their lexicon under the influence of the changing environment the necessary shouts appear.

Scientists from the German center of primatology under the leadership of Julia Fischer decided to check evolution of communications system of green monkeys in their native habitat. They studied population of monkeys in one of Senegalese national parks. Researchers report that the monkeys living in the studied area never published disturbing sounds at the sight of the flying objects (for example, birds) — partly because saw them very seldom, and partly because for threat, most likely, what was seen was not considered.

During the experiment at participating monkeys started the drone: monkeys began to shout and hide. After that scientists unmuted to monkeys of the flying-up drone separately — and compared the spectrogram and their shout in response to it to sounds which monkeys made, having heard a leopard or a snake.

Monkeys very quickly learned new "word" and used it at a drone sound after the first meeting. It is interesting that on space and time response characteristics the sound strongly differed from that which monkeys published in response to the known threats — a leopard or a snake. Scientists compared further the received sounds to shouts a vervetok — they were already familiar with threat from air and have communications system, similar to green monkeys. It turned out that shout of green monkeys at the sight of the drone is very similar to sounds which vervetka make at approach of the flying predator.

Authors of work came to a conclusion that in spite of the fact that green monkeys borrowed "word" from a closely related type (i.e., in fact, new it was not), its implementation in their lexicon happened quickly enough. It can say that communications system of monkeys, as well as human language — the system developing and adapting under changes in the environment.[38]

The U.S. Air Force decided to use the UAVs which are taking away the hit pilots from the earth

In the middle of May, 2019 the Air Force (AF) of the USA announced development of the unmanned aerial vehicle which is intended for rescue of the hit pilots. For creation of such drone military look for the contractor — will be able to submit applications for participation in the tender of the company till July 1, 2019. Read more here.

Drones began to deliver kidneys for change

On April 19, 2019 in the Medical center of the University of Maryland to the patient for the first time in the world replaced the kidney delivered by the drone. Transaction became a result of the three years' work proving that the unmanned aerial vehicle can safely transport vitals and fabrics. Read more here.

The USA first commercial delivery service of goods is started by drones

On April 23, 2019 it became known of start of the USA first commercial delivery service of goods by means of drones. It occurred after the Federal Aviation Administration of the USA (FAA) for the first time issued to the operator of the UAV the certificate of aviation carrier. It was received by the Wing company entering into Alphabet holding. Read more here.

Drones began to be used for shadowing sulfur content in an exhaust of courts

At the end of April, 2019 Denmark began to use the system of drones for assessment of content of sulfur in exhausts of courts. The system of detection of emissions of sulfur created by request of the European agency on security at the sea (EMSA) is developed in the area of the Great Belt Strait through which large tankers get to the Baltic Sea. Read more here.

Google started delivery service of food and goods by means of drones

On April 8, 2019 in Australia Google started at the commercial level delivery service by means of unmanned aerial vehicles. The project startup of Wing was preceded by its testing in Canberra since 2014. Read more here.

Airbus drones began to deliver freights to the floating ships

On March 15, 2019 Airbus Group announced start as the company claims, the first-ever drones delivering a freight from the land to the floating ships. Read more here.

Drones with breakdown will go down on parachutes. The standard is approved

In January, 2019 it became known that the Indemnis company developed an abnormal system for the DJI Inspire 2 UAV which will help to secure people on the earth, slowly lowering the drone on a parachute. The system called Nexus is the first in own way which meets new international standards of security (the appropriate certificate is received) and gives the chance safely to UAVs to fly over people. Read more here.

2018

The first use of drones at celebration of New year in New York

On December 28, 2018 the New York City Police Department announced plans for the first time to use the drone for security during the celebration of New year to Times Square. About 2 million people gather every year on December 31 on this square in the central part of Manhattan in New York. Read more here.

Britain started the new system of recognition of drones after a delay of 1000 runs because of them

In December, 2018 Britain began to develop the new system of recognition of drones through the whole country after because of such unmanned aerial vehicles about 1000 flights were delayed and about 140 thousand suffered human.

According to the SiliconANGLE edition with reference to the minister of security issues and economic crimes of Ben Wallace, the new system of detection of drones already works, and everyone who was accused of "thoughtless" control of the UAV or in "management in criminal objectives" can be "severely" punished.

In December, 2018 Britain began to develop the new system of recognition of drones through the whole country after because of such unmanned aerial vehicles about 1000 flights were delayed and about 140 thousand suffered human
In December, 2018 Britain began to develop the new system of recognition of drones through the whole country after because of such unmanned aerial vehicles about 1000 flights were delayed and about 140 thousand suffered human
«
Universal distribution of such devices in combination with problems of implementation of military counter-measures on civil Wednesday means that simple solutions do not exist. However I can tell that now we can deploy detection systems across all Britain for fight against this threat, - the minister said.
»

At the same time he did not specify, how exactly the above-named systems will deal with the problem of drones. Also remains not clear, what is the time it will be required to the country on complete installation of countersystems.

The British authorities decided to deploy through the whole country the system of detection of drones after that, work of Gatwick Airport was suspended in total for 36 hours, because of a delay and canceling of runs about 140 thousand suffered human. On suspicion of participation in start of UAVs the man and the woman who were released later without charges were delayed. For providing information on the persons involved in start of UAVs, the airport promises remuneration in the amount of 50 thousand pounds sterling. According to Ben Wallace, the criminals who paralyzed work of Gatwick Airport should incur serious punishment.

In a year Gatvik located in 46 km to the south from London services more than 45 million passengers and till 2017 reckoned as the air harbor which is the most recovered in the world with one runway.[39]

Drones began to deliver vaccines to islands far from a civilization

On December 17, 2018 the little girl of one month from a sort living on the remote island of the Pacific state of Vanuatu became the first-ever child who was vaccinated the medicines delivered using the commercial drone.

The unmanned aerial vehicle Cook's Bay on east coast of the same island overcame about 40 km over the mountain area from the village of Dillons Bay in the western part of Eromanga (engl. Erromango), the fourth in the area of the island of Vanuatu, to the settlement. According to The New York Times, the UAV delivered the vaccines against hepatitis and tuberculosis.

The baby from Vanuatu who received an important vaktion by means of the drone
The baby from Vanuatu who received an important vaktion by means of the drone

In total during immunization in Kuks Beng 13 children and five expectant mothers imparted, reported in the press service of the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with assistance of which vaccination was carried out.[40]

Medicines delivered drones of the Australian company Swoop Aero with which the government of Vanuatu signed the transportation contract of the vital vaccines to children to the remote areas of this island state earlier.

It is difficult to transport vaccines because of need of observance of temperature condition. In a case with Vanuatu transportation is complicated even more by hot climate and a difficult land relief: in the state there are more than 80 remote islands with a mountain landscape which stretch for 1300 km.

«
It is very heavy carry in hands containers with vaccines and ice for their cooling, in way it is necessary to cross the rivers, to rise to mountains, to go through a rain and on rocky ledges. I expect a boat crossing, but because of bad weather it often does not work — the nurse Miriam Nampil who entered the vaccines delivered by the drone complained to journalists through the translator. She added that thanks to UAVs her life will change now.[41]
»

Flight of the drone transporting medicines in boxes of expanded polystyrene with khladoelement and the registrar of temperature took 25 minutes whereas on delivery on foot and by boats several hours are necessary.

In the long term the government of Vanuatu is going to include delivery of vaccines UAVs in the national program of immunization.

The drone punched a nasal part of Boeing 737 coming in the land

In December, 2018 it became known that the passenger Boeing 737-800 airplane belonging to Aeromexico airline sustained damage of a nasal part when landing at the airport of Tijuana in Mexico. Collision with the unmanned aerial vehicle became the reason for that. Read more here.

Drones began to patrol the largest coral reef and to kill dangerous living creatures

On September 3, 2018 the group of researchers started the drone which will patrol the Great Barrier Reef and to kill animals who destroy it. Read more here.

The Japanese driving schools began to train in control of drones

At the end at the end of August, 2018 it became known that more and more the Japanese driving schools instead of profile rates lessons of training in skills of control of drones offer. It helps driving schools to remain afloat in the conditions of low demand for a driving school. Plus, so the country prepares for high demand of operators unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the future. Read more here.

Models on a podium in Saudi Arabia replaced with drones

In June, 2018 in Saudi Arabia there took place fashionable demonstration in which instead of models unmanned aerial vehicles were used. Among the brands of clothes showing the new products so unusually there was a Dolce & Gabbana fashion house.

On a podium drones to which dresses, ladies' bags and different jewelry were attached took off. Similar defile was already applied on fashionable demonstrations in some countries, for example, in Italy, but for Saudi Arabia such event became the first.

Saudi Arabia carried out fashionable demonstration without models. Instead of them on a podium drones took off
Saudi Arabia carried out fashionable demonstration without models. Instead of them on a podium drones took off

It matched sacred for Muslims month Ramadan which in 2018 proceeded till June 14. These days believers fast, including they are forbidden to see others parts of a body. One of organizers of the event  told that they prepared two weeks and consider that such format approaches on the religious holiday's eve.

Nevertheless, in Saudi Arabia were skeptical about such technological fashion show very. Users of social networks connected it with infringement of women's rights in the ultraconservative Muslim kingdom. So, women are forbidden to contact public in open clothes and bare-headed.

In social networks many jokes concerning demonstration of clothes by means of UAVs appeared. For example, some users called such demonstration illusive as dresses without people literally soared mystically on a scene.

As notes the The New Arab edition, in  April, 2018 in  Riyadh there passed the first in  Saudi Arabia week of fashions. There drones  were not, but  allowed to watch demonstration only to women, and  even before  female audience fashion designers  were not able to afford to go beyond  strictly outlined framework:  deep notches, the clothes opening a leg above a knee and  too transparent fabrics were not allowed. Perhaps, such restrictions also induced organizers of new demonstration to use UAVs.[42]

In Shanghai the authorities permitted delivery of food drones

At the end of May, 2018 the online service of delivery of food of Ele.me belonging to Alibaba Group got permission to use drones for delivery of orders along 17 routes in the industrial zone of Shanghai from the Chinese authorities.

The approved routes cover the territory about 58 sq.km over the industrial region of Jinshan in Shanghai (Shanghai Jinshan Industrial Park) where more than 100 dealers in food do the business, The South China Morning Post reports.

The online service of delivery of food of Ele.me got permission to use drones for delivery of orders along 17 routes in the industrial zone of Shanghai from the Chinese authorities
The online service of delivery of food of Ele.me got permission to use drones for delivery of orders along 17 routes in the industrial zone of Shanghai from the Chinese authorities

On delivery of online orders drones require within 20 minutes after sending confirmation by the client from the smartphone. According to the approved rules, on each of the directions quadcopters will fly only between two fixed points.

The employees working in sending points create orders and place them in cargo cabins of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). On terminal points the personnel unload drones and deliver food to clients to the addresses specified by them. As assured of the management of Ele.me, it is not necessary to pay extra for delivery using the UAV to clients.

Due to use of UAVs in Ele.me expect to cut down significantly operating expenses as such delivery, than normal transportation across the road costs cheaper. Also it is supposed that implementation of drones will allow to raise earnings of couriers of the company five times.

Such conclusions in Ele.me were drawn based on the test flights which took place in September, 2017 in Shanghai. During tests the corporate E7 drones capable to transfer up to 6 kg of food were used and to make flights with a range up to 20 km with maximum speed to 65 km/h.

Besides, in October of last year the online service of Ele.me showed the robot courier capable to solve a problem of "the last mile" — deliveries of the order to office of the client.

«
Later in 2018 the company will provide robots couriers of the second generation who will allow to service more than 500 office buildings in the large cities of China — the operating officer of Ele.me Kang Jia reported.[43]
»

Smugglers began to use drones for iPhone transportation

At the end of March, 2018 it became known of detention of smugglers who used drones for an illegal transportation from Hong Kong to Shenzhen smartphones Apple.

According to the The South China Morning Post edition, joint transaction of law enforcement agencies of two cities took place in February, 2018 after several months of investigation. Following the results in Shenzhen delayed 26 people from whom withdrew two unmanned aerial vehicles and 4 thousand smartphones worth 20 million Hong Kong dollars (about $2.5 million at the rate of for March 30, 2018). Besides, three more people the Hong Kong customs officers arrested, having confiscated from them 900 devices for the amount of 4.5 million Hong Kong dollars (about $573 thousand).

The police delayed the Chinese transporting iPhone through border on drones
The police delayed the Chinese transporting iPhone through border on drones

According to law enforcement authorities, well coordinated gang acted on an extent of the last six months. To transport smuggling from Hong Kong to continental China, suspects using drones stretched two 100-meter wires between two high rise buildings, one of which is located in Shenzhen, and the second - in Hong Kong. The police emphasized that it is the first known case when for the organization of smuggling malefactors used quadcopters.

On the tense wires using the winch mechanism small linen bags with the smartphones inside which are mainly recovered by iPhone were transported.

To avoid exposure, the gang worked from midnight to 5 o'clock in the morning. Process of a transportation took less than a minute, and in a night criminals managed to make more than 200 runs on each of wires.

By estimates of police, thus from 10 to 15 thousand smartphones were transported every night through border. Working as 15 days a month, smugglers monthly earned over 10 million yuans ($1.6 million). It is supposed that during all the time criminals transported smartphones with a total cost of 500 million yuans (nearly $80 million), having avoided taxes on 100 million yuans ($15.9 million).

Smugglers are threatened up to 7 years of prison also by a penalty to 2 million Hong Kong dollars (about $255 thousand).[44]

Japan opens the sky to commercial drones

In the middle of March, 2018 Japan made the decision according to which since summer it will be authorized to commercial drones to deliver sendings to the remote and hardly accessible areas — for example, to mountain areas and on the islands located at a distance.

The government of the country reviewed the standards concerning drones according to the aviation legislation. According to innovations, the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) belonging to the enterprises and individuals should not neglect requirements for safety speed and flight altitude. Operators are forbidden to start the UAV over territories where people live, and it is going to create the special centers for loading and unloading of sendings.

The authorities of Japan were permited commercial drones it will be authorized to deliver sendings to the remote and hardly accessible areas
The authorities of Japan were permited commercial drones it will be authorized to deliver sendings to the remote and hardly accessible areas

Since 2018 the Ministry of Transport will begin to prepare for permission of start of unmanned aerial vehicles in the cities; it is supposed that all necessary amendments will be introduced in the legislation by 2020. Considering that such drones should be guided in the city with a set of high buildings, the government will consider the new system of certification of drones with issue of licenses.

The first legislation concerning unmanned aerial vehicles was entered in Japan in 2015 after on a roof of an office of the prime minister the drone with a radioactive load was detected. According to rules to the middle of March, 2018, unmanned aerial vehicles can be started only in visibility limits of the operator, and it should have the special license existing within one year.

From the beginning of wide circulation of drones public attention was paid is attracted with their illegal use. But the existing level of control allows to permit flights of drones behind visibility limits of the operator. It is expected that, despite the shortage of personnel, the technology will be widely used for the goods delivery and remote monitoring.

The future permission to flights will expand opportunities both for small, and for large business of Japan. Operators of the Japanese mail and virtual shopping center of Rakuten company already test the piloted drones. Municipal authorities also hope that drones can be used for maintenance of infrastructure, for example, for assessment of a status of bridges and transmission lines by shooting with high resolution.[45]

Light analog of car numbers for drones

The Ford company in March, 2018 presented the solution on identification of drones using the light code — an analog of a car number which will allow to identify from far away the drone and to quickly find its owner. Read more here.

The first rescue of drowning

In January, 2018 there took place the operation first in the history on rescue drowning by means of unmanned aerial vehicles. Read more here.

2017

Recognition of sharks

Drones with artificial intelligence and advanced technology of image understanding patrol the coast of Australia, helping to prevent attacks of sharks on people. Read more here.

In Great Britain entered obligatory registration of drones weighing from 250 grams

Obligatory registration of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) weighing more than 250 g will be applied in Great Britain. According to the minister of aircraft of the country Martin Kellanan, a main goal of an innovation is security of the population and "maximizing complete potential of drones". Besides, for owners of the UAV will enter tests for knowledge of bases of security and laws of confidentiality during their use[46].

Before adoption of rules of the power held testing during which it was revealed that the UAV weighing more than 400 g during collision can break a helicopter windshield, and the drone which weight is up to 2 kg can damage airplane glasses. Council of Department of Civil Aviation for four months since the beginning of year already stated 22 incidents with participation of the UAV. With respect thereto the government of Great Britain is also going to expand the list of zones of limited access for their application.

In Georgia will enter the law limiting use of drones

The agency of civil aviation of Georgia with assistance of the European agency of aviation security (EASA) drafted the law regulating use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). On it, all UAVs should be registered. Registration is termless, however the Agency reserves the right of times in 2 years to require its confirmation[47].

Under the law, it will be impossible to use drones in the cities, densely populated points and places of accumulation of people – on streets, in squares. The main restrictions will concern distance. Maximum height on which it will be possible to lift the device, – 400 feet (122 m). It is forbidden to use drones in a radius of 5.5 km from the airports and in 50 m from buildings (except as specified when the pilot-operator is the owner of the building or received the consent of the owner).

Unmanned aerial vehicles will be separated into categories – the open, specific and subject certifications. For each type the requirements will be set. Unmanned aerial vehicles with a take-off weight of 5-150 kg will have to be registered. To each UAV the 5-unit registration number will be awarded. All numbers I will are brought in uniform base.

So far it is unclear how the Agency of civil aviation will catch violators of airspace – whether it will do it by the efforts or will resort to the help of patrol service. New service regulations of unmanned aerial vehicles will become effective since September 1, 2017. Since November 1, 2017 registration of drones will begin, and since January, 2020 department will begin to certify devices.

The American court cancelled registration of drones

The federal circuit court of appeal of the District of Columbia came to a conclusion[48]that the Federal Aviation Administration of the USA (FAA) has no right to regulate operation of model aircrafts, including multirotor UAVs. Thus, individuals in the USA are not obliged to register UAVs in FAA any more,[49] reports][50].

For the last two-three years wide circulation of civil multikopter in some countries led to the fact that the authorities began implementation of the different systems, binding owners to register UAVs. The USA obliged buyers of UAVs[51] aircraft at the end of 2015, the requirement of obligatory registration at the same time extended to drones weighing from 250 grams to 25 kilograms. For registration it was necessary to enter a name, a home address and e-mail and also to pay five-dollar duty. Only for January, 2016 FAA registered about 300 thousand civil UAVs.

The aeromodeller John Taylor did not agree with the adopted FAA rules and took legal action, considering that the Agency limits its rights and interferes with aircraft modeling regulation that is directly forbidden[52] the existing regulatory legal acts. The court supported John Taylor and cancelled registration requirements of FAA. "Taylor considers that FAA had no right to approve registration rules and to demand from it their execution. Taylor is right", said in court's decision.

As notes ArsTechnica, FAA had several possible options of actions. The agency can ask court to review the solution, to dispute the solution in the U.S. Supreme Court or to address the Congress for receiving powers of regulation in the field of aircraft modeling on legal grounds. It should be noted that canceling of requirements for registration of private UAVs does not extend to commercial operation — in this case interested persons are still obliged to cooperate with FAA.

Belarus: Monopoly for use of drones

Since September, 2017 in Belarus operation of popular models of the pilotless flying devices (drones) with a power carrying capacity of the systems of government of these devices to 100 MW is allowed. However, only federated members of pilotless aircraft legally will be able to use drones. For all other citizens the attempt to start the pilotless device threatens with penalties and[53] confiscation of the UAV[54].

"The commission made the decision on selection of radio frequency band 2400-2483.5 MHz of OO "Belarusian Federation of Pilotless Aircraft" from the maximum EIIM of 100 MW for operation of radio-electronic means of wireless data transmission of management systems for model aircrafts. Also the Commission recommended to OO "Belarusian Federation of Pilotless Aircraft" to carry out the accounting of model aircrafts onboard which are set to the distribution zone, stated above", says the regulator.

"Legally to operate the model aircraft working in radio frequency band 2400-2483.5 MHz with EIIM from 10 MW and up to 100 MW, the citizen should enter republican public association "Belarusian federation of pilotless aircraft" and register the model aircraft (stated above) in this federation".

dollars USA Licensing of one drone with a maximum weight more than 7 kilograms can cost more than 1.5 thousand. The parliament of Belarus adopted version of the Air code which assumes the state licensing of drones in the first reading.

The deputy manager of the Belarusian federation of pilotless aircraft Gleb Bondarik told about it at the end of 2017[55].

"There are bases to believe that paid licensing for all devices weighing more than 7 kilograms will be entered. At the same time it is not clear how the formulation "the maximum weight" will be treated. The equipped weight of the UAV or its possible equipped weight will be considered it is possible that", – he told. "It is difficult to tell how many will cost licensing. According to my sources, not less than 1.5 thousand dollars for one units. It is a lot of, especially taking into account the cost of devices. Besides, to obtain the license it will be necessary to arrive with the drone to the Ministry of Defence enterprise which it is located outside Minsk and in several days to wait for the conclusion in hotel", – Bondarik told.

In Armenia, Georgia, Belarus and Moldova the eDrone project for 1 million euros is started

The eDrone project in 2017 started in Armenia, Georgia, Belarus and Moldova. Within three years the European specialists will train colleagues from the countries of the Eastern Partnership in the latest technologies and methods of creation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The program worth 1 million euros is financed by the European Union[56].

The "Studying of Pilotless Lethal Devices" project started in the countries of the Eastern Partnership. Its purpose – to pass on experience of the West in the field of innovations and information technologies and to help to open education centers for studying and creation of the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV).

The initiative integrates eight countries – four of the European Union (Italy, France, Poland, Romania) and four Post-Soviet (Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and Belarus). The general project budget which will last three years, – 1 million euros. The amount will be distributed between 17 universities and the companies of member countries. According to the results of the three-year program they will develop own educational projects and will create the centers of studying of unmanned aerial vehicles on the base.

The eDrone program is financed within the project of the EU of Erasmus+ operating from 2014 to 2020 which supports initiatives in the field of education and professional training.

Teylsitter with independent screws

The American company Heurobotics created the new unmanned aerial vehicle — "teylsitter". Such scheme represents the airplane capable to vertical to take off and landing on a tail. According to Aviation Week, in the new device developers implemented the "helicopter" concept of air screws, having used the connected drive and[57] overrunning clutches[58].

Japan will offer international standards for drones

Uniform standards for use of remotely-controlled aircraft in 2020 will be submitted to the World standardization organization (ISO) by Japan[59].

Japan is going to offer in 2020 the uniform international standards for use of drones which will be taken out on the statement of the World standardization organization (ISO). At the beginning of 2018 the Japanese Ministry of Economics together with the Japanese aerospace agency JAXA and Institute of advanced science and technologies (AIST) intends to begin work on improvement of flights of remotely-controlled aircraft. In particular, to avoid collisions of drones in air, the aircraft control system using sensors of height and GPS navigation will be developed. The Japanese developers are going to cooperate actively in this sphere with the companies from other countries (including the People's Republic of China in which commercial production of drones is concentrated now) to make use of the international experience in area of automatic flights and processing of their data for drawing up international standards.

What did the pilotless aircraft begin with?

1910 when the inventor Charles Kettering suggested to create the aircraft under control of the clockwork became a reference point. In certain time had to reset wings and fail on enemies. The idea interested Americans – they began to finance developments of the engineer. The first test flights took place successfully, but further them the project did not go[60].

The break happened in 1933 when the British engineers through joint efforts created the first remotely operated UAV. It was the reuse device, it was used as a target for training of pilots and antiaircraft gunners.

After the end of World War II, UAVs were actively used in a military and prospecting complex of America and the Soviet Union.

Civil drones appeared only in the 2000th – they technically differ from military UAVs, are considered as more technological thanks to small production volumes and narrow specialization. Two last circumstances allow engineers to react to the changing priorities and requirements of consumer market quickly.

Some startups impress with the opportunities even sceptics, they already compete with the delivery services, and in the long term can seriously press small-size aircrafts.

Robotics



Notes

  1. the Market of unmanned aerial vehicles / drones (UAVs) in Russia and in the world
  2. Drones fly over Russia
  3. saw terrorist threat In commercialization of drones
  4. the Market of drones in Russia and in the world, 2017 (unmanned aerial vehicles, the UAV, the UAV)
  5. Old, meet new: Drones, high-tech camera revamp archaeology
  6. of PwC: the market of drones for the power industry is estimated at $9.46 billion
  7. How firefighters are using drones to save lives
  8. Mercedes Plans More Drone Deliveries After 100 Perfect Flights
  9. Three years in jail for drone-flying drug dealer
  10. by UAVs in case
  11. [http://club.cnews.ru/blogs/entry/v_yaponii_sozdadut_k_2025_g_bespilotnye_morskie_suda In Japan
  12. will create pilotless sea vessels by 2025]
  13. World’s first drone delivery service launches in Iceland
  14. Owners of UAVs in Russia will acquire the right to commercial transportations
  15. Berkeley professor’s ‘slaughterbots’ video on killer drones goes viral
  16. our service is also dangerous and difficult. Drones on service of law enforcement agencies
  17. Turns Out Eagles Are a Bad Solution for Capturing Rogue Drones
  18. Politie stopt met anti-dronevogels en speurratten
  19. China is using robotic bird drones with cameras to monitor its citizens
  20. will involve more than 20 quadcopters of "new generation", reported on the official site of the Mayor of Moscow Spasat drowning on beaches of Moscow drones
  21. the zemlibespilotny airplane from Pechatniki received the second place in Italy on international contest of developments in the field of Global Mobile Challenge IT technologies.
  22. Lives Saved: A Survey of Drones in Action
  23. China's migrant worker exodus has created demand for drone pilots to help aging left-behind farmers
  24. Dutches will force UAVs to get electricity
  25. [http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2019-02-01_vlasti_razreshat_pravoohranitelyam_sbivat_drony the Authorities of Russia
  26. will permit to force down drones]
  27. [http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2018-12-28_politsejskie_drony_ochistyat_moskvu_ot_nelegalnyh In Moscow
  28. fratricidal war between UAVs begins]
  29. [https://www.vedomosti.ru/business/articles/2018/04/19/767252-vertoleti-rossii Helicopters of Russia
  30. will begin to sell UAVs]
  31. Experts told why the new law on drones is necessary
  32. B of Russia will appear a control system of flights of UAVs
  33. the Law on registration of drones in Russia became effective
  34. In Russia will change rules of registration of easy drones
  35. Registration of drones in Russia FSB will be engaged
  36. UAVs will permit to fly over Moscow
  37. Japan outlaws flying drones while drunk
  38. Green monkeys borrowed at a vervetok separate "word" for the drone
  39. After Gatwick Airport fiasco, UK gets new drone detection systems
  40. Child given world’s first drone-delivered vaccine in Vanuatu - UNICEF
  41. An Island Nation’s Health Experiment: Vaccines Delivered by Drone
  42. Saudi Arabia's model-less 'ghost fashion show' ridiculed online
  43. Your Chinese takeaway is ready to be delivered by drone
  44. Hong Kong and Shenzhen authorities smash of HK$620 million iPhone smuggling operation
  45. Japan to open its skies to commercial drones
  46. In Great Britain entered obligatory registration of drones weighing from 250 grams
  47. In Georgia will enter the law limiting use of drones
  48. of On Petitions for Review of Orders of the Federal Aviation Administration
  49. [https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2017/05/court-ruling-would-nullify-us-requirement-that-hobbyists-register-drones/ ArsTechnica Court ruling nullifies US requirement that hobbyists register drones
  50. the American court cancelled registration of drones
  51. Americans will register to register UAVs heavier than 250 grams
  52. to FAA Modernization and Reform Act (P.L. 112-095) Reports and Plans
  53. [https://digital.report/v-belarusi-slozhilas-monopoliya-na-ispolzovanie-dronov the monopoly for use of drones developed
  54. In Belarus]
  55. the Parliament of Belarus intends to enter paid licensing of drones
  56. In Armenia, Georgia, Belarus and Moldova the eDrone project for 1 million euros is started
  57. [https://nplus1.ru/news/2017/03/16/tailsitter Americans created
  58. "teylsitter" with independent screws]
  59. Japan will offer international standards for drones
  60. Movement on the UAV, or the Prospection