Translated by
2019/12/20 14:43:16

Unmanned vehicles (world market)

Creation of the full-fledged unmanned vehicle - one of the most fascinating calls for a technology thought of the beginning of the 21st century for the companies worldwide.


As the unmanned vehicle is arranged

Main article: Auto pilot (unmanned vehicle)

Unmanned vehicles in Russia

Main article: Unmanned vehicles in Russia

Since 2015 the companies in Russia actively develop the technologies necessary for creation of unmanned vehicles.

Pilotless trucks

Main article: Pilotless trucks

5G in evolution of cars

Self-driving vehicles – one more area which implementation will demand communication networks of new generation. Cars can be equipped with the sensors which are reading out various information on a road situation: the next vehicles, weather conditions, asphalt status, road signs, etc. On the basis of these data control of a trip can be exercised in the automatic mode.

Cars (world market)

Main article: Cars (world market)

News and models of producers

In Russia

In the world

Market estimates


Gartner counted quantity of pilotless cars in 2018 and 2019.

In the middle of November, 2019 Gartner counted how many unmanned vehicles appeared in 2018 and 2019. It turned out that in 2018 the total quantity of new pilotless vehicles made 137,129 units, and in 2019 — 332,932 units.

According to analysts, by 2023 the number of self-governed machines will reach 745,705 units. Generally the gain will be noted in North America, Western Europe and in China as the countries of these regions the first will introduce rules of pilotless driving.

The number of new cars with auto pilots in 2018-2023, data of Gartner

The analysis included all vehicles equipped with the equipment for autonomous driving regardless of quantity of the sold copies. Pilotless Gartner calls the vehicle capable to offer automation 3 levels above. Thus, the forecast experts cover pilotless vehicles with the equipment capable to work without control from the person.

There are no unmanned vehicles outside a stage of research and development on roads of the world now — Jonathan Davenport, the top analyst of Gartner explained. — Vehicles with some autonomous opportunities are already provided, however all of them still rely on control of the driver person. Nevertheless, many of these vehicles use the hardware, including cameras, radars and, in certain cases, lidarny sensors which are capable to support completely autonomous driving. Thanks to a software update these cars in the future can become completely pilotless.

Though the forecast promises a fast gain of number of autonomous vehicles, actually sales of unmanned vehicles still remain extremely low. It is expected that in 2020 the number of pilotless vehicles will reach 325,682 units, but in a commercial segment it will be engaged only 10,590 of them. The matter is that by November, 2019 in one country of the world the regulations allowing to operate legally autonomous vehicles, ready to production, are not adopted. Producers are not ready to make investments in development of models which cannot enter the market in the near future.

One more limiting factor is the cost of the touch equipment. By 2026 the cost of the sensors necessary for ensuring autonomous driving will become 25% lower, than in 2020. But even at such decrease the price will remain unreasonably high. It means that within the next decade autonomous functions will be available only to the cars of a premium class and vehicles belonging to large vehicle fleets.

Gartner counted how many unmanned vehicles appeared in 2018 and 2019

Besides, entry of pilotless vehicles into the market will be defined by public opinion. Security concerns still significantly interfere with wide circulation of autonomous vehicles. Now algorithms of perception of unmanned vehicles are still less effective, than attention of the normal driver person.

The technology companies use the different software on the basis of AI to understand how pilotless vehicles will cope with different situations. Appraisal remedies of safety of autonomous vehicles still should be developed. At the same time, as specialists note, the unmanned vehicle should be slightly better than the driver person. The public will be able to trust in these innovations, only if unmanned vehicles cause much less accidents, than people.[1]

Pilotless taxi will reset the prices of trips to 80%

Trips to the taxi can fall in price by 80% after emergence of the unmanned vehicles used for transportations of passengers. It is said in a research which analysts of UBS bank published at the end of May, 2019

Experts consider that robomobiles will make rates one taxi cheaper than tickets for the subway, but at the same time technology taxi pools will remain profitable.

According to analysts of UBS bank, distribution of pilotless taxi will lower a payment for trips for passengers for 80%
The utilization coefficient of the park of pilotless taxi during 24-hour shift will reach about 50%. It is twice higher, than indicators of use of Uber and Lyft today … We are still sure that the business model of pilotless taxi works both in financial, and in the technology roadmap — specify in UBS.

According to forecasts of specialists, by 2030 the size of the market of pilotless taxi will exceed $2 trillion. Here revenue from production of cars and buses, construction revenues charging the station for electric cars and sales of the electric power and also from deliveries of the chips necessary for such motor transport enters.

The Goldman Sachs investment bank expects that by 2030 the market of mobile services of the order of the taxi, such as Uber and Lyft, will grow by eight times and $ 285 billion will be measured. In 2019 a third of all world market of the taxi is come to the similar office, by 2030 they will exceed traditional taxi services in a 5-fold size.

UBS follows from the report that by 2025 a quarter of sales at car market will make electric vehicles. About 12 million (8-10%) will be involved in car-sharing, on pilotless taxi 2 million units of motor transport is necessary. Such trend will push users to review the principles of operation of the car — in 2019 many people do not want to buy the personal car, preferring to use taxi online services, car-sharing and bicycle rental and electroscooters.[2]

Russia lost 4 places in the rating of the countries with the greatest readiness for pilotless cars

On February 25, 2019 the consulting company KPMG published results of a research in which estimated readiness of the countries for use of unmanned vehicles. Russia took the 22nd place in rating against the 18th in 2017. In total 25 countries were considered.

By drawing up the report analysts estimated policy and the legislation in the field of self-governed machines in the country, the level of their acceptance by consumers, availability of technologies and innovations and also development of the corresponding infrastructure.

The rating of the countries which are most of all ready to use of pilotless cars, data of KPMG

Russia was located on the last line on the access level to the latest technologies and took the penultimate place on quality of roads. Besides, experts pointed to lag of the Russian Federation in terms of the level of support of technologies by regulating authorities, a covering of LTE network and partner communications between car makers and suppliers of technologies. At the same time Russia appeared in the five of the countries whose population is most ready to change for robomobiles.

In a research  tests of the UAV of "Yandex" after snowfall in  Moscow and also  start of test pilotless service of the taxi in  Innopolis are separately mentioned. Besides, in KPMG pay attention to an initiative  of NTI "Avtonet" of  introduction of amendments to  the Vienna convention on  traffic  for legal equating of the systems of an auto pilot with  the driver  and also the state experiment on testing of UAVs on the Russian roads.

Russia lost several positions in the rating of readiness of the countries for use of unmanned vehicles, having taken the 22nd place

Singapore is in the lead in rating on the level of acceptance by consumers of autonomous transport as in all territory of the country several years are tested unmanned vehicles. Residents of India, Mexico and Russia, according to poll, most approvingly treat the idea of use of autonomous transport, and here the British do not consider such possibility at all.[3]


Research Frost & Sullivan

RVC together with consulting company Frost & Sullivan prepared the report on perspectives of market development of pilotless motor transport. The research is conducted by request of organizers of the technology tenders Up Great which started in Russia within the National technology initiative. One of tenders of a line Up Great – Winter City – is directed to development of the unmanned vehicle for operation in extreme climatic conditions[4].

The main players in the market of unmanned vehicles at the moment are the leading carmakers: Tesla Mercedes-Benz Audi. Ford also BMW are going to release the first UAVs by 2021. Plans for creation of pilotless machines also announced the companies Toyota, Uber Volvo (together with), Gett (Volkswagen Group c), etc.

According to forecasts of Frost & Sullivan, mass commercialization of such solutions by producers will begin after 2025. By this time the sales volume of independent machines will exceed 40% of the world market of cars. The market of pilotless vehicles will increase from the current $1.3 to $84 billion, sales of autonomous cars in absolute values will reach 36 million pieces. Considering considerable investment volume, in the future in the market there will be no more than three-four main players providing a full range of the automated solutions.

For development of unmanned vehicles of the future the requirement for data processing in real time will become key. Use of artificial intelligence in this area can become a major step forward on the way of overcoming a barrier between the semi-automatic and completely automated cars. According to the forecast, by 2020 car makers will be able to create the connected ecosystem in which the vehicle will independently study, using the cloud storage of data, and will have new opportunities through the updates available to loading wirelessly. World technology giants are engaged in development of such ecosystem: IBM, Intel, Cisco, Google, Amazon and Nokia.

Active implementation of autonomous taxi and increase in use of business models of mobility in the transport system of large megalopolises (engl. shared mobility) will contribute to the development of vehicles of high extent of automation. However start of technologies of the high level of automation of driving will happen, first of all, in the markets of the developed countries to entering of serious changes into the legislation which will open possibilities of use of such systems on public roads.

According to experts, perspective of market development of autonomous cars in Russia will depend on several factors.

Research of PwC

By 2040th year in the large cities completely pilotless transport infrastructure will be created, i.e. all vehicles will move without drivers, need for whom will disappear, RBC reports [5].

The PricewaterhouseCoopers auditing company gives such forecast. By their estimates, the first similar cars will appear on roads in 3 years, in the 2021st. But their autonomy will be incomplete, the driver should control driving process in some cases. A decade more later, in the 2030th years, vehicles will cease to need the person.

And by 2040th year the transport system of the cities will be already completely pilotless, i.e. autonomous. At the same time, according to PricewaterhouseCoopers, all machines will become electric vehicles that will have a positive impact on ecology.


Research Json & Partners

At creation of forecasts estimates of such companies as JP Morgan, BI Intelligence, Statista, PWC, HIS, BCG, GSMA, Navigant research, Continental AG, McKinsey, Lux Research, P&C, McKinsey and others were taken into account.

The market of sales of autonomous cars (further in the text of SA) will grow from 330 thousand cars in 2017, to 30.4 million cars a year by 2035. The main gain will receive the market, since 2025 when large car makers, and especially Chinese, begin to start autonomous cars of class 3* in large quantities. Till 2020 the autonomous Tesla cars will be the dominating brand in the market. In value term annual sales self-governed an avtomobiliya will grow from $13.65 billion in 2017 to $364.8 billion by 2035.

In regional structure the main volume self-governed an avtomobiliya will fall on sales in China, the USA and the European countries. So, by 2035 the share of sales in China can make up to 33% of all world sales. It is connected with stimulation of the authorities of transition of the Chinese motor transport to electric draft and high interest in autonomous technologies among the population. The USA from 26% on sales and Europe from 21% of sales on the third place will be the second sales market of SA.

Source: J’son & Partners Consulting, 2017

Main outputs of a research

Autonomous driving is estimated by the technology sector as "a new big thing" after the smartphone which is designed to solve a set of problems of modern manual control by the car, the safety of driving, main from which. Around autonomous cars the huge ecosystem from tens of the companies of different type which will create the multi-billion market for the movement which already became usual in personal vehicles forms.

Autonomous driving of class 3 and even class 4 ** [6]promises to become a reality in 2020-2021. Most foreign car makers and technology companies conduct works, field tests and expressed the intentions for this period. Russia did not provide anything almost significant, except several exhibition models and statements of authorities for need of achievement of 3% of a share of the world market that is not supported with still any production schedules of the companies.

In the first years autonomous cars will be available to use in limited conditions and in limited geographical markets, mainly in well "tsifrovizirovanny" megalopolises as possibilities of machine intelligence are still limited by certain conditions.

Mass autonomous cars can face in some countries serious legal barriers of regulators which can remove distribution of autonomous driving for a period of up to 2-3 years after the actual readiness of technology. Besides, implementation will be constrained by a number of technological, legal, information and consumer risks. The USA, China and Europe will be the main markets of the accelerated implementation of autonomous driving. Russia did not provide accurate vision of this direction except separate statements and creation of the working groups within state programs.

Autonomous driving will appear serious influence on urban economics and the countries. This influence will be as positive (for example, decrease in traffic jams and traffic congestion), and negative (employment reduction in the market of transportations, decrease in tax base, etc.). Some countries with high unemployment (as India) already declared prohibition of autonomous driving for the purpose of jobs preservation in transport.

Autonomous transport will require high-speed connection to mobile networks and to generate improbable volumes of traffic of data. Modern telecommunication infrastructure needs upgrade. Implementation of similar technologies can be impossible in Russia in the near future.

The Russian developments in the field of the autonomous movement are provided by only several prototypes and the software (for example, Congitive Technologies). Russia significantly lags behind development of innovations and implementation of technologies of autonomous driving from such countries as the USA and China which concentrated huge resources in this new area.

Research of Intel and Strategy Analytics

Intel and Strategy Analytics analytical company provided the research forecast concerning the future of cars with an auto pilot[7] at the beginning of 2017[8]. According to researchers, in the near future drivers will begin to pass to self-propelled cars worldwide. And this simple fact will create one of the greatest economic opportunities for the XXI century, so-called "Economy of passengers" which amount in 2050 will reach $7 trillion[9].

Researchers consider that the auto pilot in machines will allow to reduce annually by 250 million hours finding of people in way only during the trips to work and back in the most densely populated cities of the world thanks to what new economic opportunities will appear. Intel believes that the annual amount of the world market of self-propelled cars in 2035 will be $800 billion then the explosive growth which will lead to digit in 7 trillion by 2050 will begin.

Intel notes that huge changes in society will turn out to be consequence of it it is similar to those that happened to emergence of personal computers, the Internet, universal communication and smartphones. Therefore the modern enterprises wishing simply to survive in new conditions need to develop strategy of business in new "Economy of passengers" already now.

For example, people will have a mass of extra time, stress level will decrease, there will be new career opportunities, demand for parkings will significantly decrease that will make room in the cities for some other services. In the future, with transition of people from driving to driving, cars will become the most important device generating mobile data. Independent machines and technologies of "the smart cities" will gradually change the whole industries, will give start to emergence of new industries.

"the mobility of users as service (consumer mobility-as-a-service, CMaaS)" which is estimated at $3.7 trillion will become the most large potential market in $ to 7-trillionth new "Economy of passengers". CMaaS will develop first of all in highly urbanized areas where in the middle of the century there will live a third of the world population (also growth of a suburbanization is expected).

It is, for example, about providing transport services to consumers through different services of exchange or lease of cars (the taxi of new generation) as private autoownership will consign to the past. Car makers will deliver first of all machines wholesale for such services and also to compete for provision of services in cars. Researchers believe that mobile restaurants will appear, beauty shops, motels, shops, movie theaters, medical mini-clinics — all this and much another will be able to be provided in special autonomous cars.

Machines will ply along popular routes quicker to respond on calls, services of lease will be provided by the most different companies, from specialized in this area to just large enterprises or hotels. Besides, the new public relations will mean blur and even disappearance of borders between private life of people and work so people even more often will directly work in the car during the trip to the necessary point.

Similar services for the enterprises (Business to Business mobility-as-a-service, B2BMaaS) which will replace today's services in cargo transportation and a freight, are estimated at $3 trillion in 2050. $200 billion more income from the mentioned $7 trillion will bring new applications and services. However, it is very difficult to predict this digit, considering scales of potential changes and inventions.

One more forecast of a research — the general growth of the security level on roads. Transition to independent machines only in 10 years during the period between 2035 and 2045 will save half a million lives of people worldwide (apart from non-lethal injuries), and for this decade economy in 234 billion which otherwise would be spent for public security is formed. By the way, only in the USA transition to autonomous transport and failure from autoownership will allow people to save $900 billion for benefit of other services.

Japan will spend $25 billion for UAVs

Seven leading manufacturers of cars will take part in the program of development of pilotless transport and eco-friendly cars. The most part of investments, $13.4 billion, the Japanese car maker Toyota will undertake.

It will be the biggest investment of capital in development of pilotless transport lately, reports in May, 2017 the Japanese[10][11].

Also plans to participate in the program of production of pilotless vehicles were announced by Honda corporation which is going to invest in production $6.7 billion Besides, Honda announced plans for cooperation in this sphere with Google. One more Japanese car maker, Subaru, is going to invest $1.2 billion in developments.

Forecast of AT Kearney and Berg Insight

According to a research of AT Kearney company, in 20 years the size of the market of technologies of autonomous driving will be $560 billion. The peak of development of technologies is necessary for 2020-2030. Analysts of Berg Insight predict that the first self-governed machines on public roads will appear in 2020. Their quantity will be about 200 thousand units at this time. The cost of the first models will hardly be lower than $100 thousand.

Forecast of BCG: By 2026 the size of the market of pilotless machines can be $42 billion

According to forecasts of the beginning of 2017 of Boston Consulting Group (BCG), by 2026 the total amount of the market of pilotless machines can be about $42 billion. It is expected that the share of unmanned vehicles in the general structure of world sales will reach a point of 12-13%. In other words, about 14 million unmanned vehicles will be put on the market. 500 thousand from them will be completely autonomous. McKinsey Global Institute is even more optimistic in the forecasts, believing that the general share of pilotless machines (both completely autonomous, and semiautonomous) by 2025 will reach 15-20%[12].

By some estimates, in only several decades unmanned vehicles will allow mankind to save about $1 trillion and for 70% in the amount to reduce the number of road accident with a lethal outcome. Automation allows to reduce accident rate considerably already now. For example, the Audi carmaker in 2016 stated that thanks to in cars of the emergency brake system, the total quantity of injuries of passengers for the last 5 years was reduced almost by 38%.

Among the companies which now actively are engaged in development of unmanned vehicles it is possible to select such large carmakers as Volkswagen, General Motors (GM), Jaguar Land Rover, Toyota, Audi, BMW, etc. Also It should be noted the active involvement into this process of Google and Apple.

World news of the market

2020: In China service of the taxi without drivers is started

In the middle of July, 2020 the Chinese startup of WeRide announced start of service of pilotless taxi. The company already got permission to road tests of smart vehicles from local authorities in Guangzhou. Read more here.


California permitted completely unmanned vehicles to carry sendings

The authorities of California were permitted[13] at the end of 2019 commercial exploitation of completely pilotless suppliers of goods on roads of the state. From the middle of January, 2020 of the company will be able to get permission to tests of such cars with the driver or without it and also on operation with an opportunity to take money for delivery[14].

Many companies develop not pilotless taxi for transportation of people, and pilotless suppliers, and they can be separated into two big types: robots suppliers and small pilotless trucks. Suppliers of the first type, as a rule, have the small size, are intended for a delivery of small sendings and go on sidewalks. The small cars going on roads and capable, for example, to deliver several packets with products from shop nearby belong to the second type.

Full-fledged pilotless cars suppliers of the second type are potentially capable to create big profit for the companies, however their development goes smaller rates because the authorities of almost all regions do not allow to test on public roads cars and robots without the insuring engineer driving. The department of motor transport of the State of California made changes to the rules regulating tests and operation of unmanned vehicles on public roads of the state. Now they allow the companies to apply legally completely pilotless suppliers on roads.

According to new rules of the company will be able to request permission of department to use on roads of independent suppliers weighing up to 4.54 tons. In department gave as examples miniveins, midsize pickups and passenger cars of the corresponding weight. At the same time requirements to pilotless suppliers are unified with already existing requirements to the passenger UAVs transporting passengers.

The companies will be able to ask for permission to two types of tests (with the driver at a wheel and without driver) and also on commercial operation. New rules will become effective in 30 days — on January 17, 2020.

Head of Daimler: construct business in the field of the robotaxi it is unreal

In the middle of November, 2019 it became known that Daimler reviewed the expectations concerning a potential business model of pilotless taxi. The chief executive of the company of Ola Kaellenius reported about it.

Carmakers hastily were engaged in development of unmanned vehicles after Google provided a prototype of similar technology in 2012. Among other things after successful start of Uber the special popularity was purchased by the idea of the robotic taxi. Daimler also joined in a race of technologies, but it was as a result forced to refuse unrealistic expectations.

Daimler reviewed the tonosheniye to a business model of the pilotless taxi

According to Kellenius, the problem of development of the cars capable to move on busy urban areas without participation of the driver was more difficult, than engineers of Daimler expected. Expenses on development of technologies of safe pilotless driving were too big therefore at this stage of Daimler refused the idea of the robotic taxi.

We did not undergo testing in actual practice, - Kellenius told investors in London.

Full-scale system deployment of pilotless taxi would demand serious capital investments, however potential profit in this case too indefinite value.

According to Kellenius, technologies of pilotless driving will not go to waste - they, most likely, will be applied in trucks to help the companies of cargo transportation on distant routes. Without driver trucks do not have need to stop on a break or to look for the place for a lodging for the night that significantly reduces costs on cargo transportation.[15]

Hyundai starts the pilotless taxi in California

At the end of October, 2019 Hyundai announced start in California of service of the pilotless BotRide taxi. It will begin work on November 4 with assistance of and Via companies. Read more here.

The stop of only 20% of unmanned vehicles per hour peak completely will paralyze the transport movement in the city

According to scientists from Institute of Technology of Georgia, in the future the number of unmanned vehicles will grow to 10 million. It became known on July 30, 2019. Scientists are afraid that cybercriminals will be able to paralyze city traffic, having cracked only a small part of unmanned vehicles. Read more here.

The pilotless bus hit the pedestrian in Austria

In the middle of July, 2019 in Vienna there was a road accident with participation of the pilotless Navya SAS bus. It hit the 30-year-old girl crossing the road.

According to Bloomberg, the self-driving vehicle at the time of collision with the pedestrian moved with a speed of 12 km/h. The victim sustained insignificant injuries.

The pilotless bus developed by the French startup of Navya during tests in the Austrian Vienna ran over the pedestrian

According to one of versions, the woman crossed the road, not depending on the parties — she was distracted by the smartphone and was in earphones. Also it is reported that the victim decided to steal a march before Navya SAS. Details of the incident are not disclosed. The police make investigation of this incident.

Two pilotless Navya buses in the Austrian capital are tested with assistance of the authorities of Vienna since June 6, 2019. At inside of cars on a case of any non-staff situations there is always an operator with the controller of management which is the joystick from the game console Xbox 360.

Road accident with  participation of the self-propelled Navya bus already happened. In  November, 2017 the UAV  could not part at  the intersection with  truck.  As a result the truck touched with a wheel a bus bumper. Investigation of the reasons of this incident  ended   in the middle of  July, 2019. One of  them rassledovatel called unsuccessful arrangement of the controller of control of bus.[16]

Earlier in July, 2019 the unmanned vehicle of "Yandex" violated traffic regulations during testing in Moscow. As the representative of law enforcement agencies told the Moscow agency, the robomobile crossed the stop line on red light. In turn, in the press service of "Yandex" explained that traffic regulations when testing the unmanned vehicle in Moscow were violated by the driver-tester. The company emphasized that during the incident the machine was in the manual mode of management.

Serial production of pilotless cars for the goods delivery began. Huawei buys them

At the end of May, 2019 the Chinese startup of Neolix Technologies started the first-ever serial production of autonomous vehicles for the goods delivery. The company expects to sell one thousand vans worth about $30,000 within the first year of production. Read more here.


Pilotless taxi in Dubai

On October 13, 2018 in Dubai earned service of pilotless taxi. It began to be tested in one of districts of the city for transportation of passengers from one certain point in another — for example, from shopping center in movie theater or to the house of the passenger.

For the project the modified Mercedes-Benz cars E-Class are used. They are equipped with three special cameras, a lidar and four sensors at every turn which analyze a road situation and help the machine to go safely on streets. Sensors scan a road stop around the machine in a radius of 400 meters and allow to avoid road accident.

Mercedes-Benz E-Class with an auto pilot

However, during testing which will last within three months the driver will drive if necessary to take management under control. Further use of the taxi without people driving is planned. 

Vehicles in the mode of an auto pilot will accelerate at most up to 32 km/h and to transport up to four passengers, reported in Management of the motor transport in Dubai (Dubai Roads and Transport Authority, RTA). The people who received special invitations will be able to take part in tests of technology.

Pilotless taxi began to transport people in Dubai

According to the director of the department of roads and transport of Dubai Matar of an at-Tayer   (Mattar Al Tayer), pilotless taxi should become solution of the problem of "the last mile", i.e. be used for delivery of people to the subway, bus stops, places of the parking of the car of car-sharing, etc.

It [service of pilotless taxi] will be integrated with the mass transport systems, promoting movement of users of public transport, especially the subway and trams, to endpoints of appointment — he said.

According to plans of the government of Dubai, about 25% of all transport in the emirate will be pilotless by 2030.[17]

Start of pilotless buses in Sydney

On September 26, 2018 the government of the Australian State of New South Wales announced the beginning of running of pilotless buses on the road around the Olympic Park in Sydney for the purpose of transportation of passengers. It is a new stage of the two-year research begun at the initiative of the government in August, 2017 — earlier pilotless buses passed tests of security without passengers on the same section of the highway. Read more here.

Start of the first-ever service of pilotless taxi

Since August 27, 2018 in Tokyo the first-ever service of pilotless taxi earned. Service in the test mode was started the Japanese developer of technologies of autonomous ZMP transport together with one of the leading taxi firms of the country Hinomaru Kotsu, Nikkei tells.

Passengers can pass by the pilotless taxi along the fixed route about 5.3 km long between the Areas of Otemati and Roppongi. As reported by Kyodo, meanwhile the taxi miniveins, equipped with different sensors and pilotless technologies, makes four trips a day there and back. To test an innovation, the passenger needs to reserve and pay a trip using mobile application. Cost is 1500 yens (about $13.5) for a trip to one party.[18]

Testing which is partially financed by municipal authorities of Tokyo will last till September 8. ZMP and Hinomaru Kotsu expect to start commercial service in full in 2020 when the Japanese capital hosts the summer Olympic Games.

It is noted that though the taxi works completely in the pilotless mode and makes turns, evolutions in traffic flow and stops without intervention of people, for security driving there is a driver, and in salon - also the assistant.

Since August 27, 2018 in Tokyo the first-ever service of pilotless taxi earned

The first passenger who tested the pilotless taxi said that the trip was same comfortable, as well as in the normal car.

The machine was so smoothly rebuilt in a flow that I almost forgot that I go by the pilotless taxi" — cites words of the man of Nikkei.[19]

At a ceremony the president of Hinomaru Kotsu Kazutaka Tomita said that start of service marks an important step towards to pilotless transport.

In the company hope that pilotless technologies will help to solve a problem of deficit of drivers in Tokyo and to cope with the increased demand for taxi services during the Olympic Games.

Road regulator: many will die before we are able to use an auto pilot

On May 29 in an interview of BBC Mark Rosekind, the former head of National service on security of traffic of the USA, said that death of people on a test phase of unmanned vehicles is inevitable.

Unfortunately, there will be accidents. People will be wounded, some of them will die — he reported in an interview to BBC TV channel.

According to Rouzkaynd, the vast majority of fatal accidents happen because of the errors connected with a human factor and that the risks connected with release of imperfect cars with off-line control on the road in the future will be compensated by total absence of car accidents.

The Uber unmanned vehicle had an accident

According to Association of security of the international road travel, by May, 2018 nearly 30 thousand people around the world die in car accidents. Annually it makes 1.3 million death from which 37 thousand fall on the USA.

According to Futurism, car accidents are already one of basic reasons of death and injuries around the world. Cars with off-line control can help to prevent some of these tragedies is one of the most convincing arguments for benefit of their sale. In order that unmanned vehicles were safer than cars with drivers, it is necessary to test them. It is possible to assume that not all tests will be passed successfully.

It, however, does not mean that it is necessary to close eyes to these risks. On the contrary, manufacturing companies of cars with off-line control should bear responsibility for the errors and failures, notes the edition.

As showed tests, many drivers do not understand a difference between an auto pilot and a standalone mode which offer some cars, such as Tesla. It is necessary to inform better drivers to prevent accidents and dangerous misunderstanding.

Thus, not all these incidents are inevitable. Legislature and the technology companies should set well-defined rules and define effects for car makers in case of accidents.[20]

Start of 300 robotaxi in Las Vegas

At the beginning of May, 2018 the producer of automobile Aptiv component parts  (the former  Delphi) announced an output to public roads of 30 self-governed machines. They began to go in Las Vegas within the service of sharing of vehicles offered by Lyft company (ridesharing).

For gaining access to the robotaxi users of Lyft need to select the corresponding option from the application. As it is about an experiment, in UAVs there will be a driver who in case of approach of a dangerous situation will be able to take to manage motor transport on himself.

The robomobile with the Aptiv system

The price of rolling of the unmanned vehicle with the driver is not set. It is noted that such machines will be in "places of high demand" therefore users should not look for the self-propelled taxi long.

However, as writes the Digital Trends portal, unmanned vehicles will ply only on Las-Vegas-Strip — approximately seven-kilometer section  of Boulevard Las Vegas on which there is most the largest  hotels  and  casino of agglomeration  of Las Vegas. In the press release of Aptiv there is no such information.

Thanks to technology of off-line control from Aptiv unrolled in Las Vegas and generally available through the Lyft application, the wide range of consumers will be able to share driving opportunities on the UAV in the difficult urban environment. Even more important the fact that the gained knowledge and data will allow us to finish our opportunities of pilotless driving and to strengthen our portfolio of the leading solutions for active security — the CEO of Aptiv Kevin Clark said.

Aptiv and Lyft have the long-term agreement. At the beginning of 2018 the companies started a pilot public project within which users made about 400 trips by self-governed machines around public roads. Passengers highly appreciated driving in such taxi — 4.99 points from 5 possible. Aptiv considers that the experiment in Las Vegas waits for similar success.[21]

China set rules for autonomous cars

Aiming to accelerate development and implementations of technologies for pilotless transport to catch up with the USA in this area, the authorities of China published on April 12, 2018 national rules for carrying out tests of autonomous cars.

According to requirements which become effective since May 1, 2018, testing of cars at first should be held in the closed, specially allotted territories, and only then tests on roads which should be previously certain too are permitted. Applicants for holding pilot runs should be the impartial legal entities registered in the People's Republic of China, transfers the China Daily edition with reference to the Ministry of the industry and information technologies of the People's Republic of China (Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, MIIT).[22]

The authorities of China published national rules for carrying out tests of autonomous cars

Besides, rules order that on site the driver in unmanned vehicles the qualified employee ready in case of need immediately always should be to intercept management.

In the light of two resonant incidents which took place in 2018 from the death with participation of unmanned vehicles Uber and Tesla Motors, the vice-minister of MIIT of Xin Guobin said that road tests of unmanned vehicles — difficult process in which security should be the main priority, transfers Reuters.[23]

For the purpose of security of road tests we will demand that testing happened on certain streets and that throughout tests the driver was driving and monitored the car and a surrounding situation, ready any minute to take control over machine in hand. It is a lesson which we learned from accidents with Uber and Tesla — he emphasized.

Also Xin Gobin noted that China risks to lag behind competitors, such as the USA if does not intercept an initiative in development of pilotless transport in the hands. The minister called success in this sphere a key component for implementation of the Chinese program "It Is Made in China 2025" (Made in China 2025).

Pilotless buses began to go on roads of Stockholm

At the end of January, 2018 it became known that the Ericsson telecommunication company in cooperation with the Swedish operators of public transport and a number of local partners will test pilotless buses on city streets of Stockholm. A project objective — to test as autonomous transport will work in actual practice, plying side by side with normal cars, cyclists and pedestrians. Read more here.

In the settlement, largest in the USA, for aged started the robotaxi

 On January 10, 2018 the startup  of Voyage which manages the park of unmanned vehicles, announced start of the robotaxi in the largest in the USA the settlement for aged — The Villages (it is located to the north from Orlando (State of Florida). Read more here.


For the first time on public roads pilotless buses appeared

For the first time pilotless buses appeared on public roads. The significant event took place on December 2, 2017 in the city of Shenzhen, the Chinese province of Guangdong.

For the first time on public roads pilotless buses appeared

According to the China Daily edition, along a test route 1.2 km long four "smart" Alphabus buses went. They speeded at from 10 to 30 km/h and made on the way three stops. All trip took about five minutes.[24]

Main article Alphabus.

CARLA Simulator Training of unmanned vehicles

Researchers from Intel, Toyota and the Spanish Center of computer vision developed the simulator of the urban environment intended for training of control algorithms by unmanned vehicles in 2017. It allows to imitate operation of different sensors and to obtain data in real time. The code of the simulator is published[25] under the free license therefore developers can adapt it for the needs. Also researchers studied efficiency of algorithms of different types using the simulator. Development was provided at the Conference on training of robots in Google headquarters, article is published on[26]. In more detail about a system you watch CARLA Simulator the Training of unmanned vehicles

Renault auto pilot which is going round obstacles as the professional driver

The French car maker Renault developed technology thanks to which the autopiloted cars can go round obstacles in emergency situations almost at the same speed, as professional drivers. The auto pilot was tested at the end of October, 2017 by the observer of the TechCrunch portal. Read more here.

Las Vegas: Crash of the pilotless bus in the first day of work

On November 8, 2017 in Las Vegas solemn start of the pilotless Arma bus developed by French stratapy Navya took place. Later all a couple of hours since the beginning of work the electrobus shuttle got into accident.[27] Accident was provoked by the truck driver: handing over to a backing, it crashed into a front wing of the pilotless bus. Read more here.

The map of the cities of the world with pilotless cars

In October, 2017 the American charitable foundation Bloomberg Philanthropies and Aspen Institute submitted the first-ever interactive map of the cities with unmanned vehicles. The Russian cities for some reason on it are not mentioned.

The first map of the cities with unmanned vehicles is submitted

By the time of creation of such card it contains 53 cities in which or already test self-governed machines, or the authorities are going to permit their tests.

According to this guide, pilot tests of unmanned vehicles take place in 35 cities of the world, 11 of which are in the USA. Five more cities are located in Holland, four — in Great Britain and also three — in China. On two cities of France and Canada accept tests of autouAVs, and in Japan, the UAE, Sweden, Singapore, Finland, Norway, South Korea and Australia tests take place in one city of the country.

In 18 cities prepare for experiments with advanced auto pilots or show strong interest in such vehicles. In particular, it is about Los Angeles, Nashville, Tel Aviv, Buenos Aires and São Paulo.

Authors of the project say that the card will help the authorities of the countries and cities to monitor development of pilotless motor transport in the world, the status of pilot programs and success achieved in these or those regions.

It is strange that on the card there are no Russian cities. Earlier it became known that "KAMAZ" tests robomobiles in Naberezhnye Chelny and Noginsk situated near Moscow. In August, 2017 in the Moscow technopark Calibre opened a polygon for testing of unmanned vehicles and buses. In the same month the prime minister Dmitry Medvedev charged to develop conditions for use of unmanned vehicles in Russia. Such machine was developed in "Yandex" and shown to the President of Russia Vladimir Putin in September.[28]

It is possible to study the interactive map to the address

Legislative initiatives in a standards convertor unit insurance field

The European Parliament already seriously studies creation of framework insurance programmes for the CU using artificial intelligence.

In February, 2017 the European Parliament made the decision that robotics is regulated insufficiently, and last Thursday adopted the resolution for European Commission (prepares bills according to decisions of European Parliament). According to Vedomosti, the European Parliament suggests to think over special legal status of the electronic personality for the difficult robots making independent decisions, – then it will be possible to confer responsibility for compensation of the damage caused by them on them. Most urgently the sector of unmanned vehicles, said in the resolution of European Parliament needs regulation. One of proposals of eurodeputies – by analogy with car insurance to create special fund from which the loss, when there is no usual insurance coverage would be indemnified. The European Parliament urged insurance companies to develop the new products corresponding to development of robotics. The autoinsurance covers only acts of man and errors, and the system of insurance for robots should consider all possible responsibility.

The USA called the most reliable unmanned vehicle

The department of motor transport of California published the report in which statistics of incidents with participation of autonomous transport for 2016 is reflected [29].

According to official data, as of January 1, 2017 on public roads in California 21 companies were engaged in tests of unmanned vehicles. Each of them is obliged to provide annually to the authorities the detailed reporting on quantity of the emergency situations which arose during the pilot runs.

In statistics collected by the companies both errors are reflected in system operation of autonomous piloting, and different contingencies which forced the engineers who were in the car to intercept driving.

The Bosch company was the absolute champion by the number of similar incidents. Though their pilotless vehicle fleet contains only three machines, in 2016 1442 incidents were registered. Considering that autonomous transport of the German company passed only 983 miles on roads of California, the number of incidents on 1000 miles of a way was 1466.9.

Other producer from GermanyMercedes-Benz was at the second place. During tests of the only unmanned vehicle of the company 336 incidents were registered. Taking into account 673 miles passed in 2016 the number of incidents was 499.3 × 1000 miles of a way.

The third place of anti-rating was taken by Tesla. Four unmanned vehicles of the company passed 550 miles in 2016, at the same time 180 incidents were mentioned. Thus, the number of incidents on 1000 miles of a way made 327.3.

However not at all developers of the systems of autonomous piloting the situation is is so deplorable. For example, the Google subsidiary company — Waymo counted in 2016 only 124 incidents with participation of the machines. Considering that engineers of the technology giant released 60 unmanned vehicles which passed in total nearly 636 thousand miles on roads of California, the number of incidents on 1000 miles of a way was only 0.2.

Of similar progress also the German producer BMW which began tests of autonomous transport only recently can brag. Their only pilotless car passed in 2016 638 miles, and only one incident during this time was mentioned.

Overview of the market of developments of unmanned vehicles

For February, 2017, in this or that type of function of pilotless driving – for example, the parking or driving on certain types of roads, already is in some commercially available models of cars. However management systems for the car on which it would be possible to rely completely, having replaced with them the driver, still are in development.

Cars with partially automated driving are already commercially available, the next step - completely independent machines

One of the most advanced companies in the field of an auto pilot can call Tesla. She already sells the electric vehicles Model S and Model X with such function. During the trip a system will recognize hundreds of elements: a road marking and signs, traffic lights, pedestrians and other cars and even the background greased during the movement.

Not the first year of development in this area conducts BMW. The company is going to equip all the electric models with autonomous technologies since 2021. Showed sedan 5-Series of new generation with the system of off-line control of BMW at the beginning of 2017. Later, on the Mobile congress in Barcelona in the same 2017 of BMW showed the joint project of the car with Ericsson and Intel connected to pilot 5G network.

In the same place the company showed a sample of the BMW 740-e car equipped with the system of autonomous driving based on the GO Intel platform which the company develops especially for the autoindustry, and Mobileye technologies which developed the system of an auto pilot for Tesla earlier.

At the same Peugeot exhibition showed a car prototype with function of pilotless driving and connection to a cloud platform of Internet of Things of Samsung Artik which can aggregate data from the smartwatch, phone of the driver and social networks. In the machine two standalone modes of driving — Autonomous Sharp and Autonomous Soft are available. The first – if it is necessary to reach quickly from one point another, the second – for comfortable long trips on which it is possible to watch the movie or just to have a rest.

In the same place also the first racing car UAV - Robocar from Roborace company which is directed by the former Deputy Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications of Russia Denis Sverdlov was provided. The car is equipped with five laser and two normal radars, 18 sensors and 6 cameras.

From the Russian developers of the systems of pilotless driving it is possible to select Cognitive Technologies. The company develops the system of autonomous driving of C-Pilot. The prototype of the solution was tested based on the Nissan car. The main competitor the company sees the Israeli Mobileye - developer of a similar system for the Tesla cars. According to the results of tests in March, 2017 the president of Cognitive Technologies Olga Uskova reported that by recognition parameter the system of her company exceeds results of Mobileye.

Peugeot car prototype with functions of pilotless driving

On the Mobile congress in 2017 in Otto company, told that its pilotless trucks can already be met on roads of Colorado and Phoenix. In partnership with Volvo these trucks are equipped 3D - cameras, sensors on a roof and a bumper, the laser radar and the technology of computer vision allowing to notice pedestrians and other vehicles.

The Volvo cars are also equipped with auto pilots. In 2017 the company intends to start project implementation of "Drive Me London" in which tens of independent machines will fulfill the movement in big cities. In 2018 the project is going to be expanded. To public roads of Great Britain there will be 100 machines with auto pilots onboard. Cars will distribute between the volunteers selected by a specialized team of researchers.

In December, 2016 service of the Uber taxi already started testing of Volvo unmanned vehicles in San Francisco, the USA. A system in a random way selects users of UberX service and appoints by it the pilotless version of the Volvo XC90 car. For security two employees of Uber who are at front places are in the car.

Bosch about connection of cars to network and the automated driving

  • According to researches of Bosch, automation of vehicles will allow to reduce the number of accidents on 1/3 only in one Germany. Today the human factor is the reason of 90% of accidents on roads.
  • The automated driving improves a flow of the movement, increasing capacity of regulated intersections to 80%. Thereby fuel consumption (up to 39%) and harmful effects on the environment is cut (reduction of CO2 in exhaust gases – up to 400 cubic tons per year).
  • By 2025 about a half of all cars will be equipped with the information and entertaining systems and will be able to support functions of smartphones. Besides, up to 70% of new motorcycles will be equipped with the systems of connection to network.
  • Till 2025 the computing power of software for trucks will increase almost by 20 times that will allow to save time and means of the transport-forwarding companies.
  • The cloud service of Bosch warns about wrong actions of the driver during 10 sec. Similar functions of connection to network can save about 11 thousand lives till 2025.
  • Service works in 30 countries, servicing in 16 languages. Its competence includes support of eCalls and data collection for the technical help at accidents. In 2015 the Bosch service processed more than 120 million calls for more than 1000 companies.
  • According to data of European Commission, the automatic system of notifications of eCall will help to save up to 2.5 thousand lives on the European roads annually.

Bosch и Daimler

The companies Bosch Daimler also jointly work on development of the system of management for pilotless vehicle. The companies created the alliance directed to system development for autonomous cars (SAE level 4) and the vehicles which are not requiring participation of the driver (SAE level 5). These innovations can become a reality prior to the beginning of the next decade. You look in more detail Bosch the On-board computer with artificial intelligence.

Intel paid 15 billion dollars for the developer of cameras for unmanned vehicles

The Intel corporation announced purchase of the Israeli Mobileye which specializes in optical systems for unmanned vehicles. Americans will redeem all shares of Mobileye, transaction amount will be about 15 billion dollars. The joint laboratory on creation of the equipment for unmanned vehicles will be located in Israel. It is expected that the deal on purchase of Mobileye will be closed within nine months.

Volkswagen Sedric is the concept car with function of an auto pilot

The Volkswagen concern provided vision of individual mobility and the complex concept of mobility of the future in March, 2017. The concept car in which function of pilotless management is implemented became its main element. Volkswagen Sedric (from self-driving car — the autopiloted car) gives the chance on a specific example to get acquainted with this innovation form of the individual mobility available to all and focused on personal requirements and desires. The first conceptual car serves as the platform for working off of the ideas of all brands of Volkswagen concern and emphasizes importance of technologies of automated management of the car in the strategy of future development of the company.

Ford invests $1 billion in artificial intelligence for an autonomous car

In the period of 2017-2022 Ford Motor Company invests $1 billion in Argo AI, the company in the field of artificial intelligence, for the purpose of development of a virtual management system for the autonomous car which the brand will bring to the market by 2021 and also potential sale of the license for technology to other companies.

Autonomous cars will help to save the USA to $340 billion a year

Use of autonomous cars, thanks to sharp reduction of the road accidents, will help to save to the budget of the USA hundreds of billions dollars. It is reported in a research which was conducted by analysts of Global Positioning Specialists. Results of the report allow to emphasize the potential of economic feasibility from use of technologies of an auto pilot in passenger transport[30].

Experts predicted that the USA is lost on elimination of effects and as a result of road accident by more than $306 billion annually. It is more, than any other country in the world. Analysts calculated percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) which is annually lost in all types of road accidents. Then experts turned on in the report indicators of the expected economy reached from use of autonomous cars. It is counted that pilotless machines can reduce to 90% of the accidents caused by a human factor.

If all cars in the USA were self-governed, then the budget of the country could saved about $340 billion from the losses in GDP caused by road accidents. Besides, also the quantity of death in road incidents will decrease. Mortality on roads of the USA in 2015 was 35 thousand people (a gain in comparison with 2014 - +7.2%). About a third of road accident with the victims happened because of drunk drivers, and every tenth – because of carelessness of drivers.

In the report it is also noted that technologies of autonomous cars need to be licked into "shape" because use of "crude" solutions will hardly raise the security level on roads.

China will construct the biggest polygon in the world for UAVs

By 2025 the leading car makers are going to bring to the market at least 5 models with auto pilots.

Until the end of 2017 in China the biggest will appear in the world the proving ground for unmanned vehicles. The new platform as reports China Daily, will be built in the city of Zhangzhou in the Province of Fujian in the southeast[31].

The cost of a polygon of 56 square kilometers is estimated at $1.4 million. In the territory the network of the highways equipped with necessary infrastructure and road signs will be created.

Part in the project will be taken by China Merchants Group state company, private Shenzhen Qianhai Frontt Capital Management and CRI Intelligent Auto Research Institute. Technical support in creation of a new polygon will be given by Michigan State University and the test center MCity created with their help in Ann Arbor.

You See Also: The TIS holding by request of Traft and with assistance of Rosavtodor constructed in Russia the first special polygon for testing of pilotless trucks based on the warehouse Shakhovo complex in Moscow area. Results of tests of pilotless trucks on a special polygon, ready to opening, in Moscow area will allow to accelerate process of start of trucks with an auto pilot on federal roads of the country (in more detail).

Volvos Cars and Autoliv created the company for software development of auto pilots

The bonus car maker Volvo Cars and the developer of security systems for the automotive industry of Autoliv signed at the beginning of 2017 the agreement on creation of Zenuity joint venture which will develop the software for auto pilots and the systems of the help to the driver.

Zenuity will become the participant of emerging market of the software for the systems of off-line control. For the first time the bonus car maker combines efforts with the leading developer of the systems of the help to the driver and technologies of off-line control.


10 most important events in the world in the field of unmanned vehicles

International Robotics Center (IRC) together with the Russian Association of Artificial Intelligence (RAAI) provided in December the rating of the most important events in the world in the field of unmanned vehicles for 2016.

Organizers of a research note that the practical lack of bright technology achievements became the main result of a research. The vast majority of the events which are selected by experts represent these or those itself commercial results.

  • The result achieved in the legislative sphere heads the rating of events. According to organizers of a research, key problems in development of all direction of pilotless transport are connected not with a possibility of creation of new technologies and solutions today, namely, with the legislation. It is the main brake of process of transition to the pilotless systems. Therefore the result connected with release of recommendations by the U.S. Department of Transportation, allowing to accelerate really process of implementation of autonomous technologies appeared out of competition.
  • On the second place of a research alliance of leading manufacturers of the systems of the help of Mobileye to the driver with Delphi Automotive. Really, possibilities of consolidation of efforts of leading manufacturers of program systems of the help to the driver and hardware solutions look more than hopefully and can change an alignment of forces on emerging market of the pilotless systems.
  • On the third position Russian company Cognitive Technologies. Its technology victory – a possibility of modeling of function of a hippocampus of the person allows to increase safety of the unmanned vehicle significantly. Specialists of the company are sure that thanks to this technology they would manage to avoid sign accident with a motor van of light color which the Tesla car had. Unfortunately, it was the only scientific and practical achievement in 2016. On the other hand, "Russia lagged behind for several years with start of the projects in the direction of the pilotless systems therefore today, we have an opportunity to observe and analyze the way passed by the leading scientific and technology centers of the world for development of systems of artificial intelligence for unmanned vehicles. In this sense, our country has great chance to create more perfect and more competitive technologies for autorobots. It is possible to calculate that their number will increase from year to year", the President of RAII, f considers. - m of N, the prof., Gennady Osipov.

The list of the most important events in the world in the field of unmanned vehicles for 2016.

1. The U.S. Department of Transportation was released by recommendations about unmanned vehicles. They are called to remove the conflict with local laws and to accelerate adoption of technology.
2. Alliance Delphi Automotive and Mobileye on creation of a full-fledged auto pilot by 2019
3. The Russian company Cognitive Technologies implemented a possibility of modeling of function of a hippocampus of the person in the AI system for the unmanned vehicle
4. The commercial transportation first in the history on the unmanned vehicle. The truck with an auto pilot of Otto Group company delivered the Budweiser beer batch from the city the Fort Collins to Colorado Springs (USA)
5. Apple announces resumption of work on creation of the unmanned vehicle
6. In Dubai started the first pilotless bus
7. Uber started the first pilotless taxi in the USA
8. Emergence of the first pilotless taxi in Singapore
9. Accident of an auto pilot of Tesla in which the driver died
10. NVIDIA showed pilotless a car, capable to go without road

Cyclists of San Francisco against pilotless Volvos XC90 in Uber service

At the end of 2016 the Coalition of cyclists of San Francisco came to a conclusion that unmanned vehicles based on Volvos XC90 which on streets of this city were tested by Uber Technologies constitute serious danger to cyclists. They revealed that cars in the pilotless mode violate the existing rules traffic regulations and execute turns directly through bicycle bands. After that Uber was engaged in auto pilot software customization.

The car with an auto pilot of Volvo and Uber in San Francisco

The pilotless truck for the first time delivered a beer batch

The truck with an auto pilot of Otto Group company delivered the Budweiser beer batch from the city the Fort Collins to Colorado Springs (USA), reported on the website of Anheuser-Busch company[32].

It is noted that it is the commercial transportation first in the history on the unmanned vehicle.

Throughout a way (more than 193 km) the automatic system with assistance of management of transport of the State of Colorado operated the vehicle.

At the same time the driver also was in a cabin, but did not interfere with system operation, watching it from a berth in a back part of a cabin.

Added to Otto that with an auto pilot drivers will have an opportunity to have a rest in way as that is required by the legislation of the USA, and, perhaps, even to take a nap. Besides drivers will not spend time for stops that will help to accelerate cargo delivery, and the company will not need to employ the second driver for change.

Unmanned vehicles came to roads of Great Britain

Specialists from the University of Oxford – founders of a startup of Oxbotica – brought in the fall of 2016 a prototype of a pilotless car to public roads of Great Britain, TechCrunch Self-driving cars take to UK streets for first public road tests [33][34] reports].

Engineers showed the "child" in August, and its full tests on public roads in Milton-Kins (in Greenwich they are planned for 2017) began in the fall. The car will independently move with a speed of eight kilometers per hour, there will be driving a driver-tester ready at any time to intercept management. The model is created on the basis of the electric vehicle Renault Twizy.

For its management the software of Selenium using indications of GPS, cameras and a lidar is used. A managing system can move also without signal from navigation satellites, being guided only on surrounding objects — such function is useful in a tunnel or on the underground parking. According to developers, special attention was paid to movement at a low speed in a difficult environment — within the previous tests the UAV learned to go in pedestrian zones.

Tests of a prototype of Oxbotica — a part of the project of the pilotless passenger LUTZ Pathfinder capsule. It is expected that after successful tests of Selenium on Renault prototype a managing system will be installed on 40 pilotless LUTZ capsules which will move on streets Milton-Kins and Coventry. At this stage electric vehicles will be able to gather speed to 24 kilometers per hour.

The USA is afraid that unmanned vehicles will become weapon for hunting for people

The ministry transport USA issued the operation manual on unmanned vehicles on the American roads which should facilitate to these devices a way on the market. The management contains the section devoted cyber security which consists of 15 parameters by which information security of the structure[35] is estimated[36].

However, according to John Simpson from non-profit organization of consumer protection Consumer Watchdog, the management does not set a certain and mandatory cybersecurity standard for pilotless cars. Its main shortcoming as in the USA concerns even more often sound that UAVs will become terrible weapon in hands of hackers terrorists if those begin to intercept over them control also consists in it. On the other hand, wide circulation of such cars can exclude completely accidents on roads and save thus up to 30 thousand lives of Americans annually.

Main vulnerabilities: V2V and GPS

It is supposed that unmanned vehicles will be able to communicate with each other and with objects of road infrastructure, i.e. their systems will not be closed. The openness of systems will make them vulnerable for cracking as it happened to Jeep Cherokee in 2015. Having cracked the jeep on the Internet, the hacker intercepted driving then the Fiat Chrysler Automobiles producer was forced to propatchit software on 1.4 million devices.

However the same system of information exchange which received the name V2V (engl. "vehicle-to-vehicle" – from means to means), should protect unmanned vehicles as cracking of group of the means coordinated concerning each other is more difficult task for the hacker. Mary Cummings, the director of Humans and Autonomy laboratory in Duke University holds such opinion.

Vulnerability of the interface of external access

The technical director of the Russian cybersecurity company "Security reference monitor" Georgy Lagoda claims that not only unmanned vehicles, but also traditional cars with the wireless interface of access to the engine are hackable (for example, through so-called ODBC port). According to Lagoda, producers treat security of protocols of communications of the built-in equipment less seriously.

Lagoda notes that today at many large conferences on security, both in Russia, and in the USA, there are test cars to which cybersecurity experts can be connected to try to find vulnerabilities. Moreover, some cybersecurity companies already managed to spend more than 10 thousand hours for similar researches and achieved considerable progress in interception of management and correction of indicators of onboard devices. Respectively, "black" hackers can do it too.

Full-fledged auto pilot of Tesla. Video

The Tesla Motors company posted in October video on which its car goes on the city without participation of the person. Before October 20 the head of the company Elon Musk reported that all machines released further will be equipped with a full-fledged auto pilot, and promised to show video later.

On the new Tesla Motors cars eight cameras which should provide the 360-degree overview at a distance to 250 meters and also 12 advanced ultrasonic sensors defining objects will be mounted. Earlier Tesla had an auto pilot which was able to work only with the assistance of the person[37].

NVIDIA showed pilotless a car, capable to go without road

Demonstration took place on September 28 within the GPU Technology Conference conference in Amsterdam. Also one of the largest developers of graphic accelerators and NVIDIA Corporation processors showed possibilities of the open Driveworks Alpha 1 platform for the pilotless[38].

The Driveworks Alpha 1 platform is the hardware and software solution for developers. A program part of the platform which allows unmanned vehicles to be guided on the road and to react to change of a road situation, the company intends to update each two months.

On the basis of the solution of the company the cars Baidu, nuTonomy, Volvo, TomTom and WEpods buses are already developed.

Panasonic tests a prototype of the pilotless and self-parking car

Engineers of the Japanese company Panasonic provided an experimental prototype of the car capable to be guided independently in space in September, 2016 and even to park without participation of the person. Testing two-seat a compact penalty, equipped with five dash cameras and sensors, took place on specially equipped[39] platform[40].

Tests helped to estimate, how precisely and adequately cameras will recognize surrounding space and obstacles in a way of the car and also to check controllability of the machine and quality of braking. As a result any person and a dummy set on the road did not suffer. In the near future engineers plan field tests on real streets.

In recent years the Panasonic corporation actively develops the b2b direction and, in particular, production of solutions and components for the automotive industry. And if originally audio-and video technologies of Panasonic were used for creation of the information and entertaining systems, then now the company pays the increasing attention to the person machine interfaces and security systems.

By 2019 financial year of Panasonic expects to increase the sales volume of the automobile business to 2.1 trillion yens, having made solutions for electric vehicles a main growth driver. Income from technologies of the automated driving, by calculations of the company, should grow by one and a half times already in the next few years.

Drive Me project: the autopiloted machines Volvo came to public roads

The bonus car maker Volvo officially starts the Drive Me project in September, 2016 - it is an experiment on testing of cars with an auto pilot on public roads. Within the Drive Me project on September 9, 2016 the company released on roads of the Swedish Gothenburg the very first car with an auto pilot.

Assembly of the Volvo XC90 SUV with the system of an auto pilot was complete in specialized workshop of the plant in the city of Torslanda. It is the first Volvo from the whole series of cars with the systems of off-line control which will be transferred to normal families of Gothenburg for use in the daily trips.

The Volvo company is sure that implementation of technologies of off-line control will allow to reduce the number of road accident on roads. Moreover, such technologies promise to unload considerably roads and to reduce pollution level, and drivers will be able to use more effectively for themselves time on a trip.


Volvo offers all clients the system of semiautonomous management Pilot Assist of the second generation which is established in models of the 90th series (XC90, S90, V90). Pilot Assist includes function of accurate taxiing, aligning the car on a band within a road marking at a speed up to 130 km/h, and system operation does not require ahead the going vehicle. The cars participating in the Drive Me project will allow drivers to take away hands from a steering wheel and not to concern pedals at the movement within specially selected zones for off-line control in suburbs of Gothenburg. Control will be exercised of a system which in Volvo is called by "Autonomous Driving Brain".

>>Video Volvo Drive Me<<

The main difference of the Drive Me project from similar experiments in the field of off-line control consists in initial approach when in the center of attention of developers there is a user. Instead of relying only on results of researches of the engineers, in Volvo pay much attention to responses of people who use cars with auto pilots in everyday life.

Having selected such approach, the company intends to improve the technologies of off-line control that they most answered requests of clients by the time of an output of the autopiloted machines to the commercial market in 2021.

After assembly cars of the Drive Me project will pass a phase of comprehensive tests that will allow to ensure excellent job of all functions of a system of off-line control. Upon completion of the tests controlled by engineers of Volvo, cars will be given to the users participating in the Drive Me project.

The pilot project "Drive Me" which is carried out in Gothenburg is the first from among similar initiatives of Volvo of testing of machines with off-line control. The similar project will be carried out in 2017 in London. Also in Volvo consider requests from a number of the cities in China which also stated a wish to participate in the Drive Me project. The Volvo cars with auto pilots can appear on streets of the Chinese cities within the next years.

In Dubai started the first pilotless bus

The ten-local bus made the first trip at the beginning of September, 2016. Length of a route was 700 meters. The innovation transport developed by the French Easy Mile group in cooperation with Omnix company is equipped with the electric motor and gathers speed to 40 kilometers per hour. "Probation period" for the bus will make one month.

Researchers noted that such bus can adapt the speed to a surrounding situation and also quickly slow down if the pedestrian towards runs out. On the minibus it will be possible to reach the main tourist attractions of Dubai.

Developers noted that start of such bus — very important step on the way of implementation of pilotless transport in Dubai. By 2030 about a quarter of all transport of the city will be completely automated.

The first-ever pilotless taxi took to the streets of Singapore

With summer of 2016 in Singapore the first-ever service of the pilotless taxi began to work. Six electric cars will transport passengers across the territory in 2.5 square miles in one of business districts of the city, Associated Press[41] reports on August 25[42].

Vehicle fleet consisting of the Renault Zoe and Mitsubishi i-MiEV cars belongs to nuTonomy company. By the end of this year the company management hopes to increase number of pilotless taxi to 12 units, and by 2018 to replace all taxi in the city with cars without drivers. It is noted that now for use of services of pilotless taxi it is necessary to receive the special invitation from the company.

According to the chief operating officer of the company Dag Parker, implementation in Sigapur's infrastructure of the nuTonomy project will allow to reduce number of machines in the city from 900 thousand to 300 thousand.

The American producers will create a universal auto pilot

In the summer of 2016 it became known that in January, 2017 Delphi Automotive and Mobileye companies intend to show the system capable to control the movement of the car in difficult road conditions. The fully automatic system of management, perhaps, will be established on cars of inline assembly since 2019. Such forecast was made by the newspaper Wall Street Journal Delphi, Mobileye Join Forces to Develop Self-Drive System[43]which announced consolidation of resources for such system of two large companies on production of spare parts – Delphi Automotive and Mobileye.

Now they deliver only separate components of a system – sensors and the software for prototypes of machines with an auto pilot.

The companies intend to show the system capable to control the movement of the car, for example, on a circular outcome and also to perform departure from the minor road on the busy highway or to do the left turn through a band of oncoming traffic. According to in an interview to the newspaper the general manager of Delphi company Kevin Clark, in this project "it will be invested by several hundred millions of dollars".

"The companies are expected that based on partnership it will be possible to create the management system suitable for installation for all types of cars – from small machines to pickups, – the newspaper writes. – Production of such system will allow these companies to take the leading positions in fight for deliveries of the hi-tech systems for pilotless cars. Our consolidation happens at the moment when large car makers make attempts to create automatic management system for the machines".

as notes the edition, the companies Alphabet and General Motors (GM) already "let know that such systems will release earlier", Volvo intends to test the unmanned vehicle next year, and Nissan and Tesla intend to create the competitive systems by the end of this decade.

The first victim of an auto pilot

Anyway, in Tesla consider that weight of effects of road accident is explained by long overhang of the truck. The company notes that if the car crashed into the trailer, then the driver could survive — similar accidents already repeatedly happened to participation of Tesla.

U.S. authorities in the summer of 2016 started investigation of the reasons of the first deadly road accident with participation of the car which moved on an automatic pilot. Accident happened on the non-regulated intersection in the American city of Uilliston in the State of Florida in May, but it is known of an incident in which the driver died, became only in July. The electric vehicle Tesla Model S with the included auto pilot rammed on the highway the tractor with the trailer which moved in the perpendicular direction, trying to cross the intersection. The heavy-load truck moving towards Tesla made the left turn on the minor road. As the press service of Tesla reported, accident happened because of confluence of tragic circumstances[44].

Believe in Tesla that the reason of road accident can consist that automatic equipment under control of which there was a vehicle did not manage to identify the risk because of white color of the trailer of the truck against the background of the bright sky. For the same reason, under an assumption of car maker, also the driver who could take over control of machine did not react in time: the bright sun could blind him. According to other version, the auto pilot could glitch because of a long overhang of the trailer of the truck and a big road gleam that the obstacle ahead prevented see radars.

Effects were terrible: the car passed under truck therefore at the sedan demolished a roof, then took off with the highway, having rammed two fences, and stopped, having crashed into a column. As a result of numerous collisions the 40-year-old driver of the electric sedan Joshua Brown died on site an incident from traumatized.

Anyway, in Tesla consider that weight of effects of road accident is explained by long overhang of the truck. The company notes that if the car crashed into the trailer, then the driver could survive — similar accidents already repeatedly happened to participation of Tesla.

This accident with participation of the vehicle with off-line control became the first in which the person died. At the same time the Tesla cars with function of an auto pilot in total passed already more than 200 million km. At the same time, statistically, in the USA one fatal case as a result of road accident on average is the share of 145 million km of a run of all cars.

USA: the computer driving the car instead of the person can be considered as the driver

On February 10, 2016 reported national administration on traffic safety on highways of the USA (an English-speaking abbreviation of NHTSA) that in terms of the law the computer driving the car instead of the person can be considered as the driver[45].

This conclusion allows to draw a conclusion - Google considerably progressed in business of implementation of unmanned vehicles[46]as the agency not against that machines without drivers moved on highways on condition of responsibility of Google. But the solution of the agency cannot be considered the federal law - it is only the recommendation.

In the existing traffic regulations of the USA the one who is on site driving the vehicle is considered the driver. But Google is going to create the car corresponding to the fourth level of control automation described in the preliminary version of the standard published in May, 2013. In this car there will be no normal governing bodies — a steering wheel, pedals, levers. The company considers: the possibility of intervention of passengers in management reduces traffic safety.

The management of traffic safety is going to consider the possibility of change of appropriate sections of federal standards of safety of vehicles, but time for this purpose is required.

2015: Crash of the Google unmanned vehicle

The unmanned vehicle from Google got into serious accident which was without the victims, but three employees of Google were traumatized. The "self-propelled" hybrid Lexus RX 450h crossover approached the intersection when two cars moving before it unexpectedly began to pull up, despite the resolving journey of a signal of the traffic light. Drivers of these cars saw a jam after the intersection and, despite burning "green", did not decide to leave on intersection of streets not to block the movement on the intersection. Autonomous Lexus also braked. The driver of the machine going behind "Google's car" did not manage to react and at a speed of 27 km/h crashed into Lexus. It became clear later that the man operating this vehicle did not even manage to click a brake pedal until blow. This road accident for Google became the first in which people suffered.

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  3. 2019 Autonomous Vehicles Readiness Indexa
  4. of Frost & Sullivan: UAVs will occupy 40% of the market of passenger cars by 2025
  5. Analysts promised completely pilotless transport in the cities by 2040
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  12. Unmanned vehicles. Market situation, trends and perspectives of development
  13. California permitted completely unmanned vehicles to carry sendings
  14. California permitted completely unmanned vehicles to carry sendings
  15. Daimler CEO says robotaxis business is not realistic
  16. Driverless Bus Hits Pedestrian in Vienna, Interrupting Trials
  17. Dubai begins trial of city’s first automated taxi service
  18. Autonomous taxi trial carrying passengers begins in Tokyo
  19. World's first autonomous taxi starts operating in Tokyo
  20. Yes, Autonomous Cars Are Going To Kill People Before They Save Lives, Expert Says
  21. Aptiv Launches Fleet of Autonomous Vehicles on the Lyft Network
  22. Guidelines to ensure safe self-driving vehicle tests
  23. China lays out self-driving rules in global race: China Daily
  24. Self-driving bus goes on world's first trial run on public road
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  26. of Intel and Toyota released the open simulator for a training of unmanned vehicles
  27. Driverless shuttle involved in crash after downtown Las Vegas launch
  28. Bloomberg Philanthropies Launches First-Ever Autonomous Vehicles Map, A Living Inventory of Cities Planning for a Driverless Future
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  31. of the country of China will construct the biggest polygon in the world for UAVs
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  36.  : The USA is afraid that unmanned vehicles will become weapon for hunting for people]
  37. the Full-fledged auto pilot of Tesla. Video
  38. machines LIFE: NVIDIA showed pilotless a car, capable to go without road
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  40.  : Panasonic tests a prototype of the pilotless and self-parking car]
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  42.  : The first-ever pilotless taxi took to the streets of Singapore]
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  44. the First victim of an auto pilot. The USA investigates the first deadly road accident with Tesla on an automatic pilot
  45. the Management of traffic safety of the USA is ready to consider the computer as the driver
  46. the Google Unmanned vehicle