Translated by
2019/08/20 18:46:01

Unmanned vehicles in Russia

Since 2015 the companies in Russia actively develop the technologies necessary for creation of unmanned vehicles.

Content

As the unmanned vehicle is arranged

Main article: Auto pilot (unmanned vehicle)

World market

Main article: Unmanned vehicles (world market)

News and models of producers

The Russian

Foreign

Main article: Unmanned vehicles (world market)

2019

Vocord will check pilotless transport for observance of traffic regulations"

On October 31, 2019 the RVC company reported that Vocord will check pilotless transport for observance of traffic regulations. Read more here.

Mostransproyekt will digitize the movement of UAVs on the final of "The winter city"

RVC and Mostransproyekt signed the partnership agreement within the final of the technology tender Up Great "Winter City". Competitions with prize fund of 175 million rubles are directed to creation of the unmanned vehicle for severe weather conditions of the Russian winter, reported in October 21, 2019 in RVC company. Read more here.

The Government of the Russian Federation prepares for start of pilotless cars: the first important document

On August 15, 2019 the Government of the Russian Federation published the draft resolution sketching methods of security of pilotless transport on roads to the Russian Federation on the federal portal of projects of regulatory legal acts. The document is prepared by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation. Department developed the document for the purpose of achievement of tasks and results of the federal project "General-system Measures of Development of Road Economy" approved by the minutes of committee on the national project "Safe and Qualitative Highways" of December 20, 2018 No. 4. Public discussion of the project will last till August 29.

The Government of the Russian Federation prepares for start of pilotless cars

The document entitled "The concept of security of traffic with participation of pilotless vehicles on public highways"[1]very in detail describes both the principles of functioning of pilotless transport, and a measure necessary for ensuring its security at operation. And it is not only about security on the road, but also about prevention of attempts of cyber attacks to the vehicle.

Minpromtorg suggests to consider the pilotless vehicle highly - or completely automated vehicle (V) functioning without intervention of the person (in the pilotless mode). Also in the document definitions of an automated system of driving (Automated Driving System, ADS), the high-automated vehicle (Highly Automated Vehicle), car-sharing (Carsharing), digital model of the road, ridesharing / karpulinga (Ridesharing, Carpooling), completely automated vehicle (Fully Automated Vehicle), etc. are given.

Two things attract attention. First, practically all terms are provided in the Russian and English languages. For some concepts of Russian there were no adequate compliances therefore superficially Russified - "car-sharing", "ridesharing" and "karpuling" are used. A part of terms is given without transfer at all, but with explanations that to what: for example, all options of interaction of the vehicle with the environment are so provided (Vehicle-to-Vehicle, Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, etc.).

Secondly, though "pilotless vehicles" appear in heading of the Concept, preference is given in the text to determination "the high-automated vehicle" (VATS).

«
Often found term "pilotless" is less successful as it underlines absence in the vehicle of the driver (pilot), and it can be not always implemented at the modern level of development of the equipment, and the term "pilotless" does not consider existence of intermediate levels of automation... Besides, the pilotless vehicle can be controlled remotely, by means of teams of the external operator that can mean lack of automation of the vehicle as such, - authors explain.

»

In the document five levels of automation of vehicles are selected.

  1. Автоматизированная a system exercises positional control of the CU in longitudinal or in the cross plane. Control of the CU is exercised by the driver.
  2. the Automated system exercises positional control of the CU both in longitudinal, and in the cross plane. Control of the CU from the driver because the automated system is not capable to detect all situations within SShE is necessary. The driver should be able to interfere with management at any time.
  3. ASD (automated system of driving) is capable to cope with all tasks of dynamic management of VATS within the SShE or otherwise will transfer control to the driver with sufficient time of anticipation (the driver should be ready to adopt management). The DIA exercises control of VATS and monitoring of a surrounding situation within specific SShE. A system detects the limits and if reach their level, gives a signal of transfer of management to the driver.
  4. DIA it is capable to cope with any situations within SShE (without requiring from the driver to adopt management). The driver can not be required in separate scenarios of use of VATS, for example, in case of pilotless the concierge parking or the bus shuttle out of public roads. However the DIA can request from the driver switching to manual control if boundary values of SShE are reached (for example, at an exit with the highway).
  5. DIA it is capable to cope with any situations on all types of roads, in all ranges of speeds and environmental conditions. There is no need for the driver.


For DIA a set of functional requirements registers: such system should have a possibility of network interaction with road and transport infrastructure, make "monitoring of surrounding objects of a road and transport situation and it is safe to interact with them", to communicate with others DIA, to react to unforeseen situations and errors of other drivers so that to minimize threat both for the user of this vehicle, and for other participants of traffic, to have a possibility of own deactivation by a safe method, etc.

Also methods of check of the VATS parameters and a condition for their admission to operation — according to different standards are registered (GOST, ISO, etc.). One of key is the report on cyber security prepared by developers on the basis of unified standards.

«
It is necessary to be convinced that by VATS it is reliably protected from attempts of radio-electronic suppression, interception of management and leak of the transmitted data, including personal data of users. It is necessary to execute system engineering of VATS taking into account risk minimization for security because of cybernetic threats and software vulnerabilities (software). The solutions concerning cyber security should be integrated into a management system of the CU at stages of its development, the document says. - It is recommended to perform ensuring cyber security not only at the expense of the additional systems of protection, but also on the basis of the maximum exception of a basic possibility of intervention (Safe by Design Concept), physical impossibility of traffic control from the outside, for example, of transfer of remote control to the external operator only by means of the hand switch.
»

«
means Approach of Safe by Design that this or that system is developed taking into account all security requirements. Any cyber security specialist will tell that it is the only admissible option when developing the critical systems, such as transport. Regulations on use of approach of Safe by Design during creation of automated control systems for vehicles should be not the recommendation, and to severe conditions of admission of the vehicle to operation.

»

In the Concept makes a reservation, however, that the report on cyber security "on the basis of unified standards" should be one of necessary elements of set of documents for the admission of VATS to operation, and special attention is paid to prevention of indirect cyber attacks: authors of the concept fairly recommend to introduce corporate rules of cyber security and protection of data in the organizations which are related to production and service of the connected and high-automated vehicles and specify that the cyber security connected and automated by the CU should not be considered only on separate components and problems.

«
multilevel approach and providing system measures of protection Is necessary. Complete approach is reached by consideration of a problem as complex of questions and system solutions, - authors of the concept specify.

»

The concept also quite in detail describes specialized telecommunication road and transport infrastructure which needs to be created for control of the connected and pilotless motor transport; it will demand "creation on networks of highways of linear and station infocommunication and object instrumental infrastructure, creation and development of the technology platform including applied software modules, means of protecting of data transmission channels and also, ensuring functioning of all infrastructure based on uniform open protocols as a uniform digital ecosystem".

The idea consists in reducing carrier cost by means of harmonious redistribution of the responsibility concentrated on the vehicle by a system, including vehicle and infrastructure. Authors of the concept enter the term MAC - "multi-agent system of management".

This system will have to provide "the maximum availability and the continuity of services to the connected cars, operability of IT infrastructure, the information, providing and engineering systems to efficiency and reliability of functioning of information and technology infrastructure".

Authors of the document specify that in a type of the growing informatization of vehicles and emergence of an ability to manage critical components of the car from the outside on wireless communication links, own information security of internal channels of interaction of the car becomes one of key risks which needs to be considered in all transport infrastructure.

«
Road and transport infrastructure also should undergo the procedure of confirmation of conformity to the set requirements, including according to the current legislation of carrying out a complex of actions for protection and carrying out evaluation tests of the state information systems on compliance to requirements of information security authorized bodies of the government, the document says.
»

Authors stipulate, also, that during creation of road infrastructure of cooperative intelligent systems provisions of the Federal law of 7/26/2017 No. 187-FZ "About security of critical information infrastructure of the Russian Federation" should be considered.

Also specific requirements are listed: existence of an intelligent transport system, existence in it of the service V2X-platform (Vehicle-to-Everything) for data exchange between all components of infrastructure, existence of a system of exact positioning on the basis of satellite technologies and network of ground stations and also the implemented system of digital model of the road on the basis of high-precision digital dynamic road maps.

The concept also assumes education and training of drivers of VATS — or users if it is about completely independent system which is not requiring participation of the operator.

«
The human factor, as before in traditional driving, still saves the key role in providing BDD at levels of automation 3-4. It is necessary to provide not only the proper professional qualification of drivers of vehicles reached by training but also their psychophysiological readiness for management of the CU and observance of traffic regulations, respect for other participants of traffic, the document says.
»

Some experts speak of the document positively, the second complain that they were not invited to participation, and the third see discrepancies in determinations of the concept at correlation with terms in other documents.

Authors of the document recognize that mass implementation of VATS most likely will lead to mass loss of jobs by people whose work is connected with control of vehicles. And the speech not only about drivers, but also insurers, specialists in the analysis of road accident.

«
The lack of violations of traffic regulations will transform also traffic police, the document says.
»

Authors predict negative reaction from workers-drivers, and scales of a protest will grow.

«
The complete solution of this problem is possible only by retraining of workers, - authors say.
»

BaseTracK showed the pilotless share taxi

On July 16, 2019 the developer of technology of control of BaseTracK transport (Beystrek Rus) showed one of working prototypes of the pilotless share taxi the Gazelle of Next EVA in the territory of the Innovation center Skolkovo. More detailed the Product: BaseTracK Gazelle of Next EVA Pilotless share taxi.

Roskosmos provided the pilotless tractor

At  the International industrial Innoprom-2019 exhibition the presentation of the pilotless tractor developed by the Scientific and Production Association (SPA) of automatic equipment (on July 8-11) took place (enters into Roskosmos). Read more here.

Russia overtook Brazil in the rating of readiness for unmanned vehicles

The Netherlands company KPMG carried out the second annual analysis of readiness of the countries for implementation of unmanned vehicles. First place from 25 was won by the Netherlands, Russia appeared on the 22nd place, having bypassed Brazil in comparison with last year's rating, reported in the report published on the website[2].

Many existing prototypes of unmanned vehicles are capable to move independently in different conditions, and a part of their developers, for example, of Uber, Yandex and Waymo already began trial operation of services of the pilotless taxi. However mass implementation of unmanned vehicles is limited not only their technology development, but also a set of other factors, main of which — the level of support of technology by the authorities. Besides, implementation of unmanned vehicles is influenced by development of infrastructure and readiness of people for trips on cars without person driving.

The KPMG company since 2018 carries out the annual analysis of the factors affecting readiness of the countries for mass use of unmanned vehicles. The company included in the new report 25 countries which readiness level her specialists estimated on the basis of 25 parameters united in four groups: legislative regulation, development of technologies and innovation, development of infrastructure and also level of acceptance of UAVs by consumers.

The overall rating, as well as in 2018, was headed by the Netherlands, and Russia took the 22nd place from 25. The country received the highest assessment for progress in regulation of unmanned vehicles by the authorities (the 22nd place), and on three other groups of parameters Russia took the 24th place. Specialists of the company selected several main events reflecting development of the region of unmanned vehicles in the country. For example, in the report tests of the UAV of Yandex after snowfall in Moscow and also start of test pilotless service of the taxi in Innopolis are separately mentioned. Besides, authors of the report noted an initiative of NTI "Avtonet" of introduction of amendments to the Vienna convention on traffic for legal equating of the systems of an auto pilot with the driver and also the state experiment of testing of UAVs on the Russian roads.

In comparison with last year's rating Russia fell by four places (from 18 on 22), however this year added five new countries to the report. It should be noted that some parameters used at assessment of the countries have not a direct bearing on unmanned vehicles. For example, two of 25 parameters reflect quality of the mobile Internet in the country in general and 4G network covering in particular. Besides, two more parameters estimate the level of implementation of electric vehicles and the related technologies: specialists considered when forming rating a market share of electric vehicles and also density of location of stations for their charging.

More than ten commands conduct developments of pilotless transport in Russia

In Russia there is huge underestimation of technology potential, Dmitry Peskov, the president's special representative concerning digital and technology development said at a press conference in February, 2019. It cited "a fashionable subject" as an example - unmanned vehicles. Speaking about existence of the Russian developments in this sphere, he noted:

«
If to ask – "Who?", will usually call "Yandex", those who understand better, will tell "KAMAZ" and who understands worse, will tell "Cognitive Technologies".
»

He reminded that earlier technology tenders of "A national technology initiative" started, and one of them - Up Great "Winter City" - concerns development of the technologies of control of pilotless transport adapted to use in the Russian climatic and road conditions. Its task delivers development of the pilotless vehicle capable to move on the city 3 hours in a standalone mode to winter season and at different times day, with observance of traffic regulations.

It is that "any Tesla, Ford and others cannot do, they do not see snow, do not read signs", Dmitry Peskov says.

As an example the developer participating in tender, Sands gave StarLine company which began with development of the smart security and telematic equipment for protection of cars<i> (a photo - starline.ru)</i>
As an example the developer participating in tender, Sands gave StarLine company which began with development of the smart security and telematic equipment for protection of cars (a photo - starline.ru)

According to the results of the tender final in December, 2019 the winner in the form of a grant of the government will receive 175 million rubles.

When tender only began, the initiative faced scepticism concerning existence of such competences of the country. There were those who said that in the country there is literally couple of the companies which all win, Peskov tells.

«
But on February 26 the first qualifying races should be held, we have now more than 10 commands which brought the technological solutions. Among them there are fine private Russian technology companies about which we do not know, but which invested own means in development, - the president's special representative concerning digital and technology development says.
»

The press service of "A national technology initiative" specified TAdviser that it is about 13 commands from different regions:

Moscow will start the pilotless tram

On February 11, 2019 it became known that the Russian the companies Cognitive Technologies and "PC Transport systems" in the next 1-2 months will start testing pilotless of the tram. In more detail here.

The polygon of NAMI for testing of pilotless cars will earn in February

On February 5, 2019 NTI "Avtonet" reported that the Russia's first polygon for testing of unmanned vehicles will earn in February, 2019, in these terms is going to complete the initial stage of its upgrade is a polygon of NAMI.

Tests of unmanned vehicles will take place from February 26 to March 5, 2019 within the tender Up Great "Winter City". According to a task, the UAV should move in extreme climatic conditions in the absence of a road marking, at low visibility of a roadbed and in the presence of road traffic. On a polygon conditions of the real urban environment will be imitated: movements of pedestrians and other cars, a roadwork are recreated.

On a polygon of NAMI in Dmitrovsky district of the Moscow region the cars will test 13 commands. Final tests will take place in December, 2019. Prize fund of tender is 175 million rubles.

The press service of Avtonet noted that on a polygon the digital infrastructure imitating the city movement is already created: the special equipment, sensors are installed, V2X-communication is laid (allows the car to interact with other car, the environment and infrastructure - an edition). It is supposed that thanks to it it will be possible to develop techniques of carrying out tests of unmanned vehicles on public roads and standards of security for the admission of "smart" transport to participation in traffic.

As noted in the press service of NTI "Avtonet", tests on an open polygon will be able to prevent emergency situations and road accident, to provide broadband communication between participants of traffic, to create additional services for drivers and also to find alternative business cases of transportations with participation of unmanned vehicles, to lower jams and to increase quality of driving in implementation conditions of "The smart city", intelligent transport systems, -

Later it is going to upgrade the second part of a polygon: the accelerating route, external and internal the rings imitating the movement of cars in the country. Fiber optic communication will be for this purpose laid, video cameras and other equipment providing communication of smart cars with infrastructure are installed.

The second stage is going to begin in the spring of 2019. Further, at the third stage of upgrade of a polygon, it is going to create virtual test laboratory with a possibility of creation of the digital double of the unmanned vehicle. Developers of the automated machines will be able to use own software to model any transport situations.

2018

Russians do not trust in unmanned vehicles, but want to live in "smart" houses

Analytical center NAFI on August 23, 2019 together with the Digital Economy organization provided the second part of the research devoted to the attitude of Russians to modern technologies and readiness for life in digital society. In this part of a research – about the attitude of Russians to "smart" devices, neurotechnologies and also innovations in the field of transport. Read more here.

Medvedev signed the resolution on use on roads of unmanned vehicles

On November 26, 2018 the prime minister of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev signed the resolution on conducting testing of unmanned vehicles on public roads. The experiment will begin on December 1, 2018 in Moscow and Tatarstan and will last till March 1 of the 2022nd.

«
I signed the government decree about carrying out an experiment on trial operation on public highways of the high-automated vehicles — Medvedev at a meeting with Deputy Prime Ministers (the quote by TASS) reported.
»

Medvedev approved an experiment on operation of unmanned vehicles
Medvedev approved an experiment on operation of unmanned vehicles

According to the head of the government, tests of self-governed machines, including for delivery of passengers and loads, are carried out in many other countries. A number of the Russian companies develop projects of pilotless cars, but for their implementation normative conditions are required, and "current rules recognize that the driver should sit at any vehicle", Medvedev noted.

According to him, the experiment should not only give an impetus to development of pilotless transport, but also reveal legal effects in case of road accident.  Besides there will take place development of technical requirements to the pilotless system of driving for development of technical regulations and documents on standardization.

The Deputy Prime Minister Maxim Akimov told that within testing of robomobiles in December, 2018 more than 100 such machines will be brought to roads. In each of them there will be a pilot-instructor who will undertake driving in case of contingencies, he added.

Only the companies with authorized capital from 100 million rubles will be able to participate in an experiment. Each car should be insured at least for 10 million rubles.

Earlier Dmitry Medvedev declared the solution to strengthen the state support of developers of pilotless management systems for land transport. Besides, he charged to develop necessary infrastructure and the uniform requirements list to UAVs.[3]

Base for tests of pilotless vehicles

On September 26, 2018 in the Innovation center "Skolkovo" Monitoring station - hi-tech base for tests of pilotless vehicles (standards convertor units) opened. Testing will be held in the conditions approximate to public roads. The station uses perspective 5G network. The first tests were passed by buses of the second generation "NAMI-KAMAZ" of 1221 ShATL projects.

"Monitoring station" - the joint project of Skolkovo Foundation, PJSC Rostelecom and Federal State Unitary Enterprise NAMI. It is hi-tech base where it is possible to carry out full-scale tests and to estimate real perspectives of removal of the standards convertor unit on streets of the Russian cities. As a part of the Station – the dispatching center, premises for storage and charging of the standards convertor unit. Thus, developer companies had an opportunity to clearly demonstrate degree of readiness of technologies and also on a long (not exhibition) basis to carry out dynamic demonstrations of the pilotless equipment. During the movement all telemetered informations of the standards convertor unit, data of parameters of the movement and video of high-quality fixing are transferred on 5G networks in real time to the command post of Monitoring station.

For September, 2018 the operating permissions to trial operation of pilotless transport in the conditions of infrastructure Skolkovo have three companies — Volgabas Robo Lab LLC, the State scientific center of the Russian Federation of Federal State Unitary Enterprise NAMI and The Innovation Center KAMAZ LLC.

\"NAMI-KAMAZ\" of 1221 ShATL projects on Monitoring station
"NAMI-KAMAZ" of 1221 ShATL projects on Monitoring station

The bus of the second generation "NAMI-KAMAZ" of 1221 ShATL projects which works in 5G networks in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz became the pilotless vehicle which showed work of Monitoring station. The electrobus is expected 12 places, 6 of which — for a seat. The driver's place is not provided.

Important aspect in work of the bus is application of 5G network. It is used for functioning of a system of telematics and information transfer to the central server of dispatching office and back. Solutions on the current situation — an obstacle detour, abnormal appearance of the pedestrian on the road out of a zone of the permitted transition, maintenance of a lane, observance of a distance and intervals — are accepted onboard the car.

The order about development of the pilotless motor transport

The Government of the Russian Federation accepted the order about development of the pilotless motor transport. Special sections of roads for testing of UAVs will be selected soon. However, on hand it is specified special danger of hacker and terrorist attacks on a car without drivers.

"For the Russian Federation development of technologies of autonomous driving for problem solving of increase in mobility of persons with limited opportunities and also for ensuring coherence of low-populated territories, including region of the Far North and the Arctic has the special importance.

Increase in autonomy of vehicles requires problem solving of increase in cyber security, including protection against the hacker and terrorist attacks connected with cracking of intelligent transport systems and autonomous cars for the purpose of the coordinated violation of traffic and provoking of mass collisions and also regulation of the property rights and data management by development of systems of autonomous driving for elimination of risks of unauthorized use of data. A serious call is distribution of responsibility at the movement of autonomous cars on public roads.

It is necessary to provide gradation of responsibility for the road accident from the driver to the producer at increase in degree of autonomy of the vehicle taking into account the set road accident reasons (an error of the driver who is present at a board, technical fault of the systems of the vehicle, the hacker attack, etc.)", said in the white paper.

2017

Putin considers important to create the regulatory base of use of pilotless devices

Scope of pilotless devices is very wide, but at first it is necessary to create a regulatory framework of their use. It was said by the Russian President Vladimir Putin at the All-Russian forum of professional navigation of Proyektoriya[4].

"UAVs are important everywhere, the sphere of their application is boundless", - he noted. "We need to make a lot to improve a regulatory framework of use of UAVs", - Putin told. According to him, over time use of such devices will be more and more large-scale and more and more effective.

The president noted that UAVs can be used both in aircraft, and in motor transport, and in the field of space, and in the military sphere. "Wars can come to an end when UAVs of one party are destroyed by UAVs of other party; then it will be necessary only to be given in captivity", - he noted.

In Russia the disruptive pilotless airfreight platform is created

The Kazan aircraft designers announced the pilotless airfreight platform of vertical take off and landing which is capable to change perception of applicability of unmanned aerial vehicles in August, 2017. The platform easily adapts in unmanned aerial vehicles of different modifications for the solution of different tasks: from logistics of loads and processing of fields before fire fighting - SKYF the Pilotless airfreight platform.

In Moscow the first polygon for testing of pilotless transport appeared

The first open polygon for testing of unmanned vehicles appeared in technopark Calibre on Godovikov Street in Ostankinsky district of Moscow. The route 400 meters long reproduces the urban environment: on it there are bus stops, crosswalks, road signs, the marking corresponding to state standard specification and also roundabout.

"The infrastructure allowing to test the car and 'train' it is important for the companies conducting developments in the field of pilotless vehicles. For the purpose of assistance to residents of technopark the special testing ground which is used for rolling of UAVs was organized" — told in the press service of Department of science, industrial policy and an entrepreneurship.

Testing of unmanned vehicles on a polygon already began. Residents of technopark took part in creation of a technical part of four pilotless buses for large Russian machine-building holding, in particular developed the engine and electronics. Cars learn to interact both with road infrastructure, and with pedestrians on a zebra. Their roles are played by the staff of technopark.

The polygon will be used not only by residents, but also students and graduate students of the Moscow technical colleges.

In 2017 domestic manufacturers of the city electric transport and UAVs will receive subsidies in the amount of 900 million rubles. Production of these hi-tech vehicles opens new opportunities for city planning and improvement of an ecological situation.

Russia will construct special roads for pilotless cars

The Avtodor company began works on design in Russia of roads for "future cars". Telling about start of the program, the head of Avtodor state company Sergey Kelbakh noted in the summer of 2017 that for pilotless cars routes of the first technical category which need to be constructed or modified still are necessary. On such roads the maximum level of security for all participants of traffic which will be provided due to communication "road machine" and "machine machine" should be provided. "The car of the future on the route which is crossed by other roads cannot move. So on it intersections in one level should be completely excluded", – he explained.

On a preparatory stage, according to Kelbakh, the company develops essentially new road system. Some changes are already implemented. So, at the gas stations located along roads of Avtodor there were parkings for electric vehicles and also separate electrogas stations are built.

Cognitive Technologies carried out field tests of the pilotless combine

On August 15 Cognitive Technologies announced carrying out the first field tests of the combine in the pilotless mode. Works were carried out in the Rostov region together with the partner of the company — Rostselmash. The experimental sample of the RSM 181 TORUM combine was equipped with the system of automatic driving Cognitive Agro Pilot.

During work on harvesting the driver of an experimental sample of the combine had to be present at a cabin and perform function of the controller. Under control of AI of Cognitive Agro Pilot the combine is capable to taxi up, make turns in the automatic mode, yet will not reach until the end of the run — the termination of a circle (to the place of break of border of a field) or to a perpendicular edge. At the same time to the combine operator the signal to take over control is given. If control is not taken over, the combine stops. In more detail about tests it is possible to read here.

Ruselectronics made prototypes of the equipment for the pilotless combine

The Ruselectronics holding announced on August 8 Rostec state corporations production of prototypes of navigation and coherent elements of the aircraft and dispatching equipment for a management system for pilotless agricultural machinery. Works are performed for the benefit of Rostselmash group by the Moscow scientific research institute of the microelectronic Progress equipment.

In Russia the service platform for the organization of the movement of UAVs will appear

As it became known on July 25, the president Russia Vladimir Putin gave assignment to the Government of the Russian Federation to prepare till December 1 offers on creation of the Russian service information and telematic platform which will become further the main for the organization of pilotless car traffic, write Izvestia with reference to the text of the order of the head of state.[5]

Photo: geektimes.ru
Photo: geektimes.ru

It is supposed that the platform will accumulate information in the transport sphere, including traffic congestion assessment, to optimize traffic flows, to predict emergence of extraordinary and dangerous situations, to monitor a condition of equipment of city and transport infrastructure. Collection of data on the movement transport will be made from systems "ERA-GLONASS" and Platon MINISTRY OF EMERGENCY SITUATIONS Ministry of Transport TRAFFIC POLICE, from operators of security search systems and the technical help and other private and state information systems.

A system should become universal base for implementation of the concept of "the connected car" and also undertake providing payment services, such as payment of the parking, collecting of a fare, transport tax, payment of multimodal journey.

According to order of the president, project development the government together with the Agency of strategic initiatives and the interested Russian IT companies will be engaged. Questions of information exchange and interface will be worked out with JSC GLONASS, Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Natural Resources, Rostelecom and other operators of the state and non-state systems and also service providers.

In 2018 in Moscow can test for the first time 5G networks on pilotless transport

In 2018 in Moscow the first tests of communication networks of fifth generation (5G) on pilotless transport can take place. With respect thereto in the capital it will be required to provide the high density of placement of base stations. According to the Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Nikolai Nikiforov, each 400-500 meters the new base station connected on a communication fiber line should be set. In more detail about it read in article Development of 5G networks in Russia.

Russia legalizes communication between unmanned vehicles

The State Radio Frequency Commission (SCRF) at a meeting will consider on June 30, 2017 a question of use of the frequency range of 5.9 GHz (5855 - 5925 MHz) for intelligent transport systems (ITS). It is said in the agenda of a meeting of SCRF, available CNews[6].

SCRF in 2011 selected the range of 5.9 GHz for ITS. However then greatest possible EIIIRP (effective it is isotropic the radiating power) of radio-electronic means in this range it was established at the minus level of 10 dBW of (detsibell-watts) that 20 dBm (decibel-milliwatt) are equivalent.

As a result for the present moment application of ITS in Russia is limited to the systems of collection of a fare of transport. At the same time, as noted in the report of the Research Institute of Radio (RIR) prepared for SCRF, this type of systems is already outdated though it also gave an impetus for development of ITS.

Insurance for cargo transportation with participation of the UAV

The domestic transport company Traft which until the end of summer of 2017 should make the country's first cargo transportation on the heavy-load car using technologies of pilotless management acts as the customer of a product.

The carrier wants to insure responsibility of the driver-operator of the pilotless truck to other participants of traffic during experimental run. According to the existing European legislation which operation extends and in our country (The Vienna convention on traffic) the control of the pilotless truck should be controlled without fail by the person who is directly driving and performing supervising functions behind correctness of work of all systems of an auto pilot including sensors, sonars, lidars and other electronic and hardware components.

The chief executive of Traft Artur Muradyan, explaining the choice of the insurance contractor, noted that "the company needed the most competent partner - not only in insurance regulation, but also from the point of view of already available for it experience of development of the innovation insurance products using hardware technical means". The expert reminded that INTOUCH the first in the country successfully started mass retail insurance product COMPREHENSIVE INSURANCE on the basis of telematics - the driver at will can install the special device which analyzes style of driving and behavior on the road and at accurate driving will allow to reduce the cost of the policy. This project attracted Traft then the carrier and asked the insurer for the help.

The insurance product of a dlyabespilotnik (standards convertor unit) should include itself a covering of three types of responsibility: producer of hardware and technical, electronic and information and communication components and solutions for the standards convertor unit; responsibility of the adjuster and tester of components for the standards convertor unit based on a commercial industrial sample of the passenger or cargo CU; responsibility of the operator of the standards convertor unit.

But in practice such insurance in modern realities was still difficult implementable: in the legislation there is no determination of the pilotless vehicle and the driver-operator of the UAV and there are no regulatory concepts to whom to make a claim in case of road accident. The last significant steps in this direction were taken in March, 2016 when the Commissions of the State Duma of the Russian Federation on development of strategic information systems carried out a round table on which officials approved the project of a number of future changes and amendments to traffic regulations, criminal and civil codes which will have to regulate questions of pilotless transport on public roads, and since then the subject did not gain noticeable legislative development, the expert notes.

Therefore the classical model of liability insurance of the owner of the vehicle is at the moment taken as a basis of an insurance. Rather unmanned vehicles such insurance in Russia is applied for the first time. Also both companies agreed to accumulate data on the movement standards convertor unit on polygons and routes as statistics about operation of the vehicle is necessary for creation of a complex insurance product and a miscalculation of risks.

"Now we work on a pilot model of an insurance product for the standards convertor unit: at first only responsibility of the driver-operator of the standards convertor unit is insured. The concept "operator" in relation to the driver of the vehicle is introduced by the Russian insurance companies for the first time. Further all-inclusive insurance of the standards convertor unit will be developed for what the saved-up data on all movements of the truck, behavior of the driver and how the standards convertor unit management system behaves as a result of operation will be used – Vasily Busarov, the director of insurance of INTOUCH comments. – With emergence on roads of pilotless transport the market of automobile insurance is waited by basic changes, and we begin to look forward already now". The insurance company also notes that her experts on the basis of the data obtained during the experimental trip on the UAV will need to understand in what in insurance practice there will be main differences between the driver and the operator. Initially actions of the driver mean the complete involvement and responsibility for actions of the vehicle while the operator - the figure servicing, which is a little discharged of direct control of the car and, therefore, only indirectly responsible for its actions. The data collected during the experiment actually will help to define where there passes the edge between behavior of artificial intelligence and an area of responsibility of the living person, experts note.

Research Gemalto

Nearly a half of the consumers (49%) polled in Russia considers that unmanned vehicles, most likely, in the next decade will become one of main types of transport — the results of recent poll published by Gemalto company are like that. However as more than a half of respondents (58%) do not trust technologies of autonomous driving, car makers and their technology partners on an automobile ecosystem now if they really want to realize these technologies, it is necessary to develop the protected and safe services to gain trust of end users. During the research conducted by YouGov company by request of Gemalto more than 1000 Russian consumers with the purpose to find out their relation to a new ecosystem of the motor transport were polled: to the cars connected to network, technologies of autonomous driving and new models of property which became possible thanks to economy of joint consumption.

Advantages of the pilotless and connected to network cars

In process of start of numerous tests of unmanned vehicles worldwide at consumers confidence that behind technologies of autonomous driving — the future, at the same time nearly a half of respondents (49%) considers that unmanned vehicles will become the prevailing transport form in 10 years grows.

Besides, respondents show great interest and to those advantages which are available already in the short term, at connection of the car to the Internet. Answering a question of the main priorities at lease of the car connected to network, among the main answers respondents called convenience of driving (the main priority for 49% of respondents), economy of means (44%) and existence of the protected access Wi-Fi (45%).

Along with it there are also more developed and innovation functions which can use if to equip the car with the protected wireless module developed for automotive industry. This technology allows cars to interact with management systems for traffic and the systems of road infrastructure, to obtain data in real time on a situation on roads and information on traffic safety, information from services of rescue, to interact with the systems of collection of a fare and also to obtain information on available parking spaces. In addition to these functions, the most attractive to consumers is an opportunity to protect the car from thieves and car thieves (84% of consumers are mentioned). Among this functionality most often respondents mention a possibility of obtaining operational information road traffic on route followings (80%), access to more accurate satellite maps (75%) and obtaining in real time information on empty parking spaces (67%).

The task facing car makers: gain trust

Despite all expected advantages of pilotless technologies guarantees of own security are still necessary for consumers. Speaking about today, more than a half of the consumers (58%) who accepted in poll would not entrust the unmanned vehicle to make all trip entirely. Today respondents have concerns that hackers can receive control over the car that it is capable to lead in turn to emergency situations (63% of consumers have such concerns). Besides, users are afraid concerning confidentiality of the data, at the same time only 26% of consumers trust car makers and consider that they are capable when processing of the collected data from the cars connected to network to provide the due security level.

In case of the cars connected to network and also in case of autonomous cars, risks of security are very various. The speech can go also about plunder of user data, and about shutdown of cars, and about hijacking of separate cars or attacks on the whole vehicle fleet. Moreover malefactors can intercept driving and perform "unexpected" operations. It is obvious that consumers know of similar potential threats, as causes concerns to them. All this quite definitely indicates that car makers need to attend to confidence-building in this new ecosystem of mobility. This task has paramount value for acceleration of implementation of new technologies and is crucial for ensuring the general growth and success of the cars connected to network.

Security through design

To dispel concerns of users concerning security, car makers should use multilevel approach to security through design (security-by-design) — in this situation elimination of errors in process of their identification is unacceptable. This approach begins with security of the car connected to network, its microprogram providing (firmware) and applied applications using a public key infrastructure (PKI), services of key management and execution of certificates (identity issuance). But besides it is important to be able to protect the data transferred towards the car or from it — both in storage time, and in the course of their transfer that is performed using high-speed technology of data encryption. Similar approach would allow to provide secure access to the car and also would help to protect users from loss of data, theft of intellectual property, fraudulent activity or equipment downtime.

There are certain areas in which at most traditional car makers extensive competences meanwhile did not collect. To cope with an assigned task, they will need to increase examination in information security field and also to cooperate with experts in this sphere to provide security blanket of the systems. At the same time, car makers need to be open and ready to adopt experience from experts in the field of IT security to provide implementation of the best practices and the most effective approaches to information system protection.

The road sign for unmanned vehicles

The road sign developed by Artemy Lebedev\'s Studio especially for unmanned vehicles will be set on a polygon in Shakhovo
The road sign developed by Artemy Lebedev's Studio especially for unmanned vehicles will be set on a polygon in Shakhovo

The Traft transport company preparing in the summer the Russia's first cargo transportation using pilotless trucks acquired the right to installation of special signs in the territory of the polygon in Shakhovo. The signs "Attention, on Section Pilotless Vehicles", "Beginning of the Road with Participation of Pilotless Transport" and "End of the Road with Participation of Pilotless Transport" are created according to standards of road signs and "Signs of special instructions" belong to the fifth section of traffic regulations.

Traft decided to equip with signs internal perimeter of a shakhovsky polygon, and during the first pilotless cargo transportation to approve with the State traffic inspectorate and other responsible bodies installation of time signs on that section to the road where will be testing is held.

The AI system for the pilotless combine harvester

The Cognitive Technologies company announced in April, 2017 technology of computer vision for automatic driving of the combine harvester.

"It is supposed that our system at first will be installed on an experimental sample of agricultural machinery — Olga Uskova, the president of Cognitive Technologies told. — We spent for its development more than three years and received excellent results. Having function of automatic taxiing when harvesting, the Russian combines will be able to compete on equal terms to world with / h-brendami which already have similar functionality".

Russia will be engaged in creation of routes for pilotless machines

By 2030 Rosavtodor is going to equip ten thousand kilometers of roads for the movement of unmanned vehicles, the head of department Roman Starovoyt said, RBC reports in March.

The edition reminds that Russia's First Route for UAVs will be created in Tatarstan. For these purposes will prepare the federal road from Kazan to Naberezhnye Chelny. The works on reconstruction of the highway should be completed within two years. Starovoyt emphasized - first of all it is necessary to provide full-fledged radio visibility of such routes that on them pilotless vehicles could move.

"Specialist of transport IT systems" prof standard

The Traft company developing Traft-OnLine intelligent transport system developed the list of competences for specialists in management of transport IT systems. The corresponding project is sent to the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation for further completion and inclusion of the new prof standard in the unified federal register. The similar software should form the basis of a uniform ecosystem for control of pilotless transport by 2022.

The standard is designed to optimize and accelerate recruiting processes in domestic enterprises which are engaged in development of IT solutions for the industry of logistics, cargo transportation, purchases and supply today and also for all developers of pilotless vehicles (standards convertor units), level "KamAZ" GAS VolgaBus. "Pilotless technologies and special software for automation of cargo transportation go hand in hand, UAVs will not be able to work out of an ecosystem of special software products which already minimized today human participation in all questions of cargo transportation. According to the estimates of analysts of the company, the developed standard will be able to attract and adapt in the field of pilotless transport within the next 10 years more than 11 thousand specialists.

The professional standard "specialist of transport IT systems" is-level and considers specifics of work of the given worker in transport company of the small, average and big size (1 working day, week, calendar month are ranged on the number of cargo transportation for the period) and also in logistic projects on the p2p model — the virtual exchanges where customers can place directly tasks and look for carriers in real time. Among the list of competences, in particular, appear work experience in resource management systems of the enterprise "1C" at the level of work in systems "1C: Enterprise" or the Russian analogs, understanding of the main technology principles of work of the global navigation satellite systems GPS- GLONASS experience in setup DBMS PostgreSQL.

Also in cooperation with the Moscow automobile and road state technical university Traft is going to develop 22 more professional standards. Among them — specialists in design and production of the standards convertor unit, assembly and production technologists, operators of the special equipment, collectors in the different directions, mechanics, testers of the standards convertor unit on virtual polygons, developers of navigation systems for the UAVs, design and construction of roads specialists expected movement of the standards convertor unit on them.

The separate prof standard will be developed for specialty "screenwriter of a road scene". It is about programmers who are engaged only in development of the preset algorithms of quick response of the UAV to emergencies during the movement when the logic of the computer program can take too literally a situation on the road and only aggravate it.

Each force majeure in different periods the same driver reacts differently. It is influenced by his fatigue, weather conditions, characteristics of the car. The UAV will get heuristic capability of self-training not at once on the road therefore today it is important to enclose in its algorithms certain a priori basic scenarios of behavior in unexpected situations which will make it safe for all participants of traffic".

The screenwriter of a road scene should be not just first-class programmer, but the shrewd psychologist with extensive experience of control of vehicles.

It is going to apply new prof standards not only at assessment of skills and qualification of specialists of the industry, but also for the purpose of optimization of the state educational standards. Also on their base educational programs of educational institutions which train the personnel for the automobile, aircraft manufacturing, engineering industries can be updated, explained in the company.

Questions of professional standards are aggravated also by the nation-wide agenda. So, since July 1, 2016 prof standards in Russia became obligatory for the enterprises of all patterns of ownership. Article 195.3 of the Labor code setting an order of application of prof standards became effective. From now on the rule works: if the Labor code, other federal laws, other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation set requirements to qualification, the necessary worker for accomplishment of a certain labor function, professional standards regarding the specified requirements are obligatory for application by employers.

855 professional standards were in the register posted on the website of Ministry of Labor, for December 26, 2016. Five months before, on July 25, they were 818. By 2018 the Ministry of Labor is going to finish number of prof standards till 1500.

Opinion of Russians and Americans

The Cognitive Technologies company, the developer of artificial intelligence technologies for pilotless vehicles, summed up the results of the sociological research conducted among citizens of Russia and the USA. Survey was conducted with assistance of International Robotics Center, MIPT, NITU MISIS and also the American company VidiaScope Inc. on purpose studying of opinion of potential users of intelligent systems of the help to the driver in Russia and the USA, regarding what should be the unmanned vehicle.

In total more than 33 thousand people from Russia (from 36 regions) and 7 thousand from the USA participated in a research.

According to a research, desire to use the UAV expressed more than 56% of the polled citizens of Russia and 68% of the USA already today. And over the ocean the number of the American women (43% of the total number of respondents) in this desire exceeded number of men (37%). In Russia the picture appeared the return. The percent of the men interested in a trip on the autorobot was almost three times higher — 42.6% against 14.9%.

In Russia, besides, the greatest interest in trips on UAVs was shown at the most age category of respondents. More than 67% of survey participants voted for it 50 years are more senior. And also the most low-age group (up to 35 years) — more than 60% of youth, noted in the company.

The number in different degree uncertain in the desire to use the UAV of Russians (about 39%) exceeded a similar indicator of Americans (26%). But in Russia practically nobody expressed flat refusal to pass on the UAV. This indicator at us was recorded only at the level of a statistical error, less than 1% whereas in the USA it, surprisingly, was big many times — 6%.

The first unexpectedness of a research was the fact that from the advantages provided by pilotless transport citizens of Russia preferred to decrease in accident rate on roads (30% of positive votes) an opportunity to be engaged in the autorobot in another matter. More than a half of respondents — 55% voted for it. And more the Russian women were unaffected by a security concern. This option was selected by more than 70% of women.

In the USA the situation was the return. Providing safer and low-abnormal movement to an opportunity attracted nearly a half of Americans — 49%.

Russians and Americans had very similar views on potential threats which can bear to some extent in themselves unmanned vehicles. Our fellow citizens in this sense most of all are frightened by a possibility of technical failure of a system of the UAV. It was noted by more than 51% of respondents. The similar indicator in the USA was 44%. About 34% of Americans and 29% of the Russian survey participants voted for impossibility in the principle to influence a situation in the course of the autonomous movement. And at us the main contribution to this percent was made by women (47%).

The danger of hacker cracking of intelligence of the UAV disturbed only 16% of domestic respondents and 19% in the USA. In personal interviews Americans also paid attention to the concerns concerning safety of their personal data during implementation of any communications in the UAV.

From the UAV nearly a half of Russians selected rest from all offered options of occupations — 48%. A third of respondents — 27% wished to devote time to work. About 17% of respondents preferred to have a good time. And from all age categories those to whom up to 35 years and from 35 to 50 years, (48% and 52% respectively), and to work, that to whom already for 50 wished to have a rest more (44%).

The USA expressed desire to work in the autorobot of 39% of respondents. Practically rest — 38% was more important for the same number of Americans. And about 20% wished to have a good time.

Citizens of Russia preferred to all methods of free pastime in the UAV communication on social networks and games and also watching video — 33% and 35% respectively. Devote the leisure to reading more than 21% agree.

The most part of Americans (more than 40%) are also ready to communicate with friends, including in social networks and to play. 29% intend to watch film and TV, 18% — to read. Nearly 1.5% prefer to have sex over the ocean that it is, more, approximately three times, than in Russia.

4% of Russians and 9% of Americans just preferred to look out of the window. In personal interviews the Russian respondents noted that it is necessary for control of a road situation as not up to the end trust artificial intelligence.

Among other preferences (about 7%) our compatriots noted such forms of entertainments as: booze, eat, have sex, sleep, etc. For comparison, Americans (less than 1%) are ready to pray, to play sports, to do drugs, to sleep, etc.

The demand the market of functionality of an intelligent system of the help to the driver which can appear in the Russian market in 2017 became one of the main results of a research. More than 28% of citizens of Russia declared desire already today to use an intelligent system of warnings of dangerous situations on the road (dangerous rapprochement, violation of action of the sign, an exit from a band without inclusion of a signal of the blinker, etc.). And, the offered functionality even exceeded interest in such opportunities of the UAV as the automatic parking (13%) and autonomous movement along the highway (17%). But full automation of the movement in traffic jams (37%) became the option which is the most demanded for Russians. It is rather interesting that wanted to use possibilities of the intellectual assistant more women (36% against 26% of men). They also actively voted for the autoparking (22% against 9%) as, however, and the most age audience (50 years — 22% are more senior).

The American audience, more familiar with practice of use of intellectual assistants to the driver, expressed desire in their application in 24% of cases. However, in the transatlantic version of poll the footnote on an additional opportunity for work of a system in the conditions of insufficient visibility and also bad weather and road conditions became. The same number of citizens of the USA are ready to purchase functionality of the autonomous movement along the highway. 35% of Americans supported full automation of the movement in traffic jams. 11% voted for acquisition of a possibility of the autoparking.

As expected, more than a half of Russians (59%) are ready to pay no more than 15% of car cost for opportunities of the autonomous movement. In the USA where the market is in "warmed more up" status, 42% of citizens are ready to go to it. 32% of citizens of Russia are ready to pay in addition for technologies of the future at the rate to 30% of cost of a car (this indicator in the USA is 45%) and only 8% agree to pay in addition to 50% of all cost of the car. In the USA this digit made 11%. And for more than 50% of car cost for the right of pilotless driving less than 1% of Russians against 3% of Americans are ready to fork up. It is interesting that women are ready to spend for purchase of the UAV in Russia more. A share voted for auto pilot cost up to 30% of cost of a car of women (45%) practically in two more men (26%). Also the percent of the women ready to purchase functionality of the UAV at the most expensive price, exceeded percent of men twice.

2016

Traft is included in the national project of Rosavtodor on development of pilotless transport in Russia

At the end of 2016 the Federal agency Rosavtodor included Traft transport company as industry experts in the federal Caravan project on development of technical base and infrastructure for development of pilotless transport in the territory of the Russian Federation. Within interdepartmental cooperation experts of Traft will take part in development of uniform technical standards in the field of the movement of cars with an auto pilot. Further the given standards will be distributed to all federal highways of the country. Learn more: A caravan the Project Rosavtodor on development of transportations by pilotless transport.

Traft announced software tender for the procurement for pilotless trucks

The logistic company Traft announced in November, 2016 the beginning of order taking from domestic and western car makers and IT developer for implementation in cargo transport of the vehicle fleet of hardware and technical complexes for pilotless management. It is said in the special document sent in the Russian IT companies which are engaged in development of the pilotless systems and representations of domestic and foreign automobile brands. In more detail about the project - you look here.

Bright Box develops the system of pilotless driving of the car on the basis of computer games

The Bright box company which developed connected car of the solution Nissan Smart Car for the Middle East, KIA Remoto and Infiniti in Russia and more than 90 mobile applications for 450 dealer centers announced in November, 2016 development of the system of pilotless driving of the car, working using studying at the generated personnel from computer games and real frames of shooting from streets of a neuronet of computer vision. Learn more: Remoto Pilot.

Avtonet - creates the development plan for the market of solutions for a pilotless car

In 2016 for 20 years the development plan in our country of the market of hardware and software solutions for unmanned vehicles was approved. The special road map Avtonet was for this purpose created. According to the plan, at the moment ours the country needs to focus on development of 3 main directions:

  • Creation of the autonomous specialized intellectual car
  • Creation of the system allowing to control traffic flows
  • Development of specialized sensors and software

On the read forecasts, it is expected that by 2020 the market of each of these directions will reach point of $600 billion, $300 billion and $200 billion respectively.

According to the concept Avtonet by 2018 in Russia it is going to create specially equipped polygon allowing to test and certify created the solution and also to arrange serial production of the systems of the help to the driver. By 2020 the hardware-software platform for the developed solutions will be created, and in 10 years it will be created by software, allowing to manage vehicles remotely. By 2035 for the created solutions there will be high-speed motor transportation corridors and systems providing use of the generated transport information.

The system of computer vision Cognitive Technologies for pilotless cars

The Cognitive Technologies company developed technology of computer vision thanks to which the autorobot will be capable to interpret with a high accuracy the difficult situations arising, as a rule, in critical situations – sudden emergence on the road of other participants of the movement, pedestrians, foreign objects.

The technology as consider in the company, will allow to avoid mistakes which were made by the known foreign systems at object recognition of a road scene.
"Actually we in something learned to model function of a hippocampus of the person which selects and holds the most important information on the current situation in a flow of external signals, performing function of storage of a short-term memory as OZU of the computer", – the Head of Department of development of pilotless vehicles Yury Minkin comments. It is known that the hippocampus also defines degree of importance of the remembered information and makes the decision that it is necessary to save and what to forget.

At the same time a system stores in memory not all picture received from the video camera, and only its most important elements which are directly influencing a road situation and security. It gives the chance not to store all image entirely, and only 5-10% of its amount and does not require any substantial increase of resources of the computing device. Also it allows to use video cameras not with the high resolution capability or rather narrow angle lenses.

Use of technology, according to developers, will give serious advantage over analogs as it allows to solve one of the main problems for any system of computer vision – object recognitions, being on the limit of the picture (see fig. 1). As practice shows, in these cases there is the greatest number of errors of detection of objects. When using the Cognitive Technologies model for their recognition we receive an indent (padding is the zone highlighted in the color in figure 1 between A’B’C’D rectangles’ and ABCD), which is necessary for work of neural networks of deep learning and other convolution neural networks.

When an object gets on limit of the picture (a viewing field of video cameras) ABCD, to recognize it very difficult (a part of the car which is led round by a circle, came into the view of cameras – a rectangle of ABCD). This problem is successfully solved when the artificial intelligence of the autorobot complements knowledge of the current road situation with data from the next past – from the RAM (modeling of function of a hippocampus of the person). The picture which came into the view of video cameras a moment before A’B’C’D’, contains information on an object (the car which is led round by a circle) sufficient for its recognition.

Use of similar technology would allow the system of computer vision installed on the Tesla car to avoid the accident which took place in May of this year (see fig. 2). "Our system could detect the vehicle approaching sideways, – Yury Minkin claims. – Program emulation of a bigger corner of a scope of video cameras would allow "see" wheels, the suspender and also other elements of the truck and as a result to identify the coming object as the car. And, besides, to win the fractions of a second extremely necessary for adoption of the correct solution in critical situation".

Modeling of function of a hippocampus in similar situations allows to use the most complete data about a road situation. On the picture of ABCD which is coming into the view of cameras of the autorobot it is difficult to recognize the light image on a light background, however, the data reproduced "from memory" (the picture of A'B'C'D’), the including wheels and other elements of the truck allow to detect an object as the vehicle precisely.

Fishing season suggested to create in Russia open OS for unmanned vehicles

Council for the innovative development and upgrade at the President of Russia approved the road map Avtonet describing offers on development of the Russian market of solutions for cars with intelligent information systems (ASIS) and the intelligent transport systems (ITS) till 2035[7].

The document was developed within the project of the National Technology Initiative (NTI) created at the request of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin. The CEO of KAMAZ Sergey Kogozin and the Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Alexander Morozov directed the working group developing this road map.


By 2035 the share of cars with intelligent systems will make 10%, the most part of commercial transportations will be automated. And all vehicles will be equipped with V2V (Vehicle-to-vehicle) and V2I (Vehicle-to-infrastructure) systems, providing communication of machines with each other and road infrastructure respectively.

It is expected that by 2018 in the field of ASIS the market of the systems of the help to drivers (ADAS) will be created. By 2020 the systems of partial autonomy of driving, by 2025 - high autonomy will gain distribution, and by 2035 it will be possible to reach complete autonomy of driving.

Among ASIS the following segments are selected: the systems of a special purpose for distant cargo transportation along robotirovanny motor transportation corridors and transportations across the closed and limited territories; sensors and specialized software for control of autonomous and partially autonomous vehicles; management systems for traffic flows and intelligent transport and logical systems.

Three scenarios of development

There are three scenarios of market development of ASIS in Russia. The inertial scenario assumes that the Russian consumers will apply completely the import systems of the help to the driver. It will lead to "washing away" from the market of domestic automotive industry due to the lack of the domestic systems.

The moderate scenario assumes state support at acquisition of licenses of world leading manufacturers on the ASIS model, the systems of ITS for ASIS and application of the systems of the help to the driver. Licensing will be performed with some level of localization. Because of license restrictions of the enterprise of domestic automotive industry will hold "marginal position" with gradual decrease in a share for benefit of foreign.

At last, the innovation scenario assumes development of basic modifications of the systems of the help to the driver, the systems of an auto pilot and ASIS and also the system of ITS for ASIS. In Russia it will be made program and the hardware both for domestic market, and for export. Such approach will demand existence of state programs for own development of AIIS.

Corridors for unmanned vehicles

According to the plans written in the road map in 2018 in Russia there has to be a polygon for tests and certification of ASIS. Serial production of the systems of the help to the driver will be the same year arranged. By 2020 in Russia there will be own hardware and software platform for ASIS, and in 2031 - the system of remote control.

By 2035 high-speed motor transportation corridors for ASIS and systems providing use of the generated transport information will be created. Also in 2017 a competition of developers on creation of the free robotic operating system for ASIS - ROS of ASIS "X-no" will be held. By 2025 this system will be integrated into solutions of producers.

Terms of emergence of unmanned vehicles on the Russian roads are called

On October 21, 2016 it became known of terms of the beginning of testing and expected emergence of unmanned vehicles on the Russian roads. Information on it appeared on the website of the Government of Moscow.

Pilotless machines for car-sharing will appear on the Moscow roads in the test mode in 2017. At first such motor transport will be tested without person, then for a wheel will put the driver who in case of an emergency situation will be able to drive the car. Robomobiles will be able to work in two modes: manual and automatic.

Pilotless machines for car-sharing will appear on the Moscow roads in the test mode in 2017
Pilotless machines for car-sharing will appear on the Moscow roads in the test mode in 2017

It is supposed that the autonomous car will be assembled from different parts manually, and after that it is equipped a set of sensors and loggers by means of which electronics will be able to distinguish signals of traffic lights, to distinguish the pedestrians crossing the road, etc. For production of such machines both the foreign, and Russian companies are considered.

«
Before in Moscow start pilotless car-sharing, the machines capable to move on the city it is autonomous, will pass several hundred thousands of kilometers for check of reliability of technology — the CEO of an operating company of car-sharing of Delimobil Stanislav Groshov reported.
»

Road tests of the first samples of unmanned vehicles will be carried out on the specially allotted platform then them will put to tests with simulation of city conditions - in the fenced territory of one of the enterprises, with houses and roads. The staff of the company, and on the second — volunteers to whom they will allow to go freely across the plant territory will take part in tests at the first stage.

The Moscow mayor's office reported that lease of unmanned vehicles can appear not earlier than 2018-2019. For an output of such transport to public roads on a permanent basis it is necessary to make corresponding changes to the traffic regulation (TR).

When unmanned vehicles are available to lease, in them there will be at first a driver. Further Muscovites will be able to manage UAVs by voice. It is expected that such machines will be independently guided in traffic flow and to observe traffic regulations.[8]

In Moscow pilotless buses will appear only in 5–10 years

In the capital pilotless buses will appear only in 5–10 years — after the project is considered successful and safe in other countries. The Moscow Department of Transport will study experience of Singapore where the automated control system for buses is now developed.

"Pilotless technologies are, undoubtedly, technologies of the future. But so far even leading manufacturers of the rolling stock note that it is still the first steps. When we are convinced on the example of other countries, including Singapore that the system of pilotless control of buses is not crude, and is rather safe, we will surely discuss with the Russian bus producers possible start of similar projects in Moscowthe Deputy Mayor of Moscow, the Head of Department of transport and development of road and transport infrastructure Maxim Liksutov told during the visit of delegation of the Government of Moscow to the Republic of Singapore. — Completely automated bus, by our estimates, will appear not earlier, than in 5–10 years. Taking into account our integration into the world system of city transport all such new products in Moscow too will be implemented"[9].

In order that pilotless machines could go on the city, they should exchange signals with the traffic lights installed in the city. "All our traffic light objects are connected to TsODD therefore technically we will be able to transmit necessary signals to pilotless buses when they appear". "The driver will be present all the same at salon, will be able just to execute much less transactions, than usually. While in one country of the world of mass use of buses without drivers is not present, only within pilot projects" — Maxim Liksutov added.

The route Kazan-Naberezhnye Chelny will be prepared for unmanned vehicles

The head of Federal Road Agency (Rosavtodor) Roman Starovoyt announced in September, 2016 start of the Caravan project on use of unmanned vehicles on federal highways, [10] reports the agency of city news Moscow[11].

In particular, on a pilot section of the route KazanNaberezhnye Chelny is going to put a special road marking and to install motion sensors of UAVs.

"We as road builders, preparing that infrastructure will accept unmanned vehicles in the nearest future, began implementation of the Caravan project which provides existence of unmanned vehicles on the federal road. We are interested in that as little as possible investments were required in a federal road network for acceptance of such cars. Therefore we synchronously with our colleagues from Finland and Germany began to equip the infrastructure, together with the companies which make such cars" — specified Starovoyt.

He also told that the tested vehicles provide presence of the controller of cars for adoption of the emergency solutions on their movement. In the future such machines will perform the movement without participation of the person: in Finland the bus moving without driver in the direction of creation of pilotless cars is started now KAMAZ works.

Experts consider that by 2020 in the world there will be at least 10 million unmanned vehicles.

Tests of the Russia's first pilotless tractor began

In the middle of on about one September, 2016 from agricultural complexes of the Ryazan region a series of tests of the pilotless AgroBot tractor began. Within the next year the company assumes to carry out a series of test implementations of Agrobot and working off of the main transactions in the pilotless mode due to use of scenarios of independent operation.

The head of autolaboratory of "Yandex" about perspectives of UAVs

In August, 2016 the head of automobile laboratory of "Yandex" shared the opinion on pilotless machines and their perspectives[12]:

From a stage "now" when all cars mainly manual, to a stage when all cars are mainly pilotless, it is possible to designate several stages. Because to me, frankly speaking, it is hardly believed that now we drive normal cars, and suddenly bang! something happens, go outside — the sign hangs: "there it is impossible for the machine with the driver".
It seems to us that people also still are not ready to it. Let's say you get into the car with family in the UAV, it speeds at 15 kilometers per hour, everything is healthy. And suddenly it begins to accelerate sharply. What at this moment happens to people? Most likely, children … are not present, children are happy. Their mother writhes in hysterics: "Where you put me, let's leave from here". The mankind should get used to it, and even, apparently, there are such scenarios of gradation.
At the same time just like that UAVs will not appear, some push is for this purpose necessary. Or in economy it has to develop somehow that you understand — unmanned vehicles cheaper, it is unimportant — in production, in operation and so on. Or very strongly the need for it grows, i.e. people for some reason begin to want that there were UAVs. And now, it seems to me, the economic problem slows down transition to pilotless cars, not very well what — passenger, cargo and other.
It's clear that in Russia roads fools, are also the countries where it is really better than the road though, anyway, face a problem of bad roads everywhere. It is not necessary to consider that "at them there" everything is marked, everything is tinted and as soon as this band got, the person runs out at once and tints this band. Anything happens, but pilotless transport passes through some stages too.
It seemed earlier that it is necessary to use on the road [technology for obtaining information on remote objects] lidars — permanently to scan everything. Then began to say that it is expensive, and to arrange mass production it will not turn out, let's do cameras. The person goes, [being guided] eyes, means and the camera it is possible. And therefore there was such approach: there are roads, the camera should see well, fulfill well therefore there has to be an accurate marking and so on.
Now there is a statement that for driving of the car high-precision cards are surely necessary. Also it seems that the truth — somewhere in a combination of all these things. Yes, it is possible to uvesit the machine sensors, it constantly in real time will scan everything, to understand everything, but strong computing power directly in the machine is for this purpose necessary. Thanks to high-precision cards we can leave from it. Using the card and high-precision positioning the machine understands how it is necessary to go on this road even without marking. But sensors and cameras are necessary to react to instantly changing things — pedestrians, the fallen tree. And, apparently, the future — in a combination of new up-to-date cartography and the specifying these sensors. In this case there will be a balance at the price and performance.
The subject of pilotless transport is very important trend. But the matter is that there are also questions which are too important to solve them quickly. Because same not a problem — to permit or prohibit machines to go without drivers on public roads. Nevertheless rests against one simple thing: so far they go without accident, everything is OK. But if, God forbid, something happened, hooked on somebody, not very well, the person or the machine, and you sit such, with the iPad inside, the police officer pulls out you, and you say: "You that? I here at what? She goes, I on a back seat sat, I even "stop' could not reach the button".
Or there are more difficult moral problems. The machine understands that accidents not to avoid. And it has a choice: save the driver, or save people in other machines, or just other pedestrians. So when you begin to think about it, here from technologies pass here to such things, you think: "Pancake, not for nothing these three laws of robotics thought up!". And so far the same people for UAVs will not formulate, an essence — the same robots about what legislation it is possible to speak?

Cognitive Technologies announced an auto pilot of C-Pilot

The Russian company Cognitive Technologies declared in the summer of 2016 the beginning of sales of an intelligent system of autonomous driving of C-Pilot. A system is intended for installation both on passenger cars, and on other types of cars. Cognitive Technologies created in 1993 generally is engaged in development and deployment of software for document flow and recognition of texts, however, several years develops the systems of artificial intelligence for cargo and agricultural machinery.

Commercialization of C-Pilot is supposed in two formats: OEM (embedding of technology in the systems of different car makers) and bulk sales of a hardware and software system. Now the C-Pilot conducts negotiations "with several foreign and Russian car makers" on deliveries of C-Pilot in the OEM format. The first sales of a system are expected at the beginning of 2017.

Learn more: C-Pilot Intelligent system of autonomous driving

2015

Avrora Robotics Lab together with Gruzovichkof Group prepare the "pilotless" car for release

On December 14, 2015 the company Avrora Robotics Lab announced agreement signature with group "Taksovichkof" and "Gruzovichkof" joint work over creation of the development center pilotless vehicles. Learn more

KAMAZ receives 300 million from the Ministry of Education and Science on pilotless transport

In February, 2015 Cognitive Technologies and "KamAZ" announced the beginning of the joint project on which result by 2020 based on the KamAZ car it is going to create the pilotless vehicle of new generation.

The state on behalf of the Ministry of Education and Science selected 300 million rubles within implementation of the FTP for project implementation "Research and development in the priority directions of development of a scientific and technology complex of Russia for 2014 — 2020". Cognitive Technologies won the corresponding competition of department in 2014. According to its conditions, 90 more million rubles in the project will be invested by "KamAZ".

Learn more: KAMAZ unmanned vehicle

Robotics



Notes