Translated by
2019/04/12 17:46:07

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) wireless standard

Wi-Fi ("wireless accuracy") — the standard on the equipment Wireless LAN. Wi-fi — the Wi-fi Alliance trademark is developed by consortium Wi-fi Alliance based on the IEEE 802.11 standards. The technology was called by Wireless-Fidelity (literally "the wireless accuracy") by analogy with Hi-Fi.

Content

The Wireless LAN installation was recommended where deployment of a cable system was impossible or economically inexpedient. In present time in many organizations Wi-Fi as under certain conditions network functioning speed already exceeds 100 Mbit/sec. is used. Users can move between access points across the territory of a covering of Wi-fi network. At the same time, when changing access points there is a short-term rupture of communication, except for use of the equipment Cisco.

Mobile devices (the pocket computers, smartphones and notebooks) equipped with client transceiving devices can be connected to a local network and get Internet access through access points.

Small width of the used frequency spectrum, lack of opportunities of roaming and authorization do not allow Wi-Fi to devices to press cellular mobile communication in the market. Nevertheless, such companies as Zyxel Communications, SocketIP and Symbol Technologies, propose solutions on the Wi-fi organization of telephony.

Standards

EasyMesh

IEEE 802.16: WiMax

WiMax is the international technology of functional compatibility for microwave access. She allows to transfer data with speed from 30 to 40 megabits per second. The term specifically belongs to a possibility of interaction and implementation in the IEEE 802.16 standard.

This technology for wireless data transmission to the clients was once used by several mobile operators, in particular Sprint. Then these operators refused WiMax and switched to faster LTE 4G-networks for data transmission.

WiMax Forum certifies devices before deliveries to private and corporate users. The technology works better if communication is organized out of premises.

IEEE 802.15.4: ZigBee

ZigBee, the wireless technology and the LPWAN technologies group, submits the open global standard developed especially for use in M2M-networks.

The technology is inexpensive for start and does not require big capacities. It does ZigBee by the ideal solution for many industrial applications. ZigBee has a low delay and small energy consumption that several years without recharge allow products to work from one battery. The ZigBee protocol offers 128-bit AES enciphering. This technology is also used in Mesh-networks which allow nodes to connect with each other by means of several routes.

It is expected that ZigBee will be implemented in devices for the smart house. Does to an opportunity at the same time to connect several different "things" it ideal for the connected house environment. Users can connect such objects as smart locks, light sources, thermostats. These "things" will be able to interact with each other.

ZigBee Alliance standardized Zigbee PRO 2017 technology, hoping to expand possibilities of connectivity. However so far ZigBee devices are not capable to interact fully among themselves. Further it is planned that standardization will correct this problem, and devices will be able to work in uniform space. Frequency range also limits possibilities of this technology[1].

EEE 802.15.1: Bluetooth и BLE

Bluetooth and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE, Bluetooth Smart) are the wireless technologies used for data transmission on short distances. They are often involved in small devices which are connected to phones and tablets of users. For example, the technology is used in many speaker systems.

Bluetooth Low Energy uses less energy, than standard Bluetooth. Equip with support of BLE fitness trackers, the smartwatch and other attached devices the charge of the accumulator was spent more economically.

Application of BLE in large quantities only began. Originally this technology was provided by the company Nokia in 2006. However till 2010 it was an integral part of the Bluetooth standard. Today BLE is supported by most of producers smartphones and computers and also basic operation systems (Windows 8 OS X Linux Windows Phone Android i iOS).

Bluetooth uses radio waves of a high-frequency electromagnetic field for data transmission. Originally this technology was standardized as 802.15.1, but IEEE does not support this separate standard any more.

The companies working with Bluetooth are often connected with the Bluetooth Special Interest (SIG) group. Now the group totals more than 20 thousand participants. SIG should certify a product with Bluetooth before it can be supplied to the market. This procedure helps to guarantee that all Bluetooth devices go through a stage of normative regulation and ensure the identical level of security and safety.

IEEE 802.11ax

Standard 802.11ax assumes that the devices supporting it will be able to download four times quicker data and six times quicker to transfer them to a remote server in comparison with the solutions having support of Wi-fi of the previous generation (802.11ac). Wider acceptance region of a signal and a 7-fold prize regarding energy efficiency, says the company are also stated four times. The first chips with support 802.11ax were provided by Broadcom company. Read more here.

At the beginning of September, 2018 Wireless Broadband Alliance (WBA) announced that it 802.11ax will receive a number of new features. Among them, in particular, multi-user ascending and MIMO descending communication channels (multiple input, multiple output) for expansion of capacity of channels with simultaneous support of a set of devices. This function is intended for the enterprises and network providers and also for large public places and buildings in which there is a great number of users.

Support of frequency ranges of 2.4 and 5 GHz will expand the used range and will provide compatibility with the available devices. Also the range of 6 GHz will be supported Besides. Changeable capacity of channels and the opportunity of use of different devices will be allowed operators to offer more effective IoT, including connections using low capacity for narrow allocated channels which will save the electric power. Thanks to this function operators will be able to support broadband services and IoT in one network. The Target Wake Time function will allow IoT devices to pass into the dream mode to reduce the competition for access to network, and to become more active if necessary, saving a charge of batteries.

According to the document WBA "Enhanced Wi-Fi — 802.11ax Decoded", in 802.11ax will be provided to function not only for support of tens of millions smartphones which use Wi-Fi, but also for meeting requirements of such segments as structures of Internet of Things (IoT), added and virtual reality. Apply opportunities 802.11ax, according to WBA, it will be possible in networks of high density, on transport, in to retail trade and show businesses, at the enterprises, in the industry and smart cities.

According to WBA, in Wi-Fi of the next generation, in addition to optimized productivities, capacity and efficiency, scenarios of early application of a 5G will be supported. The updated Wi-fi technology will meet the requirements developed by ITU in relation to a 5G for IMT-2020 standard.

«
Be "suitable" for a 5G means more, than correspond to a set of the requirements concerning capacity and density, said in the report of WBA. — We already see integration of Wi-fi into concepts of a 5G, such as architecture of Multi-Access Edge Computing of the European institute of telecommunication standards.
»

On expectations of WBA, standard 802.11ax will be ratified in the IV quarter 2019. According to forecasts consolidation of operators of the GSM Association mobile networks, by 2022 more than in 70% of the products Wi-fi of a corporate class will be applied 802.11ax.[2]

IEEE 802.11ad (WiGig)

Main article: IEEE 802.11ad (WiGig)

The Samsung Electronics company (Samsung Electronics Rus) announced in October, 2014 successful development of the technology capable to provide by 5 times higher data transfer rate according to the Wi-fi standard in smartphones, tablets and routers. The technology developed by Samsung meets the IEEE 802.11ad specification.

IEEE 802.11ac

Основная статья: IEEE 802.11ac


By 2015 the new standard for wireless networks of data transmission of IEEE 802.11ac which will allow to transfer information up to three times faster, than the last today's IEEE 802.11n standard will be adopted. Now it limits data transmission to speed up to 300 Mbps.

It is expected that speeding up will be reached first of all thanks to the fact that devices will be able to work not only with channels 20-40 MHz wide, but also 80-160 MHz, especially with the frequency range of 5 GHz. With high probability at the standard the compatibility with the previous versions of Wi-Fi-standards will remain. In addition to growth of speed of Wi-fi significant increase in number of devices which will use it for data transmission is expected. The analytical agency In-Stat assumes that by 2015 their total number will exceed 1 billion.

Products for wireless local area networks based on the IEEE 802.11ac standard which is in a development stage now will begin to be delivered in 2012. Believe in Broadcom companies that their emergence will mark a new era of development of the Wi-fi networks having high performance and considerable a big range.

In new technology the narrowly targeted radiation of antennas, wider channels, several antennas for transfer and data reception will be used. All this will allow to bring high-speed performance to 1.3 Gbps and to increase communication distance. The new standard will provide also the best passing of signals through walls of houses therefore the network based on technology 11ac will reliably work within the whole building, Raul Patel, the vice president of group of mobile and wireless communication of Broadcom believes. This standard will become a step forward in comparison with IEEE 802.11n which is the most made today by the wireless standard providing, as a rule, high-speed performance to 300 Mbps.

In the industry of products for home wireless networks the possibility of use of several of their modifications for the video transmission of high resolution requiring high high-speed performance and stability of work is considered. Patel does not see threat for 11ac from the competing technologies. Wireless HDMI, for example, provides high speed, but is much more expensive therefore will hardly gain mass distribution. WiGig provides data transmission with the high-speed performance reaching 6 Gbps, but on smaller distances. Perhaps, WiGig and 11ac will be able successfully to supplement each other.

Broadcom calculates that products based on 802.11ac will begin to be delivered in the second half of 2012. Patel considers that by the end of next year in Wi-Fi Alliance the program of their certification can be ready though works on the IEEE standard still, perhaps, will not be complete. However, when the IEEE 802.11n standard was in a development stage, deliveries of products on its basis already began. Their certification on compliance to preliminary editions of the standard was executed in Wi-Fi Alliance.

In November analysts of In-Stat published the forecast in which it was specified that sales of products on a basis 11ac will begin to grow quickly after release of this standard. If in 2012 it is possible to expect deliveries about 1 million routers and modems of different types, then in 2015 this indicator will be already 350 million. But even then 11n will compete quite successfully with 11ac, and it is expected that in 2015 nearly 1.5 billion devices based on 11n will be sold.

Just as in 802.11n, in the new standard use of several antennas for formation of several traffic flows is regulated. However radio module 11ac using only one flow will practically not be inferior on performance to module 11n with three flows, Patel claims. One of methods allowing to triple almost its high-speed performance — application of more broadband channels — from 80 to 160 MHz, while at most in 11n — 40 MHz. Standard 802.11ac defines also how several devices using this expanded frequency range of channels can work jointly.

With the advent of standard 11ac it will be possible to be beyond the private range of 2.4 GHz only permitted by old standard 802.11b and used also as one of standard 11n ranges. New standard 11ac is expected only the range of 5 GHz which as Patel noted, is not so "overpopulated". He paid attention that 90-95% of devices work in Wi-fi networks today in the range of 2.4 GHz where there are only three "not crossed" the channel whereas in the range of 5 GHz of such channels 20.

IEEE 802.11n

Основная статья: IEEE 802.11n


Requirements to the equipment of the IEEE 802.11n standard. contain in Part I of order No. 124 "About the approval of Rules of use of the equipment of a radio access", dated on September 14, 2010. Along with adoption of the new order, old, of February 13, 2007, lost the force. This news for certain will please mobile people – the equipment of Wi-fi standard 802.11n working in the range of 2.4-2.5 and 5.0 GHz provides data transfer rate to 600 Mbps and the bigger radius of a covering.

WiFi speed

Many users connected to any Wi-Fi of network are not always happy with connection speed. The question quite difficult also needs detailed consideration.

a. Actual speeds of WI-FI technology

So frequently asked questions on this subject look:

" at me the tariff plan provides the speed of 50 Mbps — why only 20 turns out?"

"Why on a box 54 Mbps are written, and the client program when loading a torrent displays at most 2.5 MB/s (what is equal to 20 Mbps)?"

"Why on a box 150 Mbps are written, and the client program when loading a torrent displays 2.5 — 6 Mbps (what is equal to 20 — 48 Mbps)?"

"Why on a box 300 Mbps are written, and the client program when loading a torrent displays 2.5 — 12 Mbps (what is equal to 20 — 96 Mbps)?"

On boxes and specifications to devices theoretically calculated maximum capacity for ideal conditions of this or that Wi-fi standard is specified (in fact — for a vacuum).

In actual practice capacity and the area of a coverage of network depend on the noises created by other devices, extents of loading of WiFi network, existence of obstacles (and materials of which they are made) and other factors.

Many client utilities delivered by producers together with WiFi-adapters and also utilities of the Windows operating system, at connection on Wi-Fi display "theoretical" capacity, but not real data transfer rate, misleading users.

As show results of testing, the maximum real capacity is about 3 times lower, than that that it is specified in specifications to the device or to this or that IEEE standard of group 802.11 (standards of Wi-fi technology):

Standards of WiFi technology the Most achievable theoretically calculated capacity
(Mbps)
Maximum real data transfer rate
(Mbps)
IEEE 802.11a To 54 To 24
IEEE 802.11g To 54 To 24
IEEE 802.11n To 150 To 50
IEEE 802.11n To 300 To 100

b. WLAN-WLAN. Wi-Fi speed (depending on distance)

All modern and relevant standards of Wi-fi work similarly today.

In each timepoint, active the equipment (access point or the router) works as Wi-fi only with one client (WiFi-adapter) from all WiFi of network, and all structures of network obtain the special service information about for what time the radio channel will be reserved for data transmission. Transfer comes in two-way alternative operation i.e. in turn — from active Wi-Fi of the equipment to the client adapter, then on the contrary and so on. Simultaneous "parallel" data transfer process (duplex) in Wi-fi technology is not possible.

Thus, the data exchange rate between two clients (WLAN-WLAN switching speed) of one Wi-Fi of the network created by one device (access point or the router) will be (ideally) in two and more times lower (depends on distance), than the maximum real data transfer rate in all network.

Example:

Two computers with Wi-Fi adapters of the IEEE 802.11g standard are connected to one Wi-Fi to the router of the IEEE 802.11g standard. Both computers are at small distance from the router. All network has the most achievable theoretical capacity in 54 Mbps (that it is written in specifications of devices) a real data exchange rate will not exceed 24 Mbps.

But, as the Wi-fi technology is a half-duplex data transmission, Wi-Fi to the radio module should be switched between two clients of network (Wi-Fi adapters) twice more often than if the client would be one. Respectively, real data transfer rate between two adapters will be twice lower, than maximum real for one client. In this example, the maximum real data exchange rate for each of computers will make 12 Mbps. Let's remind that it is about data transmission from one computer to another via the router on WiFi-connection (WLAN-WLAN).

Depending on remoteness of the client of network from access point or the router, "real" data transfer rate on WiFi will change "theoretical" and, as a result. Let's remind that it is about 3 times less than "theoretical".

It occurs because active WiFi the equipment, working in two-way alternative operation, together with adapters changes signal parameters (modulation type, speed of convolutional coding, etc.) depending on conditions in a radio channel (distance, existence of obstacles and noises).

When finding the client of network in a coverage with "theoretical" capacity of 54 Mbps, his maximum actual speed will be 24 Mbps. When moving the client of distance of 50 meters in the conditions of direct optical visibility (without barriers and noises), it will make 2 Mbps. The barrier in the form of a thick bearing wall or a massive metal construction can also cause similar effect — it is possible to be at distance of 10-15 meters, but behind this barrier.

c. Router of the IEEE 802.11n standard, adapter of the IEEE 802.11g standard

Let's review an example when Wi-Fi the network creates Wi-Fi the router of the IEEE standard of 802.11 n (150 Mbps). Are connected the notebook with Wi-Fi to the router the adapter of the IEEE 802.11n standard (300 Mbps) and the desktop computer with Wi-Fi the adapter of the IEEE 802.11g standard (54 Mbps):

In this example all network has the maximum "theoretical" speed of 150 Mbps as it is constructed on Wi-Fi the router of the IEEE 802.11n standard, 150 Mbps. The maximum actual speed of WiFi will not exceed 50 Mbps. As all standards of WiFi working at one frequency range are backward-compatible with each other, it is possible to be connected to such network by means of WiFi of the adapter of the IEEE 802.11g standard, 54 Mbps. At the same time, the maximum actual speed will not exceed 24 Mbps. At connection to this router of the notebook with WiFi the adapter of the IEEE 802.11n standard (300 Mbps), client utilities can display value of the maximum "theoretical" speed in 150 Mbps, (the network is created by the device of the IEEE 802.11n standard, 150 Mbps), and here the maximum actual speed will not be higher than 50 Mbps. In this scheme, the WiFi-router will work with the client adapter of the IEEE 802.11g standard at the actual speed which is not exceeding 24 Mbps, and with the adapter of the IEEE 802.11n standard at the actual speed which is not exceeding 50 Mbps. Here it is necessary to remember that the WiFi technology is a two-way alternate communication and access point (or the router) can work only with one client of network, and all other clients of network "are notified" on that time on which the radio channel is reserved for data transmission.

d. WiFi speed via the router. WAN-WLAN

If it is about connection on Wi-Fi to connection to Wi-Fi to the router, then the speed of loading of a torrent can even be lower, than those values which were stated above.

These values cannot exceed WAN-LAN switching speed as it is the main characteristic of capacity of the router.

Thus, if in specifications (and on a box) devices data transfer rate on Wi-Fi up to 300 Mbps is specified, and the WAN-LAN parameter for this model, its hardware version, version of microprogram providing and also type and the connection protocol is equal 24 Mbps, then data transfer rate on Wi-Fi (for example, when loading a torrent) under no circumstances cannot exceed value of 3 MB/s (24 Mbps). This parameter carries the name WAN-WLAN which directly depends on WAN-LAN routing speed, on the version of microprogram providing ("firmware") set on Wi-Fi the router, radio module Wi-Fi (the access point of WiFi which is built in WiFi the router), and also on characteristics of Wi-fi of the adapter, its drivers, remoteness from the router, a zashumlennost of an air and other factors.

Accelerate connection with Wi-Fi in crowded places seven times

Slow connections with Wi-Fi at the airports, cafe and other public places, perhaps, will consign to the past thanks to the protocol drafted by researchers from the University of North Carolina soon. Connections with access points at a large number of users slow down as data are transferred in both directions on the same channel.

The solution under the name WiFox proposed in the fall of 2012 by researchers does not require updating of the hardware of access points. It is program system which monitors traffic level in Wi-fi channel. As soon as on access point the big buffer of undispatched data collects, the outbound traffic is given higher priority. After emptying of the buffer the priority returns to the entering user queries. In fact, researchers explain, a system works as the street traffic controller monitoring that data in both directions proceeded more evenly.

During tests in own laboratory of developers to which access point about 45 devices can be connected it became clear that the efficiency of WiFox increases with number of users: when them 25, connection accelerates four times and when 45, already seven times.

2018

the New simplified designation of standards Wi-Fi

At the beginning of October, 2018  the Wi-fi Alliance organization integrating the largest producers of the computer equipment and wireless devices announced the long-awaited simplified diagram of designation of standards Wi-Fi. Instead of complex tsiferno-alphabetic combinations sequence numbers will be used.

For example, 802.11ax Wi-Fi 6, and the previous standard 802.11ac — Wi-Fi 5 began to hereinafter be referred to. Version 802.11n received designation Wi-fi 4, etc.

Standards of Wi-fi at last received clear names
Standards of Wi-fi at last received clear names

The simplified diagram will allow technically not grounded users easier to learn about what version of Wi-fi is supported by their devices. It is supposed that the new option will be applied in user interfaces of operating systems, and near the Wi-fi icon the digit with number of the standard of communication will appear over time. Simple numbering of standards as consider in Wi-Fi Alliance, can be used in the advertizing purposes when producers want to show that, how fast their equipment works in the wireless networks.

Wi-Fi Alliance emphasizes that the new system of naming of standards is not obligatory. It means that developers of the equipment, compatible to Wi-fi, can use including old designations, it seems 802.11ax.

However, most likely, producers will support designations clear to users and will mark devices according to recommendations. Certification of Wi-fi 6 (802.11ax) will begin in 2019. This standard promises to improve spectral efficiency of a wireless network in the conditions of the loaded air and to increase theoretical capacity twice in comparison with standard 802.11ac Wave-2.[3]

«
Wi-Fi Alliance hopes for very widespread introduction of such system of designations — the director to marketing of the organization Kevin Robinson says. — It is extremely improbable that it will be used suddenly everywhere - it is not that way which will earn at once. But the industry will pass to this numbering corresponding to generation and finally both consumers, and the market will benefit from it.
»

According to Robinson, market participants "it is very transparent" discussed rebranding of Wi-fi, and they did it is everyone with each other.

You want Wi-Fi — solve the equation: as in the People's Republic of China motivate students

At one of the Chinese universities thought up an original method to motivate students to study. To get access to public Wi-Fi in the dining room in the territory of a campus, pupils are offered to solve the equation. In September, 2018 the Daily Mail edition with reference to the publication of the Chinese-language Beijing News resource reported about it.

It is about the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, NUAA) located in the Province of Jiangsu in the east of the People's Republic of China. According to The South China Morning Post, in educational institution, natural-science objects and engineering art are generally taught. The university trains specialists for the aviation and space industry.[4]

To get access to public Wi-Fi in the dining room in the territory of a campus in China, pupils are offered to solve the equation
To get access to public Wi-Fi in the dining room in the territory of a campus in China, pupils are offered to solve the equation

As it appears from a text on the laminated plate which was hung up on a wall of the university dining room near the menu the password for Wi - Fi - access are the first eight digits from the answer to differential equation which is given below.[5]

In Beijing News interview the catering manager explained that a task — the basic equation from the higher mathematics. According to her, the task was thought up for the sake of a joke, but at the same time it is designed to remind first-year students that it is necessary to study hard. Students who cannot cope with the equation should be engaged more, but not to spend time on the Internet, she added.

The edition has also a talk with students, and one of pupils reported that the person who understands mathematics is capable to solve the equation in only 30 seconds.

The photos with the equation from the canteen of Nanjing University published in the Chinese social networks caused a big resonance. In comments some users criticized the idea, others said that such equation cannot do to them. Also there were those who solved the equation and online placed the answer. The password to Wi-Fi was the first digits of number of Pi.

2015

Waiting for "the second wave" of Wi-fi 802.11ac

The version of the standard of 802.11 ac, in family of the wireless standards IEEE 802.11, approved in January, 2014 was separated into two "waves" - Wave 1 and Wave 2. First "wave" is implemented in network equipment of many producers, second "wave" started in January, 2014 (emergence of the first devices of the second wave 802.11 expert are expected in 2015). However, implementation of these "waves" with almost identical names and the same band of holding frequencies (5 GHz) will demand from operators of different efforts[6].

Creation of Wi-fi network 802.11ac of Wave 1 did not require serious changes in the operating architecture of the operator of Wi-fi network 802.11n - for this purpose it is enough to add to access points external modules with support 802.11ac. Second "wave" from which expect fall forward of access to 6.9 Gbps (at Wave 1 maximum makes 1.3 Gbps), needs a different approach - implementation requires considerable upgrade of network, otherwise no fall forward will turn out. It is all about Wave 2 of multi-user MIMO technology (MU-MIMO) providing an ability to manage bandwidth for each user supported in 802.11ac it requires to rebuild network.

But, according to experts it is not necessary to hurry with implementation of second "wave" as the first did not develop the potential yet. According to forecasts of IDC, sales volumes of equipment Wi-fi 802.11ac of Wave 1 will exceed sales of equipment Wi-fi 802.11n only in 2015. In addition, in corporate Wi-Fi-networks on which standard 802.11ac is focused real demand for speed of 6.9 Gbps is small - usually enough and 1 Gbps.

Nevertheless, some equipment manufacturers are ready to second "wave". In March, 2015 the release on the market of access points for Wi-Fi-networks of standard 802.11ac Wave 2 was announced by Ruckus Wireless company. Deliveries its dual-band (2.4 and 5 GHz) access points of ZoneFlex R710 should begin until the end of the second quarter 2015, also the price - $1295 is sounded. Testing of devices took place in San Jose where for notebooks it was succeeded to reach access rate in 445 Mbps, and for smartphones - 200 Mbps (only for the devices supporting standard 802.11ac). At the beginning of May, 2015 chips for access points of Wi-fi Wave 2 were announced by Broadcom company. According to specialists of the company, new PCs, tablets and smartphones with the relevant subscriber Wi-Fi Wave 2 modules will gain mass distribution in the market in the next 2-3 years. Tablets with support of the MU-MIMO technology used in Wi-Fi Wave 2 were announced recently by Acer company, and the Chinese company Xiaomi put on the market the Mi 4i smartphone worth $200 with support of this technology.

The source of wireless power supply managed to be made of router Wi-Fi

Researchers from the University of Washington led by Joshua Smith found out that the router which is slightly modified by Wi-fi on a normal chipset can supply with electricity different devices, from temperature sensors to cameras of small permission. At the same time such unusual use of the router does not lead to significant decline in quality of the communication provided to them, transfers nplus1.ru.

Developers of a new system under the name PoWiFi (Power over WiFi) used mass chipsets of Atheros AR9580 for the experimental router. Modification concerned only a usage mode of such device: instead of sending a radio signal when about it asks the client device, the new router gives a signal constantly. When it is not completely loaded by requests from clients of a local network, the router issues in air "noise", the radiation which is not bearing information, but providing with a small amount of energy any device equipped with their Wi-Fi-receiver. At the same time radio waves go on several channels Wi-fi of range at once.

During experiments on efficiency evaluation of such scheme researchers created two modified devices (the temperature sensor and the camera) which were powered only from Wi-Fi-radio signals. The receivers used for collecting of energy from such radio signals were built authors of work from the analog devices which are available on sale used in radio engineering.

2014

Wi-Fi changes approach to work

Explosive growth of number of the connected mobile devices (as well as growth of speeds for their net surfing) at all not [6]. Recently the subject of mobile technologies and a working space was discussed in the context of increase in number of smartphones and tablets and capability of the companies to support personal devices of employees to provide the new principle of work. But with new high-speed mobile devices with fast connection to the Internet and a working space development of mobile technologies moves to the following level where several mobile devices on average are the share of each worker. Wearable gadgets will be in the lead here. Their quantity presumably will increase from 109  million in  2014 to 578  million in  2019.

The companies risk to miss possible benefit and to lose a gross profit if are not prepared for flow of wearable gadgets and other attached devices, especially, if employees bring for work different devices with continuous access in the Internet and/or the applications requiring high capacity that quicker and more simply to carry out the tasks set for them. Possibilities of employees to rationalize the activity and to increase business value substantially depend on opportunities of a corporate wireless network and qualitatively new speeds of net surfing. Average speed of mobile connection increases (only in  2014 it increased by 20 %), and capability of the companies to support such speeds for the growing number of the devices connected to Wi-fi network purchases crucial importance.

Trends in the field of mobile technologies, 2015

It is necessary to expect that transition to the new Wi-fi level (standard 802.11ac of the second wave - Wave 2) will lead to increase in wireless speeds almost by 10 times in comparison with standard 802.11n that will be very profitable to users of smart devices and wearable gadgets. Well organized high-speed network Wi-fi will transform a working space, giving to diversified employees enhanced capabilities for interaction and use of the devices from smartphones and tablets to wearable gadgets.

By  2019 in North America 33 % of connections will fall to the share of wearable gadgets, and the most part of such traffic will fall on smartphones. As well as in kontseptsiibyod, the mobile user space and the companies will not be differentiated. As soon as employees step over a threshold of office, traffic of wearable gadgets will be redirected through Wi-fi network. Here It should be noted especially desire of users to be exempted from network of provider not to pay for data transmission.

Employees can and Wi-fi networks with higher the speed and capacity, especially, will take advantages if such network is able to provide the stated speed of standard 802.11ac of the second wave and the developed standard 802.11ax. It will induce employees to bring with itself more and more attached devices. Considering a new stage of development of the mobile technologies covering a working space standard 802.11ac of the second wave promises huge opportunities for support of the "connected" workers who using technologies, persistently, the device behind the device, aim to change the principle of the work.

The technology of new generation Wi-Fi of 10 Gbps is tested

The Huawei company carried out by spring of 2014 laboratory tests of industry-first service of Wi-fi of 10 Gbps in the headquarters in Shenzhen. The technology provides data transmission on Wi-Fi to channels with tenfold increase in speed in comparison with the fastest available commercial Wi-fi technology. It is an important step on the way to use of applications of processing of large volumes of data due to use of technology of a very high speed Wi-fi broadcast based on advanced architecture of new generation.

The technology provides record data transfer rate of 10.53 Gbps with the frequency range of 5 GHz. The successful result of this testing and tenfold increase in efficiency of spectrum use of frequencies which made possible its implementation lays the foundation for creation of Wi-fi technology of new generation. According to experts of Huawei, the superfast Wi-fi technology can become available to commercial use since 2018 depending on approval of requirements of international standards and existence of chips.

Demand for superfast connections for applications of smartphones requires permanent increase in data transfer rate therefore the technology of access Wi-Fi of the next generation should provide quality improvement of services, especially in the places with dense population requiring the high density of implementation, for example, at offices, the airports, stadiums, shopping centers and cafe.

For the solution of this question in 2010 Huawei began researches of Wi-fi technology of the next generation for development of the innovation architecture of Wi-fi deprived of shortcomings of traditional ShP-transfer on radio channels and data processings of basic frequency band of Wi-fi for increase in transmission rate of subscriber data. Use of such innovative technologies as MIMO-OFDA, intellectual distribution of a frequency spectrum, the approved compensation of noises and hybrid access, will allow Wi-fi networks of the next generation to provide conditions for provision of services in zones with intensive traffic with tenfold increase in efficiency of a frequency spectrum.

Huawei continues to support and invest means in scientific research of advanced technologies of Wi-fi actively. The company made the biggest contribution to development of new generation of standards of Wi-fi. At the plenary session of Institute of electrical and electronic engineers and electronics (IEEE) devoted to standard 802.11 WLAN which was held on May 12-15, 2014 in Hawaii the representative of Huawei doctor Osama Aboul Magd was elected the chairman of the working group on standard 802.11ax WLAN. Tasks of group include development of the standard of new generation of Wi-fi of 10 Gbps which commercial start is planned in 2018.

2012: Wi-Fi with functionality of geopositioning of client devices helps business

In recent years Wi-fi networks covered huge floor area and street zones, having turned from category NICE-TO-HAVE (something desirable) into category MUST-BE (something obligatory). It was promoted in many respects by distribution of smartphones and tablets and also informatization of society in general. Using the Internet it is possible to register in appointment now, to be registered on a flight, to put the child on a waiting list in kindergarten, to pay penalties of traffic police, to correspond with tax administration, to check estimates of children at school and many other things.

Existence of Wi-fi often becomes the profit generator. Let's take hotel business where Wi-Fi directly affects occupancy of hotels. Wireless Internet access becomes obligatory and for ensuring educational process.

Some companies and the organizations try to provide lack of Wi-fi as a certain distinctive feature of the business ("We have no Wi-fi, communicate with each other!"). Statistics, however, demonstrates that services based on Wi-Fi are very demanded:

  • 29% of buyers in Europe answer the special offers received thus (Mobile Marketing Association, 2010);
  • 40% of visitors of stadium responded on the offer to purchase hotdog at a discount during the match (Mobile Internet 2.0: Monetizing Public Wi-Fi via Business to Consumer Relationships, 2012);
  • 53% of mobile users are ready to share information on the location to receive relevant offers on availability of services, actions and discounts (JiWire, 2010).

2009-2011

According to Strategy Analytics company, by the end of 2011 of access point of Wi-fi were set in 439 million households — the fourth part from a total quantity of households in the world.

The highest share of the households having access to Wi-Fi is registered in South Korea. There are their a little more than 80%. Great Britain, France and Germany lag behind South Korea, but in all these countries the level of prevalence Wi-Fi exceeds 70%. In the USA it makes only 61%.

According to forecasts of Strategy Analytics, by 2016 access to Wi-Fi will supply nearly 800 million households (42%). The main growth is necessary to China. Already now China has the biggest quantity of the households in the world having access to Wi-Fi, and by 2016 it will increase by 110 million, analysts believe.

The popularity of Wi-fi networks grows not only in a consumer sector. The market of the equipment for wireless corporate networks in the fourth quarter grew 2011 to a record high of 893 million dollars, Infonetics Research notes. Though the main share of means is still spent for the equipment for Ethernet networks, growth of the market is provided by wireless technologies.

Since 2009 in the world over 9 billion devices with the wireless Wi-fi interface were sold. The number of smartphones, notebooks, tablets, printers and automobile electronics increases, and the most rapid growth is noted in the sector of TVs with connection to network. In 2011 in the world 17 million such TVs, and in 2012 — already 30 million were sold. By 2017, according to forecasts of analysts of ABI Research, their sales will be quadrupled.

In the first years growth in the market of Wi-fi devices was provided with network equipment, but soon smartphones became the main sector, analysts note. Mobile applications and the house systems will be growth factor in the next years. Wi-Fi will not only provide Internet access, but also communication between different home electronic devices — TVs, tablets and smartphones. Emergence of the standard of wireless connection of Miracast displays will even more increase the number of the home devices supplied with interfaces of Wi-fi.

85% of the world market of chips of Wi-fi divide among themselves six producers: Broadcom, Qualcomm, MediaTek, Marvell, Intel and Texas Instruments.

The system of authorization of public WiFi-networks in Russia

Why Russians refuse free Wi-Fi

On March 13, 2018 the Ernst&Young (EY) company published the survey results which showed that Russians began to refuse free networks Wi-fi. Instead users prefer to go on-line through mobile networks of the operators.

More than 100 thousand people living in Moscow and other cities with the population from 100 thousand inhabitants participated in a research.

According to EY which are given by Kommersant, 65% of respondents ceased to use public Wi-Fi because of need every time to undergo authorization, excess advertizing and  fear for personal data.

Because of abundance of advertizing and difficult process of authorization owners of mobile devices began to refuse use of public Wi-Fi
Because of abundance of advertizing and difficult process of authorization owners of mobile devices began to refuse use of public Wi-Fi

Nearly 70% of users would wish to have a warranty of complete confidentiality of the data. 26.6% from them are ready to pay for that their data were not on sale the operator, and the smartphone and communication channels were protected. 

In two years the quantity of access points of Wi-fi increased only in Moscow more than ten times, but since July, 2017 analysts recorded decrease in number of sessions (web authorizations) in public Wi-Fi (from 360 thousand to 183 thousand in January, 2018), and since September — and the incoming traffic. In a research it is said that the number of users of the Moscow Wi-Fi grows in many respects at the expense of visitors to whom public wireless networks allow to save on roaming. 

The department of information technologies (DIT) of Moscow agrees that public networks Wi-fi began to be used for Internet access more and more seldom, and explained it with the fact that the number of sessions of public Wi-Fi, especially its use in parks and on streets, is strongly tied to a seasonal factor.

«
So, in cold weather the number of the people walking on the street, therefore, and indicators of traffic and the number of sessions of public Wi-Fi decreases — explained in DIT.
»

According to experts, one of reasons for refusal of connections to free Wi-Fi is the growing popularity of package rates in which mobile operators include large volumes of mobile traffic

Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications: Identification of users of Wi-fi does not belong to duties of restaurateurs

Identification of users of public networks Wi-fi is a duty of telecom operators, but not restaurants and hotels. Kommersant with reference to the letter of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation reports about it in December, 2017.

According to the current legislation, users of free Wi-Fi are obliged to be identified. The companies distributing Wi-Fi without authorization should pay a penalty in the amount of 50-300 thousand rubles. Since the beginning of this year Roskomnadzor checked 17.4 thousand access points of Wi-fi in public places. According to the results of checks 1.5 thousand violations of the law about obligatory identification of users were revealed.

According to restaurateurs, now accurate differentiation between duties of telecom operators and restaurant and hotel business is absent. Because of it regulatory authorities can doubly treat laws, creating conditions for additional administrative pressure upon the companies. With respect thereto at the beginning of current month the Federation of restaurateurs and hoteliers of Russia addressed the member of the committee of the Federation Council on social policy Igor Fomin with a request to receive at the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications explanation on identification of users of free Wi-Fi.

The project of a single system of authorization in Wi-fi network sparked criticism of FAS

The Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS) sent in October, 2017 the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications the appeal with criticism of the bill of creation of a single system of identification of users of public networks Wi-fi. According to Vedomosti, in the letter of the deputy administrator of FAS Anatoly Golomolzin it is said that there is no need for creation of a similar system as wireless public networks cover small territories, each of which has the features.

Besides, the project poses threat for the competition – the document assumes presence only of one contractor of the project and also suggests to enter uniform Internet service provider for departments, schools and hospitals

Statistics of violations

The number of the revealed violations from owners of points of Wi-fi of access in Russia is reduced. In nine months 2017 Roskomnadzor jointly with specialists of radio-frequency service checked 17.4 thousand such points. From them more than 1.5 thousand worked with violation of the requirement of the legislation on obligatory identification of users – it is 3.5 times less, than for the same period of last year.

Most of all violations were revealed in the Central, Southern, Volga and North Caucasian federal districts. According to the results of the carried-out work since the beginning of year 216 protocols on administrative violations concerning telecom operators are made.

In other cases public access points were organized by subscribers of telecom operators with whom subscriber agreements are signed. Territorial authorities of Roskomnadzor in such cases send information to law enforcement agencies for taking measures according to the law.

Plans of engineering design

In July, 2018 under the direction of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications engineering design and development of a single system of authorization of users in public networks Wi-fi should begin. It is said in the actions plan for 2017-20 in the Information Infrastructure direction of the Digital Economy program (is at RBC, its authenticity was confirmed by two participants of the profile working group)[7].

As two interlocutors of RBC close to federal telecom operators explained, it is about a system which will allow to identify the personality of the user (to identify) and predostavlya ​​ t to it (to authorize) access rights to network. Along with it authorities will start development, discussion and adoption of amendments in the legislation which will provide the legal basis for work of this system. It is going to complete system development and make changes to the legislation in June, 2019.

In the actions plan for 2017-20 there are no specific parts how the Single system of identification of users in Wi-fi networks will work. It is known only that a system will be integrated with the state Single system of identification and authorization (ESIA)ESIA [8] which is used for authorization on the portal of state services [9] (and, perhaps, with subscriber bases of mobile operators). According to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, for June, 2017 data about 50 million registered Russian citizens are stored in a Unified identification and authentication system.

The interlocutor of RBC in the market of communication says that the project of a single system of authorization of users more reflects the interests of Rostelecom heading Competence Center in the Information Infrastructure direction in Wi-fi networks. "The company probably has ambitions to become the uniform operator of a system of authorization of users in Wi-fi networks. It is profitable commercial history as all systems of authorization allow to sell the advertizing emerging at the user at connection to Wi-Fi of network. Besides, the company, in that case, will be able to become uniform operator of storage of the database about all users who are connected to Wi-Fi to networks" — he says.

Down with anonymity ​​

Need to identify the users who are connected to public Wi-Fi to networks arose since August, 2014 when two corresponding government decrees were signed. It does not concern private users who will organize Wi-Fi of network of the house using the router. However all legal entities and individual entrepreneurs are obliged to identify users who are connected to public access points in the Internet. For these purposes there is now a large number of commercial services which services owners of public networks can use.


See Also:

National network WiFi in the USA

Vedomosti in February, 2013 announced the global project of U.S. authorities on deployment of Wi-fi network in country scales. The new WiFi-network will be much more powerful than present and will provide broadband access practically in all urban areas of the USA and also in the majority of rural, The Washington Post with reference to the chairman of FCC Julius Dzhenakhovski reports. He suggests to unroll WiFi-network at frequencies which operators receive in not licensed use — FCC began to issue such frequencies since 1985 However, it is necessary for implementation of the WiFi-project that also operators of radio TV sold a part of frequencies to the government.

All industry of wireless communication which annual turnover is estimated at $178 billion is dissatisfied with the idea — as users of national network WiFi will be able to use it for free IP calls. Representatives of mobile operators AT&T T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless and also equipment manufacturer for cellular communication of Qualcomm make powerful lobbist efforts to prove that not licensed frequencies should be sold to the companies. The representative Intel also considers that at not licensed selection of frequencies the motivation for investments into network equipment and quality improvement of services disappears, and withdrawn from operators of TV of frequency it is necessary to transfer to telecom operators of fourth generation.

The largest technology companies, such as Google or Microsoft are happy with the idea. According to their representatives, the national network WiFi will cause the explosive growth of innovations, emergence of a set of new mobile devices and will positively affect welfare of Americans, in particular the poor.


During 2014 the American cable and satellite operators pursued quite aggressive policy on expansion of the Wi-Fi of networks. The networks stretched across all territory of the USA contain already more than 9 million hotspot (from them 8 million belong to the Comcast company having about 23 million subscribers). And in 2015 it is going to increase by 10 times number of the access points set to Wi-fi. Comcast is also going to increase functionality and especially capacity of Wi - Fi - the equipment offered subscribers. At the expense of "a wide pipe" the operator expects to get profits on new video services.

Analysts already even warn that that day when Wi-fi networks which act as auxiliary so far become the main networks not only for Internet access, but also for mobile communication is near, i.e. users will only remember cellular networks when there is no available Wi-Fi-network. According to Fiercewireless.com, according to the report of Adobe company on use of mobile networks in 2014, in the USA 93% of the data obtained by users of tablets from the Internet were downloaded through Wi - Fi - connections and only 7% - through cellular networks; for smartphones the situation is not so asymmetric, but also for them Wi - Fi - the technology wins against cellular communication with the account of 57% - 43%. Besides, in February, 2014 the Cisco company published the forecast according to which by 2018 64% of traffic of cellular networks will be transferred using Wi-Fi-networks (so-called Wi-Fi offload - unloading of network on Wi - Fi - the channel).

However, operators continue to call Wi-Fi of network addition to the networks which are already available for them. It is stated in particular by Time Warner Cable company which since April, 2014 develops national Wi-Fi TWCWiFi-Passpoint network. Especially It should be noted that the American cable operators already cooperate for providing Wi - Fi - access to the subscribers. So in May of this year Comcast, Time Warner Cable, Cablevision, Cox Communications and Bright House Networks announced that all their users will be able to get access to a single network of CableWiFi at stay outside the areas serviced by their operator. There is also an active involvement of users to Wi-Fi-networks. For example, the Scratch Wireless company which is the MVNO operator working at infrastructure of Sprint company provides to the clients Wi - Fi - access free of charge. The company Sprint in February of this year started service of voice calls by Wi-Fi-network. Soon after support of Wi-Fi-calls in the iPhones 6 and 6 Plus smartphones the Apple company provided. However, on Wi-Fi only those American owners of iPhone 6 who are subscribers of T-Mobile operator of US can talk so far. The same T-Mobile company began to provide to the subscribers the Cellspot Wi-Fi-router for calls by Wi-Fi from the house free of charge. In 2015 similar services of a voice communication on Wi-Fi are going to start AT&T Mobility and Verizon Wireless. In the direction of a voice on Wi-Fi are going to develop the products and Wi producers - Fi - the equipment, in particular Ruckus Wireless company which equipment is presented also at the Russian market.

Wireless communication in airplanes

In 2010-2011 there was a significant growth in use of broadband communication in airplanes (in-flight broadband Wi-Fi) and the number of the airplanes equipped with the corresponding equipment. As of September, 2011 to this segment of the market there are new providers that will provide growth in the next next years[10].

If earlier all this market was concentrated in the USA, then now its borders extend, for last year similar services began to be provided also in Europe, and recently – and in the Middle East. And if in 2010 growth of turnover was 4%, then in the 2011th – already 7%. According to the forecast of In-Stat company, in 2015 turnover in this market will exceed $1.5 billion.

Generally for communication in airplanes use smartphones and tablets now. In the USA existence of Wi-fi aboard is considered as a necessary option for the competition. Further it will become just obligatory, the question will already stand not about a connectivity as such, and about expansion of similar services and functions. Providers begin to offer as well wireless video and voice services.

Cracking of wi-fi

2019

Android the-application for search of access points of Wi-fi opened passwords of 2 million networks

The WiFi Finder application loaded from Google Play Store by thousands of users allows to find nearby available networks Wi-fi. Users can also load passwords for access to wireless networks from the devices into the database of the application that others could use them. However this database was in open access, and anyone could rummage in it[11].

The researcher of security Sanyam Jain detected a DB and announced it to journalists of the edition of TechCrunch. Within more than two weeks they together tried to contact the developer of the application who is presumably in China, but unsuccessfully. As a result journalists addressed DigitalOcean hosting provider who disconnected the unprotected DB on the same day.

Each record in a DB contained a name of Wi-fi network, its exact location, the identifier BSSID and the password in not encrypted form. Though, according to the developer, the application provides passwords only for access to public wireless networks, the DB contain these sets of home networks.

The application does not require that users got permission from the owner of Wi-fi network, thereby subjecting it to threat of unauthorized access. Having access to network, the malefactor can change settings of the router so that nothing not suspecting users got on the harmful websites. Being in network, the criminal can also browse not ciphered traffic passing through a wireless network and to abduct confidential data.

Vulnerabilities in WPA3 protocol

Did not pass also years since launch of WPA3 standard (Wi-Fi Protected Access III) designed to eliminate technical defects of WPA2 protocol which long time was considered as unsafe and vulnerable to the attack of reinstallation of keys (Key Reinstallation Attack, KRACK) as researchers revealed a number of the serious vulnerabilities in the standard allowing to take the password Wi-fi and to get into network[12].

Though WPA3 protocol relies upon safer handshake of SAE (Simultaneous Authentication of Equals) known as Dragonfly which is directed to protection of Wi-fi networks against the autonomous attacks according to the dictionary specialists Mathy Vanhoef and Eyal Ronen[13] revealed several shortcomings of design of early implementation of WPA3 Personal giving an opportunity to recover passwords from Wi-fi network with the help timing attacks or attacks on a cache.

"In particular, attacking can read information which is considered reliably ciphered. They can use it for theft of confidential data, for example, of numbers of payment cards, passwords, messages of a chat, e-mails and so on", - experts explained.

In total specialists revealed five problems which received the general name DragonBlood. In the report Venkhof and Ronen described two types of shortcomings of design – one leads to the attacks of lowering of the level (downgrade attacks), the second – to leakages of a cache.

As WPA3 is not so widespread, for support of old devices the certified WPA3 devices offer "transitional an operation mode" in which it is possible to configure connection with use both WPA3-SAE, and WPA2. It turned out that this mode is vulnerable to the attacks of lowering of the level, than malefactors for creation of the harmful access point supporting only WPA2 can use, forcing devices to be connected with support of WPA3 using unsafe quadrilateral handshake of WPA2. Besides, to the attacks of lowering also handshake of Dragonfly is vulnerable. Malefactors can use this shortcoming to force the device to use weaker elliptic curve, than usually.

As noted, for implementation of the attacks of lowering of the level it is enough to malefactor to know SSID of WPA3-SAE network.

Researchers also described a number of the attacks on the basis of the synchronization (CVE-2019-9494) and attacks on a cache (CVE-2019-9494) allowing to receive the password Wi-fi and also the DoS-attack which can be performed by initiation of a large number of handshakes with WPA3 access point.

2018: Protocol of data protection of WPA3 (Wi-Fi Protected Access III)

Consolidation of the largest producers of the computer equipment and wireless Wi-Fi of Wi-fi Alliance devices published[14] the beginning of 2018 the first details about the protocol of data protection of WPA3 which should succeed WPA2[15].

The first official draft of authentication protocol WPA3 will be available later in 2018, however Wi-Fi Alliance published data on four basic functions which are present at the new standard of security.

The first feature is protection from brute force attacks by blocking of authentication process after several unsuccessful attempts of authorization.

The second function represents an opportunity to use device Wi-Fi, being nearby from each other, as a configuration panel for other devices. For example, the user will be able to use the phone or the tablet for setup of WPA3 Wi-fi parameters on other device which has no screen, such as "smart" bulbs, door locks and so forth.

The third function described as "individual data encryption" allows to cipher connections between each device and the router or access point. The fourth feature - the improved cryptographic standard intended for Wi-fi networks with higher security requirements, such as government and defense agencies and also industrial production. More detailed information on the protocol is expected later in 2018.

2017

Vulnerability of year - WPA2: data in all Wi-Fi networks of the world were available to interception

The researcher on security by the name of MATI Vankhuf revealed a set of the most serious vulnerabilities in WPA2 protocol used for protection of wireless networks of the WiFi standard. Vulnerability allows to read out data which were considered as reliably ciphered earlier. Mentioned there were all existing implementations of WPA2 that means that all WiFi-networks in the world are vulnerable. Users are recommended to set patches for the wireless devices as soon as they become available.[16]

All implementations of WiFi on the planet can be successfully attacked. Photo: servernews.ru
All implementations of WiFi on the planet can be successfully attacked. Photo: servernews.ru
«
"If your device supports WiFi, it most likely is vulnerable" — the researcher specifies. — "During the researches we found out that this or that kind of the attacks can be made against Android, Linux, Apple, Windows, OpenBSD, MediaTek, Linksys and others". In other words, all implementations of WiFi on the planet can be successfully attacked.
»

The attack described by Vankhuf received the name KRACK — from "key reinstallation attack" (the attack of reinstallation of a key). At its successful outcome the potential malefactor can intercept and decrypt any data which the victim sends, and in certain cases — and receives. Effects of the attack on Linux or Android of versions 6.0 can be most "destructive" above as, according to researchers, "both operating systems can force to be set cunning (feather) zero encryption keys". With other systems it will be more difficult to decrypt all packets, however their most part can be still opened.

«
"Though many websites and applications can use HTTPS as an additional layer of protection, we are forced to warn that in many cases this protection can be bypassed" — the researcher notes.
»

WPA2 means quadrilateral representation at connection establishment. When the client tries to be connected to the protected WiFi network, the procedure of such representation is started for confirmation, as the client, and access point use correct data for access. At the same time the new encryption key which will be used for protection of all subsequent traffic is requested.

The attack of KRACK using enough simple manipulations with cryptographic messages allows to force attacked to issue a system not the new, and already used key. At reinstallation of a key the related parameters — such as numbers of the transferred packet (Nonce) and number of the accepted packet (the counter of repetitions) — are reset to initial value. Only the disposable key, however WPA2 protocol of it can guarantee security as it appeared, does not guarantee.

The matter is that at quadrilateral representation the access point can repeatedly issue the own identification message ("message number 3") if does not receive the correct answer. The client, thus, can receive this message several times. And every time he will reinstall the same encryption key, resetting above-mentioned parameters to former values. The malefactor can repeatedly provoke similar resets and through it to attack the protocol of enciphering. Packets can be sent repeatedly, to decrypt or even to forge if enciphering of WPA-TKIP or GCMP, but not AES-CCMP is used.

The following indexes are appropriated to the revealed vulnerabilities:

  • Ошибка цитирования Отсутствует закрывающий тег </ref>: reinstallation of the group GTK key at quadrilateral representation
  • [17]: reinstallation of a key of integrity checking of the IGTK group at quadrilateral representation
  • [18]: reinstallation of the GTK key at representation of a group key.
  • [19]: reinstallation of the IGTK key at quadrilateral at representation of a group key.
  • [20]: acceptance of a repeated request of fast transfer of basic set of services (FT) and reinstallation of a pair main key (PTK-TK) at its processing.
  • [21]: reinstallation of the STK key at authentication using PeerKey.
  • [22]: reinstallation of the PeerKey key at authorization under the TDLS protocol.
  • [23]: reinstallation of a group key (GTK) when processing a frame of the answer in case of transition to "sleep mode" within Wireless Network Management (WNM).
  • [24]: reinstallation of a key of integrity checking (IGTK) when processing a frame of the answer in case of transition to "sleep mode" within Wireless Network Management (WNM).

«
"It is one of those rather exceptional cases when the revealed gap lays claim "vulnerability of year". Problem scales really enormous, considering universal distribution of WiFi-connections — Roman Ginyatullin, the information security expert of SEC Consult Services company considers. — It is necessary to hope that corrections will be entered in minutes shortly — the risk is too high to delay with release of patches".
»

Complete technical specification on a problem well here[25]

Corporate Wi-Fi-networks are vulnerable for the attacks of hackers in 100% of cases

In one and all projects according to the analysis of security researchers of Positive Technologies detected the security concerns opening a possibility of carrying out the attacks through wireless networks of the companies. It is possible to solve these problems only using complex approach to security of corporate infrastructure, experts note[26].

One of the most widespread security of corporate Wi-Fi-networks — use of dictionary passwords which are easy for picking up. Researchers of Positive Technologies faced them practically in all projects according to the analysis of security of IT-infrastructure.

Main shortcomings of protection of Wi-fi
Main shortcomings of protection of Wi-fi

Besides, also the errors of configuring of Wi-fi networks expanding possibilities of the violator for carrying out the attacks often meet. The lack of power limiting on a signal of wireless routers as a result of which connection to network of the company can be performed outside a controlled zone — from the adjoining building or from the parking belongs to such shortcomings of security. It, for example, allows hackers to carry out attacks on devices of staff of the company outside a controlled zone and to intercept authentication data for access to corporate resources.

In addition, as shows experience of works on the analysis of security, in many cases after connection to guest network access to other network segments, including to the LAN resources can be got.

Often happens that in the company Internet access for employees is limited, separate web resources are blocked. To bypass these restrictions, often workers are connected to the websites necessary to them from smartphones. And for bigger convenience they can develop wireless access point to which connect the workstation on the smartphone and use Internet resources through such unauthorized connection which is not protected in any way. On average three unauthorized access points came to light in work flow on the analysis of security of wireless networks on each object in 2016. In one of the companies 7 such points are revealed at once.

2016: How to define the fact of cracking Wi-Fi of network

The first sign of cracking of the Wi-fi home network, with high probability, will be falling of access rate in the Internet.

The first that it is necessary - to check the Wi-fi router:

be connected to the router, using a user name and the password (if they were not replaced after purchase – it is necessary to change urgently) – most often they are specified on a sticker, on the back panel of the device). Each router has features and it is required to find the page with the status Wi-fi where the list of the devices connected to network is submitted.

This information can be in the section Attached devices, "The list of devices" or Home network.

Screenshot of the software window of control of the Wi-fi router, (2016)
Screenshot of the software window of control of the Wi-fi router, (2016)

In such or similar list it is necessary to check presence of unknown devices. Any unfamiliar devices indicate that security of network is broken: the hacker or own rashness - is required to find out it.

At the same time it is possible, some devices have "unclear" names which can tell nothing, but at the same time they will be completely legitimate. In the beginning it is necessary to check all devices connected to Wi-Fi.

For increasing the level of security of Wi-fi of network technologies, in particular - providing access to network only to specific devices on the basis of their MAC address work. Access posredstovm the protocol, more reliable in terms of security, for example, of WPA2 is rather effective.

After change of settings of the protocol of security it will probably be required to connect all Wi-Fi of the device again.

Possibly, it is necessary to add one more security level - the complete solution necessary for installation on the PC and mobile devices with Android, it will help to prevent cases of plunder of personal data, to block viruses and to protect children from influence of undesirable information.

2010

The British insurance company CPP made in the fall of 2010 an experiment, having checked security of 40 thousand Wi-Fi of networks in six largest cities of the country. It showed that 20 thousand from them had no password for access or basic enciphering at all. However even specialists are capable to crack many networks password-protected within several seconds.

Within the experiment on "ethical cracking" experts of CPP carried out in each of the cities on half an hour, using freely available to all softwares for gaining access to as it is possible for bigger number of wireless networks.

Nearly a quarter of Wi-fi of networks (9.249) were not closed by the password for access in spite of the fact that 82% of the British are sure of their complete security. However, even for the protected networks logins and passwords managed to be selected very quickly. So, per hour experimenters selected 350 logins and passwords, sitting in the center of one of the cities in cafe or shops.

Survey conducted by request of the Wi-fi Alliance organization in the summer of 2011 showed growth of attention of users of Wi-fi to security subject, but at the same time revealed still low level of implementation of measures of protection.

86% of respondents took at least some steps for ensuring protection of the access points of Wi-fi and routers belonging to them. And, though 97% believe that data on their devices and in networks in perfect security, at answers to questions of the recommended security measures they gained on average only 66%. About 59% use the passwords which are not answering to elementary safe criterions, only 62% turned off automatic providing access to files of the device in the wireless network and only 18% at connection to unfamiliar access points of Wi-fi use VPN.

Wi-Fi Alliance recommends to include enciphering of WPA2 in networks, to use reliable passwords and to regularly change them and also to turn off function of automatic connection of devices to the detected wireless networks.

Results remind of survey of drivers conducted by the American association AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety. 95% from them know that it is driving dangerous to read and send messages from phone, but 35% acted this way at least within the last month.


Only 5% of the IT administrators participating in survey conducted in September, 2011 on the website of the American magazine PC World work in the companies whose corporate networks Wi-fi are open for access to everyone and do not demand for use even of password entry. The others apply these or those security measures. So, 36% create two networks Wi-fi in the company: one for employees, and another, open, but without access to corporate resources — for visitors. 24% of respondents close access to Wi-fi network the password which is told visitors as required. 12% use the control facilities of access to network checking availability of antivirus software, the installed updates and security settings. At last, in 17% of the companies do not allow visitors to use corporate network Wi-fi at all.

Results of parallel poll for heads of business divisions showed that 47% from them are satisfied with a covering and an operation mode of Wi-fi network in their company. 29% note complaints of employees and need of upgrade of network, and the whole 10% reports that in their company there is no corporate network Wi-fi at all.

Free points of Wi-fi pose a threat of personal security

2011: data of ESET

In August, 2011 ESET developed a number of the technical recommendations submitted on protection of computers of users against different types of cyber crime on the Internet during the work through open access points of Wi-fi. According to results of the May research Online Security Brand Tracker, a half of net surfers are connected to the Internet on the street using portable devices from time to time. So, as the main tool for access to the network through Wi-Fi notebooks (41%) are usually used, netbooks (3%) became less popular, on the third place phones communicators also close a chain of mobile devices tablet PCs (2%).

According to ESET company, even more often users face cyberfraud and other types of network threats, being connected to the Internet through free access points of Wi-fi, for example, for verification of the bank account, payment of the mobile phone, sending mail and other actions. Specialists of ESET select several main security risks arising when using free access points of Wi-fi:

  • The networks organized by hackers can issue themselves for quite legal free access points.
  • The attack by the malware of the computer connected to this access point.
  • Sniffing – interception and the analysis by malefactors of Internet traffic of the user that leads to loss of confidential data.
  • Plunder of personal information by the "person in the middle" method (man in the middle) that means a situation at which the malefactor can read messages which users exchange so that they did not even guess its presence.

"With respect thereto, we recommend not to use unknown access points of Wi-fi and also whenever possible to minimize the number of the confidential information which is stored on the mobile device, – Greydinger Boris, the director of information technology of the Russian representative office of ESET comments. – For performing banking transactions it is necessary to use only the checked access points to the Internet".

For access to e-mail connection to Wi-fi network should be performed through the protected https protocol, but not http as the hacker can get access to a mailbox. Using the http protocol, the user only simplifies to it a task.

2013: HRS.com: 89% of Wi-fi of connections during the holiday are unsafe

According to the portal of armoring of HRS.com (November, 2013), 84% of travelers do not take any precautionary measures, being connected to Wi-Fi in trips in spite of the fact that the majority of such connections are dangerous.

89% of open Wi-Fi of connections are unsafe for the reason that the data transmitted through them can become available to malefactors. In many respects, it occurs because often tourists do not even suspect that their device is connected to open networks in the automatic mode. Many already learned to disconnect the mobile Internet in roaming, but very few people guess to turn off also Wi-Fi, or at least to take elementary precautionary measures when using on travel.

There are several main dangers which trap travelers through connection to an unsafe point of Wi-fi. First, malefactors can intercept personal data which are entered for access to these or those payment systems and bank terminals. Secondly, interception of Internet traffic can lead to loss of confidential data. And it is impossible to recognize connection type since the networks configured by hackers can issue themselves for quite legal and even free.

So, what it is possible to recommend to travelers in order that the trip did not turn back disappointment:

  • Switch off WI-Fi on the mobile devices when you do not use Internet access
  • Refrain from online purchases or online banking
  • You do not leave in social networks and do not check e-mail using open connections
  • Be connected to wireless networks, only if it is really necessary
  • Try to use the protected connection in hotels.

2015: data of Avast

On March 2, 2015 the cybersecurity company Avast published data on a research of different access points in nine large municipal districts of the cities of the USA, Europe and Asia[27].

The global experiment which was made by specialists of Avast showed how unsafe can be public access points of Wi-fi. Experts investigated different access points in nine large municipal districts of the cities of the USA, Europe and Asia. For an experiment they used the notebook with support Wi-Fi and the public free application for monitoring of local Wi-Fi-traffic at a frequency of 2.4 GHz.

Before the building of the German Bundestag, Berlin: results of access to public Wi-Fi - a part of network registration are readily available, 2015

During the research it became clear that anyone can observe quite easily Internet activity, search queries, passwords, video records, electronic messages of users.

Specialists noted that most often inhabitants of Asia are exposed to the attacks. More than a half of web traffic on this continent proceeds from the websites using the unprotected HTTP protocol, at the same time 97% of users are connected to open Wi-Fi-networks, and in 7 of 10 password-protected routers weak cryptography techniques are implemented that does them vulnerable for cracking.

In Europe and the USA the situation is slightly better, but also here only 20% of users take some actions for gain of protection of the Wi-Fi-sessions.

Researchers found out that a significant amount of users is browsed, generally the unprotected HTTP resources. Nearly a half of Internet traffic in Asia proceeds from such websites whereas in the USA this indicator is one third, in Europe – about a quarter of the total amount of the European traffic.

Vulnerability of HTTP traffic allowed the Avast command to browse activity of browsers of users, including domains, the history of viewings, search queries, personal credentials, video, e-mail and comments.

Specialists noted - the majority of the studied access points are protected by means of any form of enciphering. Nevertheless, the means of protecting often used are quite weak and allowed to perform cracking with ease. The smallest quantity of poorly ciphered access points of Wi-fi appeared in San Francisco and Berlin. In New York and London the number of vulnerable access points made more than a half, and in Asia – three quarters.

2016: Kaspersky Lab: Every fifth point of public Wi-Fi in Moscow is dangerous

Specialists of Kaspersky Lab company who analyzed 7 thousand city networks came to such conclusion. It became clear that 16% of Wi-Fi-networks are completely open and unprotected, and in 2% of points the outdated WEP protocol which the malefactor can crack in several minutes is used. Modern protocols of enciphering of WPA and WPA2 were submitted in other studied access points[28].

At the same time in general Russia based on the ratio of the number of the opened and ciphered public networks Wi-fi looks better than many countries, the anti-virus expert of the company Legezo Denis noted. The most modern and safe WPA2 protocol in the Russian Federation is used by 76% of public points. For comparison, in Germany this indicator was 83% of networks.

As Legezo told, now attacks on routers, by analogy with devices under management actively grow Android and Windows. Also malefactors can create false access points in public places. For Internet security experts advise not to enter logins, passwords and payment data, being connected to unknown networks and to use VPN, HTTPS and anti-virus programs.

Wi-Fi harmfully influences trees

The Dutch scientists conducted a research of influence of a radio emission of range Wi-Fi on a status of trees and came to a conclusion that it causes significant changes of growth rate and also a disease of foliage and a crack of bark. The research was begun in Wageningen University by request of city authorities Alfen with AON den five years ago Riyn which attention was drawn by the trees suffering from the unclear diseases which are not connected, at first sight, with any infection. Within three months scientists submitted plants influence of a radio emission and came to unfavourable conclusions. Leaves on trees near which there was Wi-Fi range radiation source gradually purchased the so-called lead gloss caused by dying off of upper and lower epidermis of the sheet. Besides, the radiation of Wi-fi slowed down growth of a core of corncobs.[29]

Scientists revealed disease symptoms in a number of the western countries. In Holland about 70% of trees in the cities suffer from them now. Five years ago they were only 10%. At the same time trees in forests are almost not mentioned. Also influence of the microparticles which are contained in exhaust gases of the motor transport is not excluded.


The group of scientists from Denmark made in 2013 an experiment during which it found out that the waves proceeding from sources of Wi-fi are capable to affect health. The research shocks with data retrieveds. Waves from wireless sources caused a headache in children and houseplants killed. The experiment affected several school students who slept several nights with phone under a pillow. Phone during the night was connected to Wi-fi network. It turned out that already next day children had reduced concentration, some complained of headaches[30].

The second part of experience consisted in studying of impact of wireless communication on plants. 6 plants locked for 12 days to the room with a source of waves. In other room there were same plants, only influence on them did not appear. Upon termination of a research it became clear that in the first room all flowers faded and became brown whereas control plants remained the same. It should be noted that the similar research was conducted in Holland. Scientists obtained similar data. However today there are not a lot of proofs that wireless communication is capable it is destructive to affect live organisms. Scientists note that more global researches are necessary to confirm this theory.

Wi-Fi - the invisible Murderer

"Invisible murderer" – so some Russian and world scientists nicknamed Wi-Fi. The main thesis against a wireless internet – the permanent radiation in which there are residents of the large cities. Whether really Wi-Fi is so dangerous?

The Ministry of Health warns

And here with what physicians threaten. There is a set of the publications which are based on researches which at the exit show all negative from use of Wi-fi. Fear number one men have an influence on a potentiality and on quality of sperm. Fear number two is influence on brain activity of the person. At the third number – harm for children, their cranium is many times thinner.

Electromagnetic radiation reduces quality of sperm

In 2011 the World Health Organization classified radiation emitted by mobile phones as carcinogen — the potential reason of formation of malignancies. The set of the researches directed to a comprehensive investigation of influence of this radiation on a human body was conducted, but still data retrieveds all the same remain contradictory.


However scientists managed to prove one fact: mobile phones and notebooks — especially connected to Wi-fi network — affect male health negatively. In 2014 the group of researchers headed by Jessica Adams from the University of Exeter found out that electromagnetic radiation reduces quality of sperm and, respectively, chances of men to become fathers.

It is possible to study results of work in[31].

Scientists analyzed a status of 1492 samples of sperm of men, and in a work progress were observed state changes of spermatozoa not only in vitro (in vitro), but also in vivo, i.e. directly in an organism of examinees.

As a result of work it became clear: the samples which were affected by the electromagnetic radiation of the mobile phone significantly worsened the quality. The quantity of spermatozoa in them decreased by 8.1%, and their mobility — for 9.1%. Researchers assure that the negative effect arises after four hours of "radiation" of sperm electromagnetic radiation.

One more group of researchers headed by the Argentina erudite Conrado Avendano found out how the quality of sperm is affected by the radiation of the notebooks connected to Wi-fi network. Article was published in the Fertility and Sterility magazine.

For the experiments scientists used the sperm samples taken from 29 men aged from 26 up to 45 years. Each of samples was separated into two parts, one of which was stored in usual conditions, and the second was put near the notebook connected to Wi-fi network and was there within four hours. The notebook downloaded different files from the Internet at this time.

As a result of work it became clear that on average 25% of the spermatozoa which are contained in test tubes ceased to move, and 9% sustained damage of genetic material. At samples which were far from computers these indicators were 14% and 3% respectively.

Certainly, researchers of influence of electromagnetic radiation on male health insistently advise all men to cease to carry smartphones in front pockets of trousers and to force the notebook to the knees during operation. For those who after all are not ready to refuse close contacts with the equipment the British researchers at last created the means capable to protect men from harmful effects of electromagnetic radiation[32].

The science disproves?

It is enough to give several digits available and known practically all: peak capacity of a cellular signal reaches 8 W, a signal of household Wi-Fi of the transmitter – 100 MW. The admissible flux density of energy (on the SANPIN 2.1.8/2.2.4) – 0.1 W/sq.m. And energy flux density – the physical quantity in number equal to an energy flow through the single platform perpendicular to the direction. The output is obvious: radiation of a wireless internet does not exceed the set regulations in any way.

The best protection against undesirable radiation is a distance. And, 1 m there is enough (but scientists "are insured" and recommend nevertheless 3.5 m).

Much more the big danger (and in digits it by 10 times bigger radiation) is presented by the same 3G-modems as work on signals of cellular communication. From there is one more output: Wi-Fi routers even reduce risks of radiation, allowing to sustain a necessary distance. And if not to put the router to the head and other parts of a body, then, obviously, will not bring harm to a brain or reproductive system of Wi-fi.

And how to treat the data of numerous experiences and experiments shown to the same WHO? With a considerable share of scepticism, for any evidence-based outputs observation of "experimental" should last about three decades, and it is better than several generations. Wi-Fi is used widely less than 20 years …

Green Wi-Fi

The Californian producer company of network equipment TRENDnet in a threshold of a World Fair of the consumer equipment and Consumer Electronics Show electronics (CES-2011) which will take place from January 6 to January 9, 2011 in Las Vegas (the State of Nevada, the USA) announced the new development – the Green Wi-fi technology allowing to reduce, according to developers, energy consumption of routers, tochkek access and wireless adapters up to 50%.

Green Wi-Fi was created "just like" GreenNet technology which was for the first time provided in TRENDnet routers of wireless standard N in October, 2008 GreenNet defines and delivers the necessary amount of the electric power on each switch port depending on requirements of the attached device, the port or length of the connected Ethernet cable that allows to reduce electricity consumption to 70%.

And Green Wi-Fi works by the similar principle. The Green Wi-fi chip keeps track of activity of each working wireless device and increases, or reduces, a power flow depending on that, the device how actively works (for example, the client can be connected to the server, but data transmission does not happen).

Besides, Green Wi-Fi allows to reduce energy consumption if the signal rather strong, and in further gain is not present need. It is possible to give a situation when the computer is rather close to the router as an example and in very strong signal simply there is no need. In that case energy consumption of the adapter of wireless communication and the router will be automatically lowered.

The GREENwifi technology is already supported by such devices as the Trendnet TEW-651BR router, the TEW-648UBM adapter and the TEW-652BRP router of the same producer. All these devices will be available for sale next month.

Wi-Fi Direct

Main article: Wi-Fi Direct (Wi-Di)

Wi-Fi Direct (Wi-Di) is the protocol of wireless data transmission which is constructed based on Wi-Fi, but is easy-to-customizer. Its main advantages – connection speed are 12 times higher, than at Bluetooth, communication range – up to 100 meters, and, above all – good security.

See Also

Notes

  1. the View of five IEEE protocols: merits and demerits
  2. Wi-Fi 802.11ax will outstrip a 5G
  3. Wi-Fi now has version numbers, and Wi-Fi 6 comes out next year
  4. Chinese university canteen forces students to solve maths puzzle to use the Wi-fi ‘because we’re all geeks, right?’
  5. The most difficult Wi-Fi password ever: Chinese university canteen makes students answer calculus question to unlock access to the internet
  6. 6,0 6,1 That is born by the "second wave" of Wi-fi 802.11ac
  7. Wi-fi Networks in Russia suggested to connect to a single system of authorization
  8. (Unified identification and authentication system) - an information system of the Russian Federation which provides to the users registered in a system information which is contained in the state and other information systems. According to data of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, as of August, 2017 in a Unified identification and authentication system 55.5 million Russians.
  9. were registered
  10. of In-Stat: Wi-Fi aboard enters regulation
  11. the Android-application for search of access points of Wi-fi opened passwords of 2 million networks
  12. of Vulnerability in WPA3 protocol allow to receive the password Wi-fi
  13. of DRAGONBLOOD Analysing WPA3's Dragonfly Handshake
  14. [1]Wi-fi Alliance® introduces security enhancementsv
  15. of Steel the first details about new WPA3 Wi-fi protocol are known
  16. Key Reinstallation Attacks: Breaking WPA2 by forcing nonce reuse
  17. CVE-2017-13079
  18. CVE-2017-13080
  19. CVE-2017-13081
  20. CVE-2017-13082
  21. CVE-2017-13084
  22. CVE-2017-13086
  23. CVE-2017-13087
  24. CVE-2017-13088
  25. Key Reinstallation Attacks: Forcing Nonce Reuse in WPA2
  26. the Positive Technologies Company published the analytical report about security of wireless networks in 2016
  27. of Avast study exposes global Wi-fi browsing activity
  28. of LIFE: Every fifth point of public Wi-Fi in Moscow is dangerous
  29. Wi-Fi harmfully influences trees
  30. of Wi-fi ruins health?
  31. the Environment International Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality magazine: A systematic review and meta-analysis
  32. Cowards will save descendants from Wi-Fi