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Institute of design-technology information science of RAS




The Federal State Budgetary Institution of science Institute of design-technology information science of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKTI RAS) is a structural link of the Russian Academy of Sciences and is a part of Department of nanotechnologies and information technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences.


2018: Development of the Russian analog of the da Vinci robot surgeon

In March, 2018 it became known that the team of engineers from Institute of design-technology information science of RAS developed the Russian analog of American robot- the surgeon da Vinci. The domestic system capable to execute difficult transactions on vessels, heart and even a brain, already passed fighting tests and will enter the world market of the medical equipment soon, transfers RIA Novosti.

According to representatives of IKTI RAS, the Russian assisting surgical complex by many parameters exceeds da Vinci. Besides, the difficulties connected using the last pushed the Russian scientists to creation of more perfect robot considering all wishes of surgeons.

So, among the main shortcomings of da Vinci are called: big dimensions and weight of a complex, need to specially prepare for the robot the operating room, a narrow viewing angle for the surgeon, use of one mechanism for different movements of the manipulator and also expensive service (the cost of one array of instrumentation for manipulators reaches about $3 thousand). At the same time it is possible to train personnel in work with da Vinci only abroad.

Initially da Vinci was developed for heart operations, aortocoronary shunting. Then the scope was expanded, and now the most popular transactions with its help is a prostatektomiya and a hysterectomy. Da Vinci made a revolution in surgery due to implementation of robotichesky technology. But it has shortcomings. The matter is that on average one robot does one transaction in two days. So the device worth more than $2 million actually stands idle. It is explained, first, by the price of transaction with its participation which does not fit into an insurance: the patient or clinic are forced to pay extra. Secondly — limited functionality — Sergey Sheptunov, the Doctor of Engineering, the director of Institute of design-technology information science of RAS told.

The idea to create the domestic analog of Da Vinci deprived of its shortcomings for the first time was stated a few years ago by Dmitry Pushkar, the head of the department of urology of MGMSU and the chief urologist of the Ministry of Health. Sergey Sheptunov with a team of young engineers was engaged in project implementation.

The console of the robot surgeon developed at Institute of design-technology information science of RAS. Photo:
The console of the robot surgeon developed at Institute of design-technology information science of RAS. Photo:

The idea, in particular, consisted in that the robot was compact, differed in the high accuracy of actions and wide functionality, at the same time manipulators without fail fastened to the operating table, and transaction with participation of such surgical complex could become covered by a compulsory health insurance insurance.

Having studied what technologies are necessary to surgeons, we understood that it does not make sense to improve da Vinci. We developed essentially other architecture. Made the model which in seven and a half times more what turned out as a result. Proved that our approach works, and started implementation. If da Vinci is a standard robot, then ours — focused on surgery — Sheptunov specified.

Engineers of IKTI RAS cardinally changed system configuration, methods of fixing of tools, cameras, significantly having reduced installation dimensions, at the same time noticeably having increased its mobility and having expanded functionality. The universal fastenings to the operating table allowing to position manipulators concerning a body with the necessary accuracy and under the necessary corners were developed. Unlike da Vinci, the Russian robot was initially developed on the digital platform. In combination with failure from the trosikovy mechanism it allowed to implement a tactile feedback thanks to which the surgeon-operator physically feels the tool pressure upon fabrics that considerably facilitates carrying out transaction.

Transaction using the domestic robot surgeon is externally similar to how da Vinci works. The surgeon sits at the console, using handles controllers for manipulation and a pedal for inclusion of different functions. 3D - points allow with the set increase to display an operational field. If necessary it is possible to change scale: for example, to bring closer a blood vessel that prizhech a coagulator or to deliver a clip. Movements of the surgeon controllers are transferred to manipulators in microscale. The operational field at the same time can be set, having just outlined it on the monitor: in this case the tool of the manipulator will not go beyond the set circuit.

According to Sergey Sheptunov, the Russian engineers managed to increase manipulation accuracy much: Against half-millimeter da Vinci has 50 microns. High accuracy expands scope of the robot surgeon.

Da Vinci to reach such accuracy, should be several times more. At the current architecture they will not be able to break a barrier in hundred microns — the director of IKTI RAS is sure.

All movements of the surgeon on controllers are stored the computer acting as system "brain" — there they are processed and then transferred to manipulators. According to creators of a complex, in the future it will allow to equip the robot with elements of artificial intelligence.

Domestic installation was already experienced in operation: with its help operated a pig, having deleted uterus myoma. As of March, the robot undergoes upgrade then it is going to be advanced for the market.

Among other plans there are teams of engineers of IKTI RAS — to collect mobile version of the robot surgeon for field conditions with the accumulators providing three hours of independent operation; implement a possibility of turn of a tip of the tool by 180 degrees; at last, to equip a complex with the laser that will make possible execution of operations on sections of ten microns in size. Meanwhile, completely remote control of the robot is still impossible because of physical restraint of speed of communication lines: the cable is longer, the there is longer a signal, and the delay even in five milliseconds for the surgeon is critical, explained at institute.[1]