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U.S. Department of Defense (Pentagon) of US Department of Defense (DoD)

Company

MILITARY INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
Since 1947
USA
Washington
1400 Pentagon of DC 20301-1400


Content

Assets

Owners

+ U.S. Department of Defense (Pentagon)

Subordinated organizations

Type of military forces

Budget

The main to become: Military budgets of the countries

The budget of the U.S. Department of Defense for 2011 makes $708 billion, including current expenses on conducting combat operations that makes about 4.7% of GDP of the USA[1].

Military expenses of the USA, China and Russia since 1992 (one billion dollars)

Use of information technologies

IT infrastructure in the Pentagon

2020

Dave Spirk's appointment to a position of the executive director on processing and data analysis

At the end of June, 2020 the U.S. Department of Defense appointed Dave Spirk the new executive director on processing and data analysis. Before he worked the Chief Digital Officer in command of special operations (SOCOM). Read more here.

The Pentagon invested in a blockchain company for control of supply chains

In the middle of June, 2020 the U.S. Department of Defense selected $1.5 million SIMBA Chain blockchain company for researches in the field of control of a supply chain. In this case the blockchain acts as service (BaaS) and allows SIMBA Chain to establish close ties with the U.S. Air Force. Read more here.

Introduction of new ethical principles of use of artificial intelligence technologies in the battlefield

At the end of February, 2020 the Pentagon accepted new ethical principles of use of artificial intelligence technologies in the battlefield. According to these recommendations, AI should be "responsible", "proportional", "clear", "reliable" and "managed".

The new principles require from people "show the proper level of care" at deployment and use of the AI systems, such as systems which scan aerial photographs for search of the purposes. Also it is noted that the decisions made by automated systems should be "traced" and "managed", i.e. "there has to be a method to disconnect or deactivate" them if necessary.

The Pentagon accepted new ethical principles of use of artificial intelligence in fight

In the Pentagon understand "necessary steps for minimization of unintentional bias" of fighting vehicles as proportionality. Military also should own necessary technologies and operational abilities which will provide transparency of procedures and documentation. Besides, AI should have "well outlined functions" and also be tested constantly during development and operation.

The previous military directive of 2012 required that people could control the automated weapon, but did not concern wider use of AI. The new principles are developed by expert center of the Pentagon which except military and officials involves opinions of technical experts. They follow the recommendations provided in 2019 by Council for military innovations - the group headed by the former CEO of Google Eric Schmidt.

Though the Pentagon recognized that AI "generates new ethical ambiguities and risks", the new principles do not provide those strict restrictions which are demanded by supporters of arms control. Apparently, the new principles intentionally mean broad interpretation not to hold down soldiers specific restrictions in the future.[2]

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You look also Fighting robots and UAVs
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2019: The plan of increase in the budget for 2020 up to $718 billion from which $9.6 billion will go for work in a cyberspace

In total the budget of the Ministry of Defence in 2020 will reach $718 billion - it is the most part of all funds allocated for national security which volume will be $750 billion. The ministry explains need of such large costs with a long-term strategic competition to China and Russia.

U.S. Department of Defense increases expenses on work in a cyberspace: in 2019 it will receive on it $8.5 billion, and for 2020 asks already $9.6 billion. This request was included in the plan of the budget for 2020 which is just offered the Congress by the president USA Donald Trump. As it is explained in a budget request, money will go to "protection of networks, information and the systems of the Ministry of Defence, support of the purposes of military command and protection of the nation"[3].

From $9.6 billion which the Ministry of Defence asks for cyberneeds, about $3.7 billion it will be spent for offensive and defensive transactions in a cyberspace. $5.4 billion more are going to be directed to increasing the level of security of networks, systems and data of the ministry. At last, $61.9 million will be spent for upgrade of clouds of general purpose.

Besides, the Ministry of Defence is going to spend $927 million for artificial intelligence and machine learning — the Joint center of artificial intelligence (JAIC) is engaged in development of these technologies. A part of means will be aimed at the development of sensing technologies of persons.

In the budget it is also mentioned that the ministry asks $2.6 billion for supersonic arms and $235 million for researches in the field of laser weapon. As the acting as the Minister of Defence Patrick Shanahan, in the budget for 2020 noted. The Ministry of Defence asks on research and development, including in the field of IT, the largest amount for the last 70 years.

2018

Investment of $2 billion into artificial intelligence for weapon

At the beginning of September, 2018 the U.S. Department of Defense announced investment of 2 billion dollars into development of the artificial intelligence technologies held for use in weapon.

The Pentagon says that military commanders want that computers explained them the intensions and the reasons of acceptance of those, or other solutions. Improvement of weapon systems will systematically happen within five years, and a main goal of new investments rivalry with China and Russia in respect of defense and offensive opportunities is considered.

The U.S. Department of Defense aims to develop AI technologies actively

The most part of AI projects in the Pentagon develops under control Management of perspective research projects (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA). The staff of this division is engaged in improvement and implementation of the systems of artificial intelligence in different samples of arms. The DARPA works on investment of machines with an opportunity to communicate and think the same as it is done by people.

Besides, the American authorities keep development of AI systems, the videos allowing robots to reveal quickly in network, images and audio recordings with the traced and potentially dangerous content.

Investments into artificial intelligence by the standards of other expenses of expenses of the Pentagon where, for example, the cost of purchase and  service of new F-35 warplanes, as expected, will exceed one trillion dollars. However it is about the largest state AI programs, and costs for them are comparable with  the amounts which the United States spent for  the Manhattan project which produced nuclear weapons in  the 1940th years, notes the The Verge edition.

Though the artificial intelligence helped the American weapon to distinguish better the purposes, and to fighting UAVs — to fly more effectively, by the beginning of September, 2018 computer systems which independently make decisions on striking a blow are not approved by the Pentagon.[4]

The Pentagon prohibited soldiers to use gadgets and applications with GPS

In August, 2018 the U.S. Department of Defense officially prohibited the military personnel to use GPS-applications and fitness trackers as, according to command, because of these technologies enemies can obtain important information.

On the website of the Pentagon the First Deputy United States Secretary of Defense Patrick Shanahan published the new rules prohibiting to military to use devices and applications from the geolocation activated by function in the time spent for service. Now in "areas of performing transactions", including in a zone of military operations and on foreign military bases of the USA, the military personnel should turn off location-based services on the electronic devices.

The U.S. Department of Defense prohibited the American military personnel to use devices and applications from the geolocation activated by function in the time spent for service as it poses a threat for security

Function of position fix through GPS which is present at many phones and the smartwatch is used in gadgets for monitoring of a physical status of the user, navigation and even in applications for acquaintances, BBC notes.

Prohibition on GPS electronics in the American army entered after at the beginning of 2018 Strava fitness-application (allows to trace the passable distance  using data from  satellites) revealed military bases of several countries, including the USA. Movement of soldiers in  places of dislocation was issued by fitness trackers and  mobile devices.

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The high-growth market of devices, applications and services with functions of a geolocation creates a significant risk for staff of the Ministry of Defence on service and out of it and also for on our military operations around the world. These location-based opportunities can disclose personal information, location, routes and the number of employees of the Ministry of Defence and also to inadvertently create security concerns and to increase risk for coalition forces and fighting tasks, says the Pentagon on the occasion of prohibition of devices and applications with GPS on military service.[5]
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The bill of prohibition of acquisition of software with the Russian code

In July, 2018 it became known that the Pentagon makes the list of vendors which use the Russian or Chinese code in the software products to cease to buy their products and to prohibit it to the partners. At the legislative level the ministry will also be forbidden to buy software to which development process observers from China or Russia had access.

Solutions of suppliers which will not conform to requirements of the document, is going to prohibit to purchase in the ministry and among his industry partners, the Reuters news agency with reference to the Deputy Minister of Defence of the USA reports.

According to Ellen Lord (Ellen Lord), the Deputy Minister of Defence concerning acquisition and sustainable development, work on "black list" is conducted about six months, in close cooperation with the U.S. intelligence community.

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"What we do — just we want to be convinced that we do not buy software of the Russian or Chinese origin, for example, and quite often it is difficult to judge it at first sight, because of the holding companies" — told the Lord to journalists.
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What vendors were already included in the list, she did not tell, but specified that in the Pentagon "some companies which work in such a way that it is incompatible with the standards of defense which are available for us identified".

The lord also added that the report for work of a supply chain of the Pentagon which will show dependence of the ministry on foreign suppliers, including Chinese when case concerns acquisition of components for some types of the military equipment will be soon submitted.

Besides, the deputy minister reported that the Pentagon intends to improve possibilities of the suppliers on reflection of cyber attacks for what is going to test their protective systems, having tried to hack them.

Reuters writes that information on "black list" arrived in anticipation of consideration by parliament of the USA of the bill of expenses of the Pentagon for 2019 which should take place in the next few days. In the bill there is a point which obliges the technology companies to report if the countries of type of China or Russia are allowed to observation of their internal works on creation of software which is purchased afterwards by the American military [6]

Presumably, the bill will be approved, Reuters reports. It was made after emergence in the American media of rumors that the Russian Defense Ministries "hunt" vulnerabilities in the software products delivered in American state agencies including investigation and the Pentagon. Also the bill will prohibit the American authorities to buy and use any equipment made by the Chinese companies ZTE and Huawei.

Development of AI programs for protection against nuclear missile blow

The American Defense Ministries increase expenses on confidential projects which purpose — use of artificial intelligence for an anticipation of nuclear missile blow and identification of location of mobile launching units. About AI developments of the Pentagon, public information on which was not earlier, at the beginning of June, 2018 reported Reuters agency with reference to the informed sources.

According to the American officials whose names are not revealed, in the USA several programs under a signature stamp "confidentially" within which it is supposed to create AI systems for increase in protection of the USA against potential nuclear missile blow are implemented at once.

The Pentagon develops AI programs for protection against nuclear missile blow

If scientific researches are crowned with success, the developed computer systems will be able independently to think, quicker and more precisely than people to collect a set of data, including satellite pictures and to find on them signs of the preparing missile launch.

Having beforehand obtained such information, the American government will be able to take diplomatic steps for resolving the situation, and in case of inevitability of the attack military will receive more time to try to destroy rockets before their start or to intercept.

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We should make everything that in our forces to find a rocket before start and to try to complicate as much as possible its start from the earth — one of interlocutors of the agency emphasized.
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From several officials of the USA and also journalists learned from budget documentation that the Administration of the President of Donald Trump suggested more than to triple financing of similar developments and to select $83 million only for one of programs for antimissile protection using artificial intelligence. Increase in allocations testifies to the growing importance for the USA of researches in the field of creation of the AI systems of nuclear missile defense in the conditions of overwhelming military power of Russia and allegedly remaining nuclear threat from North Korea.

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Using artificial intelligence and machine learning it is possible to find a needle in a haystack — the former Deputy Minister of Defence of the USA Bob Work who was densely working on a subject of military robots and AI technologies said. He did not mention specific projects.
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One of sources told Reuters that the emphasis in pilot AI programs of the Pentagon is placed on protection against Pyongyang. The alarm concerning the developments of rockets of mobile basing continuing in North Korea which can be covered in tunnels, the woods or caves grows in Washington.

Though military AI projects are kept in secret, the Pentagon does not hide the interest in artificial intelligence technologies. In particular, extended coverage in media was received so-called Project Maven, by AI assuming use for the analysis of pictures from UAVs and recognition of people on images. The Google corporation attracted to the project in June, 2018 was forced to announce the termination of cooperation with the American Ministry of Defence because of discontent of the employees.

Parts about work of the Pentagon on creation of AI systems for detection of potential missile threats and mobile launching units are extremely poor, but Reuters managed to learn that the first prototypes are already tested by military.

According to the agency, in the project, work on which is conducted in the territory of Washington, both military specialists, and private researchers participate. Scientists adapt for the purposes the technology achievements developed by commercial firms which are financed by the In-Q-Tel venture fund connected with CIA.[7]

Creation of the center of artificial intelligence

In April, 2018 the U.S. Department of Defense announced creation of the center of artificial intelligence within which it is going to integrate all state AI projects executed in the country.

According to  the Defense News newspaper, the idea of creation of the AI center the first was voiced by the Minister of Defence James Mattis. On listenings in the Armed Services Committee of the House of Representatives of the U. S. Congress it reported that the Pentagon considers the possibility of formation of "the joint office at which it would be possible to concentrate all efforts of the Ministry of Defence as now different efforts in the field of creation of artificial intelligence are made".

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We want all these efforts to integrate — he said.
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As  the Deputy Minister of Defence  on research and development Michael Griffin specified, by April, 2018 the Pentagon solves, who will direct the center where it will be in what projects he will be engaged, and the most important — as such center will fit into general strategy of developments of artificial intelligence of the ministry and the nation in general. It is supposed that the center will set up close cooperation with the American universities.

The Pentagon, being afraid of achievements of Russia and China, creates the center of artificial intelligence

Griffin calls artificial intelligence of one of key technologies along with a hyper sound, and emphasizes that this main direction it activity on the deputy minister's post. According to Griffin, by April, 2018 the Pentagon develops nearly 600 projects where there are to some extent forms of artificial intelligence.

The billionaire Elon Musk considers that the artificial intelligence created by authoritarian governments can become the immortal dictator from whom nobody will be able to escape.

The USA thought of creation of the center of artificial intelligence how Russia and China began to invest in this direction actively.[8]

2017

Databases of the Ministry of Defence of the USA are detected in open access

The researcher of security Chris Vickery detected three incorrectly configured Amazon S3 servers belonging to the U.S. Department of Defense. On servers 1.8 billion publications made on the Internet by users worldwide[9] are stored[10].

The databases detected by Vickery are called "centcom-backup", "centcom-archive" and "pacom-archive". Judging by names, they belong to the Central command of the USA (CENTCOM) and the Pacific command of the U.S. Armed Forces (PACOM). According to the researcher, databases do not contain any confidential information and consist of publicly available publications in social networks, blogs, at forums, etc. Publications are followed by the information about their authors. They are made in different languages, in the majority in English, Arab and Farsi, and are dated for 2009-2017.

Judging by structurization of data, a DB were collected using the hybrid search system Lucene-Elasticsearch. According to Vickery, databases were created by prospecting divisions of U.S. Army for the purpose of search of useful data which can be useful in further transactions.

In September, 2017 the researcher announced the Ministry of Defence of the USA the detected unprotected DB, and the ministry took adequate measures on protection. Databases were available not to all, however for their loading was to have a free account in Amazon of AWS enough.

Migration in cloud services

In October, 2017 it became known of plans of the U.S. Department of Defense more actively to use cloud computing for gain of the information security and preserving of technology advantages which the American military take worldwide Bloomberg reports.

 The Deputy Minister of Defence Patrick Shanahan emphasized need of use of cloud services after the Pentagon chief James Mattis   visited Silicon Valley and looked how the companies protect themselves from cyber attacks.

According to Shenakhan, the innovative technologies quickly develop and change the nature of military operations that does upgrade of IT vital for maintenance of military superiority of the USA. The minister wished that the Pentagon accelerated implementation of cloud solutions to undertake new risks and also provided new technologies of army and quicker conducted development and procurement of new IT solutions.

The Pentagon transfers IT systems and data to a cloud

The Ministry of Defence began to take active steps in the cloud direction, having created division of Cloud Executive Steering Group (CESG) which will be engaged in assessment of potential of use of different cloud services and the choice of the best options in the conditions of the extending bureaucracy. By October, 2017 in department 1.3 million soldiers and 742 thousand civilians work.

Patrick Shenakhan called two phases within an initiative of implementation of cloud computing. The first stage consists in acquisition of corporate cloud services which will process the systematized and not sorted data and also the analysis, training and the organization of support of these services within all Ministry of Defence.

On the second phase of the IT system and data of the Pentagon will be transferred to the purchased cloud product. After that structures of this department can use all opportunities of cloud services, including security, software and analytical tools, marked out Shenakh.

CESG should provide the detailed plan by November 15, 2017. Afterwards this division will constantly report on how phases of cloud migration of the Pentagon proceed.

Not clearly, how many cloud providers will involve the Pentagon in cooperation. Amazon to which CIA in 2014 entrusted placement of the classified information in a cloud of Amazon Web Services (AWS) has good chances. Besides, at the end of 2016 Microsoft and the Pentagon signed the IT contract almost for $1 billion.

The amount of financing of the project is also unknown. It is known only that CESG will provide money to contractors only at the second stage. The first will be financed either from the budget, or from some other source, Patrick Shenakhan noted.

Before the requirement to cloud infrastructure sounded the Agency of information system protection (Defense Information Systems Agency, DISA) which as a part of the Ministry of Defence specializes in creation of the protected cloud for the ministry, the White House and the different organizations protecting the interests of the USA. DISA say that cloud services for classified and not confidential information should be different, and top secret data were not placed in a public cloud.

Thus, the Ministry of Defence is going to store data in a cloud at the different levels. The Bloomberg agency reports that for the classified information the private commercial cloud can be unrolled, and for other data public cloud infrastructure will be used. At the expense of it the authorities can reach the best balance of security, cost and efficiency, observers of the edition consider.

2016

Use of the Open source software

Analysts of the Center of new American security (Center for a New American Security, CNAS) at the end of August, 2016 issued the report on use of the software with the open code in the Ministry of Defence of the USA. In it experts estimate the current level of use of the open source software in department and recommend to it to invest more in such software. Details - in the separate article:

Use of chips of foreign production

The Ministry of Defence of the United States begins to buy chips of foreign production. The Wall Street Journal with reference to Andre Gudger, the deputy assistant to the state secretary of the Pentagon reports about it on production and industrial policy.

According to him, the Ministry of Defence of the USA signed the seven-year contract with Globalfoundries, one of four largest contract producers of chips. Terms of agreement do not reveal, but it is known that the company will deliver chips for spy satellites, missile weapon and warplanes. Read more here.

2015: Chief information officer of the Pentagon: we buy trust of Silicon Valley for $36.8 billion a year

At the end of October, 2015 the CIO of the U.S. Department of Defense (Department of Defense, DOD) Terry Halvorsen gave an interview to the The Christian Science Monitor edition during which told about lack of trusted relationships between the authorities of the country and the IT companies and also a method of overcoming this problem.

According to Helvorsen, attractiveness of public contracts can overcome deficit of trust which developed in the relations between Washington and Silicon Valley.

The chief information officer of the Pentagon Terry Helvorsen told about lack of trusted relationships between the authorities of the country and the IT companies and also a method of overcoming this problem
"As for partners, we have no big problem with trust for one simple reason – we spend $36.8 billion a year for purchase of the most part of this potential trust" — the Chief information officer of the Pentagon said.

Relationship of the American technology companies and the government became complicated after Edward Snowden told the former employee of the American intelligence agencies about illegal shadowing which is kept by the U.S. National Security Agency, using, in particular, the IT equipment of local producers, such as Cisco, Dell, etc. The situation became aggravated in 2015 when the authorities of the country urged the IT companies to open access to the ciphered devices that caused disturbance wave in the market.

For the purpose of rapprochement with Silicon Valley the Ministry of Defence of the USA opened the representation there — Defense Innovation Unit Experimental. The purpose of this division is development and search of new advanced technologies and also strengthening of cooperation and establishment of new partner communications in the technology industry. This project is created to study at Silicon Valley, but not to teach it to do business, Terry Helvorsen noted.[11]

2013

Failure of several large IT projects

In April, 2013 regulatory authorities of the U.S. Government stated that being at the moment in implementation phase of IT of projects in the military industry embroidered about a half from 14 for a budget framework, and more than a half – for the set time frames.

Check of department under the name Government Accountability Office (GAO) [12] during which 14 of 48 projects on creation of the so-called MAIS (major automated information systems – key automated information systems) implemented by the U.S. Department of Defense were analyzed resulted in such results. In 2011 $5.6 billion from the general IT of the budget of the Defense Ministry who made $36.6 billion according to GAO were spent for these projects, the total cost of these projects can be $378 billion.

9 of 14 mentioned projects, the report says, by cumulative assessment of expected costs as a result will be slightly cheaper. Here reduction of cost of contracts and also other factors, including reduction of the budget selected by the state for automation, and transformation of expenses due to use of other programs played a role.

Meanwhile, in a number of projects serious difficulties are observed. For example, only quite recently was it is finalized the cost of the ERP project in the U.S. Air Force ($1.4 billion), and it managed to be made only after 9 years of project implementation and how $334 million were already spent, GAO claims.

The others 5 of 14 projects inspected during check of GAO showed rise in price of aggregate value of implementation much from 3% to 578%, the report says. The last increase in the project budget is mentioned during system implementation in Navy where from initially expected $347 million the project budget "was inflated" to $2.4 billion by September, 2012. "Authorities explained this increase with connection to the project in addition of two commands and the centers of support that caused creation of the additional systems", the document says.

Other negative example: The U.S. Air Force completely refused creation of the automated forwarding system (Expeditionary Combat Support System) because of difficulties during the project after project cost grew from $3 billion in 2005 to $3.2 billion by February, 2011.

Besides, only 5 of 14 MAIS systems are implemented according to the set schedule whereas the others lag behind diagrams for terms from several months to 10 years. In total only in 3 of 14 projects it was succeeded to sustain the planned terms and to remain within the expenses defined in advance, at the same time having achieved the planned results. Nevertheless, even these projects "cause a number of questions concerning efficiency and risk management at the different levels", consider in GAO.

Earlier legislatures of the USA already made the statement that about 25% from the state budget are spent for IT of the USA who annually equals about $80 billion for nothing.

Contract with Microsoft for $617 million

The U.S. Department of Defense intends to save more than $100 million a year within the three-year license agreement signed with Microsoft and which became effective since January, 2013.

According to its conditions, the Army, the U.S. Air Force and the Agency on defense information systems (DISA) will obtain 2 million user licenses and official support of Microsoft, said in the official statement of department.

Contract amount was about $617 million. Economy of the U.S. Air Force, thanks to successful terms of the contract, will make about $50 million a year, and economy of U.S. Army – about $70 million annually. Economy of DISA will make about 10% for all duration of the agreement. Read more here.

2012

Mobile strategy

The U.S. Department of Defense in June, 2012 published[13] the strategy of use of commercial mobile devices and mobile applications in which the purposes of such use and further steps of the ministry in this area are in detail described.

As it appears from strategy, in the work the Defense Ministry is going to use very widely commercial smartphones and tablets in all the divisions. Increase in efficiency of wireless infrastructure, penetration of mobile devices and more active use of mobile applications will become three main tasks at this stage.

According to the Chief information officer of the Ministry of Defence Teri Takai (Teri Takai) in the document, "the staff of the ministry becomes more and more mobile, and use of broader spectrum of devices opens unprecedented opportunities for increase in operational efficiency of department".

In the document it is also said that a large number of mobile products will be tested during program implementation, but specific names of models of devices and operating systems are not called. In the American army about 250 thousand commercial mobile devices are already used, including thousands of devices on Apple iOS and Android.

Security issues of use of mobile technologies will become key for such divisions as the Air Force (AF), armies and marines which, according to the document, should involve them in the transactions more actively. The Pentagon will aim at development and deployment of the corresponding standards, including issues to be regulated uses of portable devices in a workplace and beyond its limits should be resolved.

For optimization of service of the growing park of mobile devices the Defense Ministry is going to create special internal service which will be engaged in registration of devices, to provide observance of security policies, "wireless" delivery of software to devices (using cloud computing and the centralized hosting) and also governed control for observance of license.

As a result US military men intend to create the infrastructure integrating millions of mobile devices and hundreds of applications. The certain important place in new strategy is given to expansion of the frequency range which is used at the moment and also use of wireless standards of Wi-fi and 4G.

Failure of ERP projects for the amount of $10 billion

The U.S. Department of Defense continues to experience difficulties with the IT projects initiated by department. At the end of 2012 it became known that the Air Force (AF) of the USA made the decision to refuse the ERP system on the Oracle platform which creation cost the state $1 billion.

In February, 2013 problems and in implementation of other projects for the amount of $10.1 billion were officially detected. Auditors recognized a number of ERP projects being under the threat of failure because of an exit for the set calendar framework, the main reason they called incorrect planning and problems of management.

In total military as it was already told above, were going to spend more than $10 billion for implementation of ERP systems, but the strategic plan of implementations developed in February, 2011 "did not include the detailed diagram of their deployments and criteria for evaluation of efficiency", results of the internal check executed by general inspection of the Ministry of Defence of the USA say ([14]). Read more here.

Cyber wars

2016

From 31 thousand cyber attacks in 2016 only 16 "posed serious threat"

From 31 thousand cyber attacks which were directed to state departments and infrastructure of the USA only 16 "posed serious threat". A basic reason of vulnerability which is sounded in a research of the Pentagon, – weak points in management systems and information of both civil, and military structures. The American experts consider that this vulnerability not only Russia and China, but also such countries as North Korea and Iran use as a target for cyber attacks [15].

In the report of scientific council of the Ministry of Defence of the USA three main problems which the Pentagon faces during the actions for cybercontrol are called. The first of them – great opportunities of Russia and China because of which critical infrastructure of the country is exposed to danger. The second problem is the capacity of the regional states increasing every year which can also direct cyber attacks to America. As the third problem the non-state organizations which cyberinfluence is not so notable are called, but has accumulative character.

The American experts note that at computer networks of the country there is spyware - it is such programs as Havex and BlackEnergy which, according to them, perhaps are related to cyber attacks to industrial management systems. Allegedly using the last in Ukraine at the end of 2015 the management system of power substations was cracked.

Request of $6.8 billion for 2017 for carrying out cybertransactions

On October 18, 2016 it became known of preparation by the budget of the USA of expenses on cybersecurity in 2017 for $5 billion more, than in 2016. The Ministry of Defence requested $6.8 billion for cybertransactions of specially created group.

The Pentagon asked about selection $6.8 billion for 2017 for carrying out cybertransactions, reported the Bloomberg agency. Transactions in a cyberspace are assigned to the Cyber Mission Force group.

The group acts under control of Cybernetic command of the USA. Staff of Cyber Mission Force ~ 5 thousand people. Group tasks: increasing the level of security of military computer networks of the USA and cyber attack to the terrorist organizations[16].

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The group reached initial operational readiness. 133 commands are well trained and equipped, however their availability for service does not mean the immediate beginning of cyber attacks against somebody.

Daniel King, representative of Cybernetic command, colonel
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Cyber Mission Force should reach complete operational readiness in 2018. By then its number will increase on 1200 people.

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Cyber Mission Force will concentrate efforts on the most priority directions, such as Russia, China, Iran and the terrorist groups, including the Islamic State. Earlier government cybertransactions were carried out is separated – they were supervised separately the NSA, by Cybernetic command and the different Defense Ministries. Now such operations will be performed is centralized also with a minimum of bureaucratic procedures.

Bob Stasio, in the past the operational director of the Center of cybertransactions of the NSA
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The president Obama in the course of budgeting for 2016 suggested to select $14 billion for cyber security that it was $1 billion more, than for 2015. In the light of planned, increase for $5 billion in 2017 is considerable.

  • $3.1 billion from the selected $19 billion - upgrade of a computer hardware in the federal agencies.
  • $62 million - involvement of high-class cybersecurity specialists for cooperation with the government.

The reason of growth of expenses on information security – a number of large cyber attacks to which the USA underwent in 2016, including cracking of servers of Democratic Party of the USA in June, 2016. The question - whether the budget offered by the president will be approved by the Congress where for October, 2016 republicans predominate, is open.

Along with increase in the cybersecurity budget the White House announced the plan of formation of the special presidential commission, the next 10 years it will be engaged in strengthening of cyber security. The administration is going to create a position of the federal director of questions of information security. Barack Obama signed the decree on creation of Permanent Federal Council on privacy issues which should develop the guide to collecting and a personal data storage.

The head of Amazon became the official consultant of the Pentagon

In 2016 the head of Amazon and one of the leading innovators of the USA Jeff Bezos was a part of the Advisory board on innovations in the defense sphere at the U.S. Department of Defense. Together with colleagues among whom there is also Eric Schmidt he will be engaged in studying of opportunities and perspectives of application in defense industry of technologies from the private sector[17].

In addition to Bezos, the astrophysicist and TV host Neil deGrasse Tyson and Jennifer Pahlka who founded the Code for America organization for fight against digital inequality between private and state sectors became the new member of council.

The advisory board was created in March, 2016. It consists of 15 people, representatives of the private technology companies, the universities and schools. A task of council — a transfer of technologies and technology the practician from the private sector in state, namely to the defense sphere.

Eric Schmidt's appointment the head of the Council on innovations of the Pentagon

On March 2, 2016 it became known of Eric Schmidt's appointment the head of the Council on innovations of the Pentagon. The former CEO of Google began to direct the structure specializing in consultation of the management of the U.S. Department of Defense on new technology developments.

2015

Appeal to invest money in a cyber war with Russia and China

In September, 2015 the United States Secretary of Defense Asheton Carter called[18] the American community to invest in a cyber war with Russia and China. He noted that owing to fast technology development of these states of USA positions in the field of arms of the different plan begin to lose.

Made the Carter's statement at the conference sponsored by the Agency of the advanced defense research projects (DARPA) which is a part of the Ministry of Defence of the USA. According to Carter, the specified investments are necessary owing to fast technology development of China and Russia which leads to decrease in competitiveness of the USA in the military sphere.

Plan of hiring of 3 thousand hackers

In 2015 the Pentagon began aggressive policy of hiring of "cybersoldiers" and sent an inquiry for permission to employ at least three thousand hackers to management of the personnel, The Fiscal Times reports. It should help the Ministry of Defence of the USA to resist to the attacks which purpose, according to official figures, the ministry becomes daily.

Candidates, among other things, should have "unique skills in the field of cyber security and knowledge for assessment of cyberrisks and also the analysis of harmful software and vulnerabilities". "We need "white" hackers to protect our systems from "black" — "translates"[19] description of a vacancy edition.

The research which is recently conducted by the Government Accountability Office showed a huge skill gap of the government employees working in the field of cyber security, IT and engineering and specialists from the private sector. Though the Pentagon realizes it and tries to change a situation, the authorities specify that the budget does not allow the state to compete fully with business in hunting behind talents, explains the edition.

2014

Organization of a medal "for hacker merits"

The American authorities will award with a medal of the soldiers of army who are participating in cyber wars and proved on service. Organization of a new award it is announced on the official site of the U.S. Department of Defense.

"New opportunities which are located by the American military personnel allow them to battle against the enemy and to change the fight course, being in a remote point, - the Minister of Defence Leon Panetta said. - Unfortunately, there were no awards which such people could receive for the merits".

"The new medal is our recognition of outstanding achievements which had a direct impact on the course of events, but do not include manifestation of courage and are not connected with vital risk which are inherent in real fight", - Panetta explained.

"Emergence of a new award speaks about changes of the principles of military operations", - the general of the American army Martin Dempsey, the Chairman of the Committee of chiefs of headquarters at the Minister of Defence noted.

Following Pearl Harbour can happen to development of technologies of cyber-attack in virtual space, Panetta considers.

In addition to combatants in a cyberspace, commanders of pilotless military aircraft, pilotless underwater swimming devices and employees of troops antimissile turnovers will be able to get a new medal.

The operator on military base in the State of Nevada, the managing director of the air UAV in Afghanistan can be one of examples of the people awarded a new award. The soldier of a fort in the State of Maryland which managed to detect and prevent cyber attacks to the computer network of the Ministry of Defence can be other example, noted in the press service of the ministry.

Each award of Distinguished Warfare Medal will be personally approved by the Minister of Defence. At the same time Leon Panetta will soon retire therefore this duty will pass to his successor. Last time the new award intended for the American military personnel who is involved in fights was founded in 1944. The Bronze star which is issued for bravery and heroism in the battlefield became it.

The new award will have higher rank in comparison with the Bronze star, but smaller, than the Silver star, Associated Press reports.

Let's remind that the USA the first created cyber-troops. In 2009 need of creation of such division of the American army was announced by the lieutenant general Keith Alexander. The other day the president of America Barack Obama (Barack Obama) signed the decree according to which the infrastructure companies and intelligence agencies will communicate about cyberthreats and also national standards of cyber security will be developed.

The budget of cybercommand increased more, than twice

U.S. authorities in 2014 will spend $447 million for needs of cybercommand of the Ministry of Defence that is 2.3 times more in comparison with $191 million spent in 2013[20].

Announced the Nextgov edition with reference to the white papers published by the Commission on budgetary appropriations of the USA the new budget of cybercommand. As explained to the Nextgov edition in Minoobrony, growth of expenses of cybercommand is mainly connected with a staff increase of division. As of March, 2013 about 830 employees entered in it. It agrees to the program adopted by the authorities, till 2016 the staff of cyberdivision is going to be increased for 2 thousand employees annually.

Cybertroops of the USA are engaged in identification and blocking of the threats coming from the foreign states mentioning military and industrial computer networks. Among their tasks there is a protection against the hacker attacks of utility and social infrastructures of the state.

According to the Ministry of internal security, in 2012 the number of messages about cyber attacks to the American computer networks increased approximately up to 153 thousand, or, in comparison with 2011, grew by 42%.

At the same time expenses of the USA on cyber defense within the budget of the Ministry of internal security will increase. Under this article in 2014 $792 million will be selected that for $35.5 million it is more in comparison with 2013.

Thus, the Pentagon and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security will spend for cyber attacks and cyber defense in 2014 in total over $1.2 billion, or is about 30% more in comparison with $948 million in 2013. However, both departmental budgets still need approval of the Senate.

See Also





Notes

  1. of US Department of Defence. 2011 Budget Request
  2. Pentagon adopts new ethical principles for using AI in war
  3. the USA will spend $10 billion for "protection of the nation" on the Internet
  4. The Pentagon plans to spend of $2 billion to put more artificial intelligence into its weaponry
  5. Pentagon cracks down on soldiers' GPS tracking apps
  6. [the Pentagon will prohibit to buy by http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2018-07-30_pentagon_zapretit_pokupat_po_s_rossijskim_kodom software with the Russian code Подробнее: http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2018-07-30_pentagon_zapretit_pokupat_po_s_rossijskim_kodom].
  7. Deep in the Pentagon, secret AI program to find hidden nuclear missiles
  8. Pentagon developing artificial intelligence center
  9. [https://www.securitylab.ru/news/489769.php of the Ministry of Defence Data Base of the USA
  10. are detected in open access]
  11. Pentagon's top IT official: My money buys Silicon Valley's trust
  12. http://gao.gov/assets/660/653416.pdf
  13. Department od Defense Mobile Device Strategy
  14. The Department of Defense Inspector Generalhttp://www.dodig.mil/
  15. the Report of the Pentagon: From 31 thousand cyber attacks in 2016 only 16 "posed serious threat"
  16. the Pentagon asked $6.8 billion for drawing cyberblows
  17. of CNews: The head of Amazon became the official consultant of the Pentagon
  18. the Pentagon urged to invest money in a cyber war with Russia and China
  19. Wanted: 3.000 Hackers for Cool Pentagon Jobs
  20. by the USA double expenses on cybertroops