Cryptography (from Greek — hidden and — to write) – the most ancient science about methods of confidential data protection from undesirable third-party reading. Cryptoanalysis – the science studying methods of violation of confidentiality of information. Cryptananalysis and cryptography together make science the cryptology studying methods of enciphering and decoding.
One of the most reliable and demanded means of protecting of data is enciphering today. In most cases data encryption means a possibility of at least two scenarios: full disk encryption and enciphering of separate folders and files. The most part of the organizations prefers to combine both cryptography techniques as they are intended for the solution of different tasks.
Costs for implementation of technology of enciphering hold not the first place in item of expenditure of IT departments. However in the closest years of the solution for data encryption will be some of the most demanded in the corporate sector, analysts of IDC consider. So, by their estimates, the size of the market of data encryption at workstations for the next several years will grow more than by 50% (from 556 million dollars in 2012 to 866 million dollars in 2016). In 2016 more than 3 billion dollars will be spent for similar actions in total, analysts predict.
The Human Rights Committee at the United Nations placed in the spring of 2015 the publication in which the output is brought that implementations of a possibility of enciphering and preserving of anonymity in digital communications and the Internet require good and competent protection, so they allow users to perform the rights to freedom of opinions and their expression. In the report it is said that the states should not limit access to enciphering and anonymity as benefits from their prohibition are incommensurable to losses in the field of human rights. Enciphering and anonymity are referred to concepts which ensure the confidentiality and safety necessary for implementation of the right to freedom of opinions and their free expression during a digital era. Providing these rights can be of great importance for implementation of other rights, such as property rights, personal privacy, freedom of peaceful assemblies and associations, right to life and physical integrity.
In 2016 the share of the ciphered traffic in the Internet for the first time exceeded 50%. Such data were obtained by Mozilla Foundation company. Experts connect these digits first of all with activity of Edward Snowden who told about tracking of traffic by intelligence agencies.
In Runet the share of the ciphered data is lower, than on the global area network – for the end of 2015 it made about 30%. However the "Technical center Internet" collecting statistics observes fourfold increase in number of domains with SSL certificates since then. At the same time, according to Reg.ru, such certificates are only 1.9 million domains from 6.3 million.
Nevertheless, growth of volume of the ciphered traffic is obvious and in the future it can reach 90-95%. Google, in particular, is going to lower in search issue the websites without SSL certificates, marking them as unsafe. A number of the companies, such as Apple, oblige developers to pass to the https protocol with enciphering support already now. And Let's Encrypt projects provide resources SSL certificates on a grant basis.
All this, experts consider, will complicate interception and interpretation of traffic from servers which the user addresses. At the same time, we will remind, in connection with the Yarovaya package the idea of tracking of Internet traffic in real time is actively discussed. How it will be implemented from the technical point of view, it is not known yet.