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Mac OS

Product
Developers: Apple
Last Release Date: June, 2019
Technology: OS

Content

Mac OS (Macintosh Operating System) is family of proprietary operating systems with the graphical interface. It is developed by Apple corporation for own line of Macintosh computers. Promoting of the graphic user interface in modern operating systems often is considered Mac OS merit. It was for the first time provided in 1984 together with original Macintosh 128K.

Apple wanted that Macintosh was represented as the computer "for all others" ("for the rest of us"). The term Mac OS in fact did not exist until it was officially used in the mid-nineties. Since then the term is applied to all versions of operating systems of Macintosh as a convenient method of their selection in the context of other operating systems.

Early versions of Mac OS were compatible only to the Macintosh based on processors of Motorola 68k, the next versions were compatible to architecture of PowerPC (PPC). Later Mac OS X became compatible to architecture of Intel x86. But the policy of Apple company such is that it permits to install the Mac OS system only on computers of Apple.

Security of macOS

Main article: Security of macOS

2019: Announcement of macOS 10.15 Catalina

On June 3, 2019 the presentation of macOS 10.15 Catalina took place. What changed in the updated operating system for computers of Apple?

Catalyst

The technology will allow developers to port applications with iPad and iPhone for work on computers with macOS. Earlier Apple submitted the first applications of this kind there are News, Actions, House. Twitter and Atlassian became one of the first companies which supported Catalyst.

Closing of iTunes

In   macOS Catalina iTunes entertaining Apple applications  of Music, Podcasts and   Apple TV which, allegedly, considerably simplify search and  reproduction of music, TV series, movies and  podcasts succeeded. Synchronization of a multimedia content with iPhone and iPad will be performed in these applications. At  connection to  the computer the mobile device appears on  the Finder side bar, and  users can create its backup copies,  update and recover.

For Mac it became even simpler and more convenient to find new songs in the new Music application, claim in Apple
For Mac it became even simpler and more convenient to find new songs in the new Music application, claim in Apple

Sidecar

The Sidecar function allows to use iPad  as the expanded display for  Mac or the tablet for  drawing in  supported applications of Mac. The Sidecar function gives to mobile users an opportunity to expand a desktop on  two displays for  convenience of work. Using  Pencil Apple, it is possible   to draw and write using iPad in  applications of Mac which support work with the stylus.

The Sidecar function working at a basis of wireless communication allows to use iPad and Pencil Apple in applications of Mac for creativity
The Sidecar function working at a basis of wireless communication allows to use iPad and Pencil Apple in applications of Mac for creativity

Advanced voice actuation

In the updated macOS voice actuation for physically disabled people is supported — for example, users will be able to open applications using a voice, to send messages, etc.

Screen time

The Screen Time function in macOS 10.15 provides to users data on  that, what is the time they will see off in  applications and  on  websites  and also the tools allowing them it is better to manage the time. 

Blocking of the device

The Activation Lock function for notebooks with T2 chips allows to block the device completely.[1]

2018: Every tenth PC in the world works at macOS

In March, 2018 it became known that every tenth personal computer in the world works on the macOS operating system which share in a year increased more than by 60%.

According to the ComputerWorld edition with reference to Net Applications analytical company, in January, 2018 macOS was installed on 10% of active PCs on a global scale. In February the share practically did not change and made 9.9%. 12 months before an indicator it was measured by 6.2%.

The MacBook notebook with the 12-inch display
The MacBook notebook with the 12-inch display

Thus, in a year the share of macOS increased by 3.7 percentage points, but the most part of so rather strong gain (2.8 percent points) is caused by adjustment of statistics of Net Applications: at the end of 2017 analysts filtered the traffic generated by botnets.

Net Applications takes information from own service NetMarketShare which studies data about 160 million unique users browsing more than 40 thousand web resources worldwide. All data with NetMarketShare are in open access.

According to calculations of StatCounter service (considers more than 15 billion web browsings on 3 million the websites), in February, 2018 12.4% of computers were the share of macOS. Two years before an indicator was at the level of 9.4%.

The head of Techanalysis Research analytical company  Bob O'Donnell says that achievement of the tenth part of the computer market for the Apple operating system became an important milestone for 34-year history.

«
Partly this growth was promoted by BYOD [when employees use own computers in the working purposes — a comment of TAdviser]. For many years of the company even more often allowed employees to bring the employments. I believe that it has some relation to growth of macOS — the expert reported.
»

According to him, success of macOS can be also connected with high security of the platform and promotion of cloud applicaions instead of traditional programs.

According to data of Gartner, in 2017 19 million computers under control of macOS were sold that corresponded to 7.2% in volume of the world market of the PC.[2]

2017: Release of macOS High Sierra

On September 25, 2017 the Apple company announced availability of macOS High Sierra as a free update.

As a part of macOS High Sierra of technology of data storage, processing of video and graphics. The file system increases efficiency and reliability of data storage, support of effective encoding of video (HEVC) reduces the sizes of files in video format 4K.

The Metal 2 technology helps to create contentvirtual reality, increases performance. The platform for Core ML developers gives the chance to create intellectual applications with powerful technologies of prediction of data and machine learning. In macOS High Sierra applications for work for Mac, including the Photo and Safari are improved.

Apple (APFS) file system

  • The architecture of data storage of APFS opens possibilities for support of functions and technologies of storage on Mac.
  • APFS provides support of high-capacity storage devices, increases performance, security and reliability.
  • Functions of integrity checking protect data at failures of power supply and system failures.
  • APFS is supported on all Mac about a flash drives.


Support of highly effective coding of video (HEVC)

  • The HEVC video standard opens a possibility of video streaming 4K and requires 40% less disk space.
  • The industry standard of HEVC (H.265) provides high efficiency of compression, stream transfer and video playback.
  • HEVC opens an opportunity to watch video files 4K with the complete permission for users and at the same time requires 40% less disk space, than H.264.1 standard
  • Thanking HEVC structures of Apple support video streaming 4K.
  • Hardware acceleration on iMac and MacBook Pro provides fast and energy efficient coding and reproduction of HEVC.


Metal 2 technology

  • The graphic Metal 2 Apple technology opens opportunities for machine learning, computer vision and other functions.
  • Metal is graphic technology of Apple.
  • Metal 2 supports different technologies, including machine learning.
  • The updated API and the increased performance of Metal 2 help developers to accelerate operation of applications.
  • Thanks to a combination of Thunderbolt 3 and Metal 2 users of Mac get access to external graphic processors.


Core ML platform

  • The Core ML Apple platform opens for Apple developers of a possibility of machine learning and gives the chance to create other types of applications.
  • Core ML completely involves Metal and Accelerate technologies, providing the power, speed and efficiency of functions of machine learning:
  • computer vision,
  • natural languag processing
  • support convolution and recurrent neural networks.
  • All calculations and data processing in Core ML are executed on the device.


Support of virtual reality

  • There was a support of virtual reality.


Updated application of Photo

  • The side menu updated, always working, instruments of the choice and filtering help to arrange quickly and easily photos.


Other changes

In macOS High Sierra improvements of daily applications for Mac appeared.

  • Safari blocks automatic reproduction of materials with a sound in the browser, and Reader can automatically open articles without the distracting elements.
  • Function of intellectual blocking of tracking in Safari helps to save confidentiality of viewing: it distinguishes and deletes cookie files and other data by means of which advertisers monitor transitions between the websites.
  • Siri answers Mac with more natural voice and remembers music of the user, creates playlists and answers questions of music when viewing Music Apple.
  • On the Touch Bar panel in MacBook Pro there were Control Strip functions, the instrument of the choice of flowers and an ability to manage of video.
  • In Notes there are simple tables where it is possible to enter and edit data in cells, to move lines and columns.
  • Spotlight can show data on flights, including departure time and arrivals, data on delays, numbers of boarding gates, names of terminals and even the flight map.

2016: OS X is renamed into macOS

On June 13, 2016 Apple announced renaming of OS X into macOS and adding of the clipboard, general with IOS, and[3].

Submission of OS on the presentation of Aplle, (2016)
Submission of OS on the presentation of Aplle, (2016)

The operating system was renamed for achievement of uniformity with platforms of the company: tvOS, watchOS and iOS. The open beta of macOS Sierra will become available in July, 2016, the version to developers — after the presentation. The full-fledged release of the operating system is expected in September.

The main innovation in Sierra - Siri voice assistant adapted for work with a desktop system. The company needed five years to transfer it with iOS to macOS. As well as mobile version of Siri, desktop allows to execute search in files, to start applications, to create reminders and other functions.

Owners of Apple Watch can unblock the computer now without entering the password: it is enough to bring to it already unblocked hours (on them it is necessary to enter the four-digit code therefore other person will not be able to use them).

macOS and iOS also got the general clipboard: copying the text on iPhone, it can be inserted right there on Mac and vice versa.

In Sierra function of synchronization of a desktop appeared: files from it will be available on other Mac, on iPhone and iPad. Besides, iCloud Drive automatically makes now room on the hard drive, moving not used files "to a cloud".

In Safari for macOS the possibility of payments by means of the Apple Pay system appeared.

2015: Opening of source codes OS X 10.11 El Capitan

In December, 2015 Apple opened source codes of the OS X operating system 10.11 El Capitan. Wrote the AppleInsider edition with reference to the message of the American corporation about it.

Source texts of the low-level system OS X components 10.11 in which the open source, including xnu core, components of Darwin and other components, programs and libraries which are not connected with GUI is used were published. In total 205 packets with source codes became property of the public.

Apple opened source codes OS X 10.11 El Capitan
Apple opened source codes OS X 10.11 El Capitan

Though the American corporation offers several open software products long ago, the most part of its software does not belong to the class Open Source. Moreover, Apple is known for the closed ecosystem.

Earlier Apple opened source codes of the Swift programming language and operating system iOS 9. In the latter case developers got access only to six components of the platform, and its most part is still hidden. It should be noted that on the basis of the practices opened by Apple free Puredarwin OS develops.

Practically along with the publication of the source codes El Capitan the Apple company released update for this operating system. The update at number OS X 10.11.2 corrects problems with sudden shutdown of Bluetooth devices and transfer of photos with iPhone on the PC on an USB cable. Besides, in updating reliability of Wi-fi of connection and such functions as Handoff and AirDrop is improved and also the general access to photocontent of iCloud for Live Photos was improved.[4]

2005: Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger

In 2005 there was Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.

2003: Release of Mac OS X 10.3 Panther

In 2003 there was Mac OS X 10.3 Panther.

2002: Release of Mac OS X of 10.2 Jaguars

In 2002 there was Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguars.

2001: Release of Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah and 10.1 Puma

In 2001 the official release of Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah (Cheetah) took place. Later half a year new OS receives the first large updating - Mac OS X 10.1 Puma.

1998: Liquidation of clones

In 1994 the Apple company began to sell licenses for Mac OS right to use. Producers paid the companies 80 dollars for each computer on which this operating system was installed. But time showed that it was not the best idea. Suppliers of clones offered buyers rather inexpensive machines which prevented sales of more profitable products of Apple. Besides, the release of clones did not lead to significant expansion of distribution sphere of the Mac platform.

Jobs who came back to Apple understood that the program of licensing Mac OS needs to be closed up and eventually achieved the. By 1998 it actually managed to liquidate clones (the license for Mac OS 8 by this moment remained only at UMAX company).

Jobs was convinced that interaction of users with hardware and program components needs to be kept under the control. And in the conditions of release of the equipment by other producers to solve this problem it was not represented possible. Clones destroyed the Macintosh brand and if the situation remained, Apple could not operate any more is so reserved, skillfully and purposefully as it happened later.

1991: Release of System 7.0 OS

In 1991 new System 7.0 OS appeared (afterwards renamed into Mac OS)

1988: Release of System 6.0 OS.

In 1988 there was a System 6.0 operating system.

See Also

Notes