|Date of the premiere of the system:||November 18, 1985|
|Last Release Date:||2017|
Microsoft Windows is an operating system family with the graphical interface, released by Microsoft corporation.
Operating systems of the Windows family are the most widespread in the world. In November, 2008 their share in the American market made 89.62%. According to a research of the Net Applications company performing monitoring of the computers connected to Network to the USA, this smallest value for the last 15 years. For the first time Windows broke a barrier in 90% in 1993-1994 and made it by means of Windows 3.11.
Graphical interfaces and expansions for DOS
- Birthday of Windows is considered on November 20, 1985 – this day there was the first version of OS Microsoft Windows 1.0. In this system the multiwindow interface, switching between tasks, the built-in applications (Paint, NotePad, Calculator) were implemented. Left one and a half years later Windows 2.0 led to the fact that PCs became a full-fledged part of office systems. The beginning of the 90th when the Windows 3.0 and Windows NT systems appeared, marked the sharp growth of popularity of the PC at offices and houses.
- Windows 2.0 (on December 9, 1987)
- Windows 3.0 (on May 22, 1990)
- Windows 3.1 (on April 6, 1992)
- Windows for Workgroups 3.1 (on October 27, 1992)
- Windows for Workgroups 3.11 (on November 8, 1993)
Windows 9x family
Windows 9x is family of the hybrid 16/32-bit operating systems created for processors with 32-bit architecture.
- Windows 95 (on August 24, 1995) - Windows 95 opened for users of a possibility of the Internet. In this OS the Start-up button, a task bar and buttons of closing of windows appeared.
- Windows 98 (on June 25, 1998) - Windows 98 became the first rule created especially for home users. It contained the improved information search on the PC and in the Internet, support of DVD and USB, a panel of quick start of programs. It is remarkable that it was the last system based on MS-DOS.
- Windows 98 SE (Second Edition) (on May 9, 1999)
- In 2000, to approach of the new millennium, the Windows ME (Millennium) system with the improved video playback and the music raised by reliability and System Restore with Windows Media Player and Windows Movie Maker was released.
- Windows NT 3.1 (on July 27, 1993)
- Windows NT 3.5 (on September 21, 1994)
- Windows NT 3.51 (on May 30, 1995)
- Windows NT 4.0 (on August 24, 1996)
- Windows 2000 (on February 17, 2000) - Windows 2000 Professional was designed to replace Windows 95/98/NT 4.0 on all desktop PCs and notebooks. In it was significantly reliability and compatibility are increased, support of Plug & Play is expanded.
- Windows XP (on October 25, 2001) - At the end of 2001 there was a Windows XP ground both under work, and under entertainments. Microsoft implemented in it the new user interface, Windows Palyer, Windows Messenger, Remote Assistant, support of Wi-fi, localized it in 25 languages. XP proved as fast and stable OS.
- Windows XP 64-bit Edition (on March 28, 2003)
- Windows Server 2003 (on April 25, 2003)
- Windows XP Media Center Edition 2003 (on December 18, 2003)
- Windows XP Media Center Edition 2005 (on October 12, 2004)
- Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (on April 25, 2005)
- Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (8 июля 2006 г.)
- Windows Vista (on November 30, 2006) - It is impossible to call the Windows Vista System success of Microsoft, but reaching the new level of protection and multimedia opportunities of the PC became indisputable gaining this release.
- Windows Home Server (on November 7, 2007)
- Windows Server 2008 (on February 27, 2008)
- Windows 7 (on October 22, 2009) - The advanced interface with Windows Touch, low system requirements, easy connection to Wi-Fi and home networks, broad compatibility with programs and devices are the main advantages of a new system. The product was noted by the most large-scale testing of OS in the history – in it about 8 million users, including about 250 thousand took part in Russia. Windows 7 showed also the most rapid growth of sales in the history of "windows": for the first 6 months 100 million licenses, in 9 months – 175 million, in a year – more than 240 million were implemented. In Russia for the first year more than 5 million license copies of Windows 7 are sold. "What is important, it is not just localized product, it was created including for our country", - the marketing manager of Microsoft in Russia Yury Larin noted. According to him, the ratio of sales of new OS between home and corporate users in Russia made about 50/50.
- Windows 8 (October, 2012)
- Windows 10 (on July 29, 2015)
Windows CE is an operating system family for pocket computers, mobile phones and the built-in systems.
- Windows CE 1.0 (on November 16, 1996)
- Windows CE 2.0 (on September 29, 1997)
- Windows CE 3.0 (on April 19, 2000)
- Windows CE 4.0 (on January 7, 2002)
- Windows CE 5.0 (on July 9, 2004)
- Windows CE 6.0 (on September 15, 2006)
Based on Windows CE the set of platforms, including Handheld PC, Pocket PC, Smartphone, Windows Mobile, etc. was founded.
- Windows XP Embedded
- Windows Embedded Standard
- Windows Embedded NavReady
- Windows Embedded Enterprise
- Windows Embedded for Point of Service
- Windows Embedded CE
- Windows Embedded Server
Main article: Windows Azure
Windows Azure is the cloud operating system of Microsoft company intended for development and start of web applications which are executed on the server of the supplier, but not on the user's computer. Is a part of the Microsoft Azure platform.
Popularity of Windows OS
Main article: Popularity of Windows OS
Security of Windows
Main article: Security of Windows
Termination of support and release of updates of Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2
On January 14, 2020 Microsoft Corporation (USA) stopped support and release of updates for the Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems. In particular the company stopped support and release of the updates directed to elimination of errors and vulnerabilities in these operating systems. Reported about it on January 20, 2020 the Federal Service for Technical and Export Control of Russia (FSTEC of the Russian Federation) reported.
As of January 20, 2020, according to information of FSTEC of the Russian Federation, in information systems of federal and regional public authorities, local government and also the organizations the next versions of the Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems certified according to security requirements of information continue to be applied:
- Microsoft Windows 7 (SP1) in editions "Professional", "Corporate" and "Maximum";
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 (SP1) in editions Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter;
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition Service Pack 2";
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008" versions of the Standard Edition in edition 32 - bit/64-bits;
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition Service Pack 2";
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008" versions of the Enterprise Edition in edition 32 - bit/64-bits;
- Microsoft Windows Server 2008" versions of Datacenter in edition 32 - bit/64-bits.
Application of such broad spectrum of versions of Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 FSTEC of the Russian Federation in particular connects with existence of a large number of the specific application software developed under these operating systems applied in Russia by public authorities and the organizations.
The compulsory provision of application in information systems of the certified versions of Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 used in Russia as tells FSTEC of the Russian Federation, according to operational documentation, is installation of the certified data-refresh of systems. Updates are released by Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 developer - Microsoft Corporation company – and are provided by the Russian producers of operating systems.
Due to the termination of support and release of updates took a number of measures for Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 FSTEC of the Russian Federation. Namely:
- stopped action of certificates of conformity on Microsoft Windows 7 (SP1) in editions "Professional", "Corporate" and "Maximum";
- terminated certificates of conformity on Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 (SP1) in editions Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter;
- made the decision on an exception on June 1, 2020 of the state register of the certified information security tools of data on certificates of NN 2180/1, 2181/1, 1928/1, 1928, 1929/1, 1929, 1930.
To the public authorities and the organizations using the certified versions of the Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, FSTEC of Russia operating systems for data protection recommends to plan actions for transfer till June 1, 2020 of information systems on the operating systems supported by their producers certified according to security requirements of information. Before this transition, considering models of security risks of information, FSTEC advises to take the following additional measures of protection:
- set all the relevant obligatory certified updates of the certified versions of the Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems released by the Russian producers;
- forbid automatic update of the certified versions of the Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems;
- carry out setup and provide periodic control of mechanisms of protection of the certified versions of the Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems on the basis of the corresponding managements;
- whenever possible to exclude connection to the Internet and to departmental/corporate local computer networks of computer aids or segments of the information systems working running Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2;
- at impossibility of such shutdown to apply without fail measures for segmentation of information systems and protection of their perimeter and the selected segments;
- provide regular backup of information, software and the information security tools which are contained on computer aids or in segments of the information systems working running Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 on external information media;
- regulate and provide control of application of removable machine-readable mediums, having excluded from their number unregistered in an information system and not checked by means of antivirus protection;
- carry out the periodic analysis of vulnerabilities of segments of the information systems working running Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 using the certified control facilities of security of information and also periodic control of integrity of the installed operating systems;
- apply the additional certified information security tools of operating systems;
- carry out monitoring of the public sources publishing data on vulnerabilities regarding emergence in them of information on vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 and take adequate measures;
- develop and implement rules and procedures of actions of officials in case of detection of vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows 7 and Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2 or emergence of the incidents of information security connected with their application.
Availability of commercial support of OpenJDK on the Microsoft Windows platform
On December 25, 2018 the company Red Hat announced availability of long-term commercial support OpenJDK on the Microsoft Windows platform. Having added to already available support of OpenJDK on the platform Red Hat Enterprise Linux support of OpenJDK on Microsoft the Windows platform, Red Hat helps the organizations to standardize development and deployment Java-applications in scales of all enterprise at the expense of a flexible and open alternative to proprietary platforms of Java. In more detail here.
Windows stopped being core business of Microsoft
In April, 2018 the Bloomberg agency issued article under the name "Microsoft officially stopped being Windows company". Journalists paid attention that operating systems bring to the American company not the largest income in comparison with other products, and the software giant focuses on cloud computing more and stronger.
| ||Windows any more not the sun in the system of Microsoft around which all planets turn. Windows is the remote satellite, important, but after all the satellite", said in the publication of Bloomberg.|| |
In 2012 Steve Ballmer holding then a post of the CEO of Microsoft said that for the company "there is nothing more important than Windows". During one of a conference he emotionally chanted: "Windows! Windows! Windows!".
With Satya Nadella's arrival in 2014 Microsoft replaced priorities what the head repeatedly spoke about. During the first official address to the staff of the company Nadella of only 10 times mentioned the word Windows and 21 times as the CEO the word Cloud. All speech of the CEO consisted approximately of 3 thousand words.
The version of Microsoft Office for iPad became the first product which was released by Microsoft after Nadella's arrival to the management of the company. This software was developed at Ballmer, however he did not hurry to bring this product to the market, being afraid that that will do much harm to the Windows brand.
In 2017 financial year of Windows direction generated Microsoft more than $15 billion revenue, however it is only the third indicator after the products Office and also server and cloud solutions (see the diagram below). If in 2008 financial year of sale of Windows made about 28% of revenue of Microsoft, then nine years later the indicator decreased to 16%.
At the end of March, 2018 Microsoft announced resignation of Terry Myerson heading development of operating systems of Windows. The division which he directed was merged into structure of Cloud + AI Platform which is engaged in corporate cloud services and developments in the field of the artificial intelligence (AI). This department was headed by Scott Guthrie who was earlier directing the cloud products Azure. Myerson dismissal and the carried-out restructuring symbolized failure of Microsoft from Windows as separate product. It became the ordinary software which develops together with cloud services and AI systems.
However, Satya Nadella does not dismiss Windows and considers that this product is necessary to the company.
| ||The future of Windows is complete of optimism as we continue to develop innovations within new scenarios and form factors of devices and also even more to be tightly interconnected with offers of Microsoft 365" — the head of Microsoft in the blog wrote, announcing Mayerson's resignation and reorganization of Windows business.|| |
Bloomberg notes that before all Microsoft was built around development and a release of new large versions of Windows approximately each three years. By 2018 Windows became only the next program or the application which are updated constantly, is similar Netflix or Apple iOS.
Microsoft began to release less often regular updates and besides made them a part of expenses on purchase of the new computer or the delivery contract of a batch of the PC for the companies instead of clients paid for the new equipment or updated the operating system when there is the next version.
Every year no more than 15% of sales of smartphones, tablets and computers combined are the share of devices running Windows, and OS does not get into new areas, like unmanned vehicles or the systems of the "smart" house.
Windows XP is in the lead on number of installations at the enterprises
In preliminary results of IDC for the end of 2014 there were about 732 million copies of Windows set at the enterprises worldwide, more than a half of them – 449 million used Windows 7. About 157 million people worked at Windows XP, and 28 million on Windows Vista. A little more than 35 million worked at Windows 8.
Release of Windows 10
Windows 10 will ensure functioning of devices of different type:
- desktop PCs,
The final version of Windows 10 appeared in 2015.
2012: Prolongation of support of Windows 7 and Windows Vista
The company Microsoft without noise prolonged the term of support of client versions of OS Windows 7 and Windows Vista for five years, synchronizing them thereby with the period of support of corporate editions.
Earlier Microsoft adhered to obligations to provide support of security updates and the adjusting patches for operating systems of consumer market within five years. Meanwhile, the corporate software is provided with support at least 10 years: during the first half of term the "main" support, in the second - "additional".
During "additional" support of Microsoft provides security updates for all, but a number of some other corrections is offered only for the organizations which signed contracts with a support service of Microsoft.
Before the changes stated to Microsoft support of client versions of Vista: Home Basic, Home Premium, Starter and Ultimate, would be completely stopped less than in two months - on April 10, 2012. According to statements of the company, support of these OS will last till April 11, 2017.
Users of Windows 7 had to be excluded from the list of support as a last resort - on January 13, 2015. Now this date moved till January 14, 2020.
As the first were told in the blog ZDNet by Ed Bott on February 20, 2012, Microsoft changed terms of support of Vista and Windows 7, having added the word "expanded" to consumer identifiers.
Microsoft confirmed these changes. "Microsoft updates the principle of urgency of support of products that users of all client editions of our desktop operating systems had the right to five years the main and five years of expanded support, - the press secretary of the company said on February 20, 2012. - This updating confirms officially that all releases of our operating systems will receive security updates till that time while they use the latest servispak".
Yet declared nothing rather consumer versions of Windows 8 Microsoft OS, and, so versions of this operating system will get support within 10 years after their exit. If deliveries of Windows 8 begin in the fourth quarter this year probably the company will not refuse its full support prior to the beginning of 2023.
Microsoft not for the first time prolongs life term to old versions of Windows: in 2007 the company prolonged till 2009 end of the period of the main support for Windows XP Home, and postponed date of the termination of support to April, 2014, thereby synchronizing the diagram of support of consumer editions with Windows XP Professional OS.
Windows XP repeatedly received any delays for many years. In particular, in 2008 when Microsoft allowed computer makers to install on netbooks this OS to the middle of 2010.
2001: Release of Windows XP
On October 25, 2001 Windows XP integrating in itself two lines of the operating systems existing still separately — "house" Windows 9x/ME and "corporate" Windows NT/2000 was released. Among the most noticeable improvements of Windows XP it is possible to note the new graphical interface, a possibility of remote control, fast change of users, the improved system recovery function, etc.
In 2003 left server version of the Windows XP operating system - Windows Server 2003. New server OS generally developed functions of the predecessor – Windows 2000. Besides, according to statements of Microsoft, in Windows Server 2003 much attention was paid to security of a system.
In July, 2006 OS for low-power PCs based on Windows XP - Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs (FLP) appeared. At the end of November, 2006 Microsoft officially released Windows Vista, but only for corporate clients, ordinary users had an opportunity to purchase the new operating system on January 30, 2007. In Windows Vista there were new opportunities of a design of the user interface, the management subsystem is updated by memory and input-output, there was a hibernations mode, security, etc. is improved.
On January 7, 2007 Bill Gates announced server operating system for use in the Windows Home Server home networks, later about half a year it became available to users.
On February 27, 2008 the release of new server OS - Windows Server 2008 which should become replacement of Windows Server 2003 took place.
1998: Release of Windows 98
Officially Windows 98 appeared on June 25, 1998, after almost annual period of beta testing and exactly in two years and ten months after appearance of the predecessor. In a new system support of AGP improved, the USB drivers are finished, support of work with several monitors and WebTV support is added. The Internet Explorer 4 browser is integrated into the system interface.
Year of later, upgraded version of Windows 98 of Second Edition which included a set of corrections was released on May 5, 1999, added support of DVD, but at the same time and increased system requirements to the PC. In addition, Internet Explorer 4 was replaced with new, faster Internet Explorer 5.
In February, 2000 Microsoft released Windows 2000 (NT 5.0). In comparison with the previous version - NT 4.0, in Windows 2000 appeared support of a directory service of the Active Directory, service IIS of version 5.0, the NTFS 3.0 file system and also the interface is updated. A bit later, in September of the same year, there was new OS the Windows 9x family - Windows ME (Millennium Edition). A new system purchased a number of new opportunities. First of all, it is the improved work with means of multimedia, an opportunity to write not only audio, but also a video information, information recovery tools after failures, etc. Besides, the lack of a real mode of MS-DOS became one of the most notable changes in a new system.
1997: Release of Windows 95
In June, 1997 there was the first public version of a product which accumulated in itself(himself) everything that was acquired in two years of development of Windows 95, and "Microsoft Memphis" was called. Afterwards the Memphis project received the official name Windows 98.
1992: Release of Windows 3.1
In April, 1992 Windows 3.1 appeared. From this point Windows officially hereinafter is referred to as the operating system. The Windows 3.1 interface, was a little improved, in particular, abilities to manage were finished by a mouse. Besides, there was a support of the True Type fonts, the means of multimedia which were earlier delivered separately in a packet of additions were added.
At the end of 1993 Windows for Workgroups 3.11 was released. This version had support of a local network and also contained the new version of virtual file system compatible to MS-DOS. In the fall of 1993 the Windows NT 3.1 systems for users of personal computers and Windows NT Advanced Server 3.1 for servers were released.
In 1994 advanced versions of Windows NT - Windows NT Workstation 3.5 and Windows NT Server 3.5 appeared.
In May, 1995 Microsoft released Windows NT Workstation 3.51 and Windows NT Server 3.51, more productive and less exacting to hardware resources. On August 24 the same year there was a hybrid 16/32-bit graphic Windows 95 operating system. Among the most important improvements which appeared in Windows 95 - the capability which is initially put in it to work with 32-bit multistream application programs, the protected address spaces, preemptive multitasking and also much wider and effective use of drivers. Separately it should be noted the considerable improvements of the graphical interface including a desktop with icons, a task bar and the Start menu.
In 1996 Windows NT 4.0 when which developing, Microsoft decided to offer stability for the sake of performance was issued. Changes were for this purpose made to architecture: libraries of a window manager and GDI and also drivers of graphics adapters were transferred from a user mode to a kernel mode. This change meant some deviation from Windows NT 3.x of the concept of a microkernel accepted in the previous versions.
1990: Release of Windows 3.0
In 1990 with a release of the third version of Windows it became clear that Windows will not just win the strong place in the software market, but will become the main strategic policy of Microsoft in creation of the software. About 2 million copies of Windows 3.0 were sold for the first half a year
Windows 3.0 had the pleasant graphical user interface (in comparison with what still appeared for IBM PC), provided a considerable range of services, operated with all amount of memory addressed by microprocessor 80286, 80386 above. With 32-bit microprocessors (80386 and above) and in the presence of not less than 2 MB of memory of Windows 3.0 could use a virtual memory, this operation mode was called expanded (386 Enhanced Mode).
1988-1993: Court with Apple because of the visual interface
On March 17, 1988 Apple made claims to Microsoft in connection with Windows, and Hewlett-Packard in connection with New Wave - the new product of this firm which is based on Windows. Affirmed as the claim of Apple that the company spent millions of dollars and several years for development of the visual interface which became distinctive feature of Macintosh. Apple accused Microsoft of violation of the license agreement signed in 1985, claiming that Windows 2.03 released at the end of 1987 is illegal use "impressions and feelings" ("look and feel") from the Macintosh interface. In the claim Apple insisted on a stop of sale and distribution of Windows, award of all profit on sale of Windows 2.03 to it.
Microsoft submitted the counter case with a statement that the company honesty observed the agreement of 1985 the parts of this agreement specifying that Apple provided Microsoft the license to use of the visual elements which are already included in six programs of Microsoft (Windows 1.0, Multiplan, Chart, File, Excel and Word for Macintosh), in all available or future application programs Were published. Besides, Apple granted to Microsoft the right to sublicensing of these elements. Microsoft claimed that the agreement of 1985 covers by default Windows 2.03 and therefore the company is not going to modify Windows or application programs written for it and will continue to make and sell these products.
At the beginning of 1990 the case was submitted the judge Walker from federal district court of San Francisco. The judge Walker, besides, considered the claim of Xerox against Apple of which Xerox was accused by Apple of violation of the same copyright. This claim was rejected at the beginning of May, 1990.
Rates of both parties in this process were high. If won Apple, Microsoft could be forced to be withdrawn from the Windows 3.0 market or to pay Apple for each sold copy. If case was solved for benefit of Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard, Apple could lose market advantage of originality because then the way for copying by all firms of the features of the interface which are uniqueness of Macintosh opened.
In 1993. The judge Walker solved process of "Apple against Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard" for benefit of Microsoft and rejected claims of Apple that she has copyright of some elements of the interface.
1987: Release of Windows 2.0
Since 1987 the situation began to change sharply. In November of this year the new version - Windows 2.0 was published, the powerful and known applications written for work under Windows began to appear.
1985: Boxes with the first Windows appeared in shops
Boxes with the first Windows appeared in shops only on November 18, 1985.
Microsoft Windows 1.0. had many shortcomings and bugs, was considered as the bad copy of the OS of Apple.
1983: Beginning of development and prototype of graphic OS
On November 10, 1983 the Microsoft corporation announced the beginning of development of a graphic operational cover of Windows though at the end of 1982 programmers of Microsoft began to create the generic collection of graphic procedures called Computer Graphic Interface(CGI).
The first prototype of Windows was ready to a November exhibition of 1983 of COMDEX. At the presentation of the first Windows option it was promised that commercial sale will begin in May, 1984. In the spring of 1984 start date of sales was removed for November. In November, 1984 this date was postponed for June, 1985.
Windows and piracy
In 2007 the Microsoft corporation published interesting statistics. According to the data obtained based on a program runtime of Windows Genuine Advantage, every fifth (22%) Windows in the world is non-licensed. At the same time, according to Business Software Alliance analytical company the percent of use of pirate copies OS is much higher, and makes about 35%.
Microsoft actively fights against illegal use of the operating system. So, in 2007 Microsoft gave to corporate users an opportunity of transition from piracy Windows, on license, having paid at the same time only "license". Participating in this action of the organization were exempted from penalties for use of piracy Windows.
In December, 2008, Microsoft submitted 63 claims against sellers of the counterfeit software from 12 countries. They were accused of sale of pirate copies of the Windows XP operating system. According to Microsoft, sellers offered the Windows XP operating system of the version of Blue Edition at on-line auctions. Buyers were told that Blue Edition is the special license version of Windows XP with low price.
Approximately in the same time, the Frunze district court of Vladivostok sentenced the local to one year of imprisonment conditionally and to a fine of 117 thousand rubles for illegal installation of the Windows XP operating system and a packet of office applications of Microsoft. Then, the investigation found that the defendant for 2 thousand rubles installed the counterfeit XP Microsoft Windows XP Professional and Microsoft Office programs on four computers.
Originally, the project of a graphic superstructure over MS-DOS carried the name Interface Manager. Roland Hanson - the chief marketing specialist of the company suggested to change the name for Windows.
Windows 1.01 was the first officially released version of Windows. Version 1.0 was not released because of a hard error.