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Ubuntu Linux

The name of the base system (platform): Linux
Developers: Canonical Ltd.
Last Release Date: 2019/10/07
Technology: OS


Ubuntu logo
Ubuntu logo

Ubuntu is the operating system developed independent (or free) community and based on a core of Linux. New versions of a system appear each six months, at the same time continued support of updates in the field of security priskhodit. A system is distributed for free. Anyone can order Ubuntu Linux by mail. The main feature of a system - convenience and the maximum comfort during the work. Ubuntu uses the system of a desktop of GNOME. In addition to those applications which are included in GNOME Ubuntu leaves with the additional software, including, the Mozilla Firefox web browser and the raster graphics editor GIMP.


Updating the eliminating eighteen dangerous vulnerabilities

On October 7, 2019 it became known that the British company Canonical released updates for Linux kernel in versions of Ubuntu OS of 19.04 (Disco Dingo) and Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Bionic Beaver) eliminating eighteen dangerous vulnerabilities.

Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo)
Ubuntu 19.04 (Disco Dingo)

Among others vulnerabilities in a number of drivers, including Intel of Wi-fi, GTCO, the audiodriver USB, Raremono AM/FM/SW, USB Rio 500, CPiA2 video4linux, Softmac USB Prism54, ZR364XX USB, Siano USB MDTV, Line 6 POD USB and USB Line 6 are eliminated. The specification of the BR/EDR Bluetooth protocol is also mentioned. Operation of vulnerabilities allows the malefactors who are near the device to steal important information, to cause failure in system operation or even to execute any code.

Updating also corrects vulnerability in implementation of Bluetooth UART thanks to which the malefactor can cause failure in service and reading outside the buffer (Out-of-bounds Read) in the QLIic iSCSI QEDI Initiator driver, allowing to get access to confidential information (kernel memory). Operation of vulnerabilities in the XFS file system, the Hisilicon HNS3 Ethernet-driver and the Atheros driver allows to cause failure in service.

Canonical recommends to all users of Ubuntu of 19.04 (Disco Dingo) to be updated to Linux-image 5.0.0-31.33, and to users of Ubuntu 18.04.3 LTS (Bionic Beaver) — to Linux-image 5.0.0-31.33 ~ 18.04.1[1].

Correction of six vulnerabilities in a patch of Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus)

On July 30, 2019 it became known that the Canonical company released the security update for the Ubuntu 16.04 LTS operating system (Xenial Xerus) correcting a number of vulnerabilities.

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS (Xenial Xerus)

The patch eliminates six vulnerabilities, including integer overflow (CVE-2019-10142) in the manager of a hypervisor of a core Linux Freescale (PowerPC), and the status of a race (CVE-2018-20836) detected in implementation of Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) which operation was able to allow the local malefactor to execute any code or to cause failure in system maintenance.

Two problems (CVE-2019-11833 and CVE-2019-11884) in EXT4 file system and implementation of Bluetooth HIDP (Human Interface Device Protocol) which operation was able to allow the local malefactor to get access to confidential information to kernel memories are also corrected.

The patch corrects vulnerability (CVE-2019-9503) detected by Hugues Anguelkov in Wi-Fi- the driver Broadcom as a part of a core Linux, being in lack of event handling of a firmware that allowed the malefactor who is near the device to send firmware events.

The released update also solves a problem (CVE-2019-2054) in Linux kernel which mentions processors ARM, allowing process of trace to change a system call after decision-making of seccomp on the corresponding system call that can permit the local malefactor to bypass restrictions[2].


Start of Ubuntu virtual machines in Windows 10 became simpler more than ever. Instruction

Together with updating of Windows 10 in 2018 users of Hyper-V received the new tool for fast creation of virtual machines, except other allowing to load already ready machines from servers of the company. Their number included the optimized image of Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS (Bionic Beaver). It is available via Microsoft Hyper-V in the Windows 10 Pro or Enterprise operating systems.

Creation of Ubuntu virtual machines in Windows 10
Creation of Ubuntu virtual machines in Windows 10

The ready Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS virtual machine supports xrdp packet open source. Thanks to it there was an opportunity to use the remote desktop protocol which allows to start Ubuntu in a so-called expanded session (Enhanced Session Mode) with support of the full-screen mode, with the general clipboard and the general disks. Tuning is performed in several steps.

  1. Make sure that Hyper-V is included.
  2. Open "Hyper-V Manager" and in the field of "Actions" (action) select "Quick Create" on the right (to create quickly).
  3. select Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS From the list of ready packets of OS at the left.
  4. Click "Create Virtual Machine" (to create the virtual machine). At the same time the image of Ubuntu will be loaded and the virtual machine with support of xrdp will be created.
  5. When the Virtual Machine Created Successfully dialog box (the virtual machine is created successfully) will appear, click "Edit Settings" (to change settings), to make any changes, or just (to be connected) by "Connect" to begin the Ubuntu setup. The most part of initial setup is simple, but it is important not to select the Log In Automatically parameter (To log in automatically) during creation of the user account, otherwise there will be a failure of xrdp.

To start the Ubuntu virtual machine in a full-size window, at first it is necessary to leave the main session. Unlike the Windows 10 virtual machine there is here no opportunity to switch between the basic and expanded sessions. At an input in an expanded session the Xorg dialog box where it is necessary to enter data of an account of Ubuntu then it is possible to begin to work in the virtual machine will appear.[3]

Exit of ​Ubuntu 18.10. Support of fingerprints more artificial intelligence

On October 18, 2018 there was  an Ubuntu distribution kit 18.10. Its innovations are concentrated around multicloud environments, artificial intelligence and the user interface.

Now Ubunti became the world reference platform for development of artificial intelligence and analytics — the head of Canonical Mark Shuttleworth says. — We accelerated labor productivity of developers and helped the companies to work quickly and to be scaled by means of multicloud environments and various peripheral devices.

The Ubuntu distribution kit 18.10 received the name Cosmic Cuttlefish (a space cuttlefish) and is offered in versions of Ubuntu Desktop,  Ubuntu Server, Ubuntu Cloud,  Kubuntu,  Ubuntu Budgie, Lubuntu,  Ubuntu Studio,  Ubuntu Kylin,  Ubuntu MATE  and Xubuntu. 

Interface of the Ubuntu distribution kit 18.10
Interface of the Ubuntu distribution kit 18.10

One of innovations became implementation of support of fingerprint recognition for a computer unblocking. A working environment based on GNOME is updated to version 3.30. The new  Yaru Community  developed  by joint efforts of community Ubuntu is by default involved in it instead of a subject of a design Ambiance. 

The OpenStack Rocky, Ceph Mimic and Kubernetes utilities which are held for use cloud computing in development and testing of heavy industrial or financial programs were a part of a distribution kit.

In a kernel of Linux Kernel 4.18  in Ubuntu 18.10 options for switching of controllers of the hard drive, USB controllers and other hardware components are added to a status of low power consumption when they are not used. Data of optimization lead to the general decrease in energy consumption of the device and improve lifetime of the accumulator.

Ubuntu 18.10 is started for several seconds thanks to new shrinking algorithms of LZ. Besides, developers continued to refuse 32-bit architecture, improved the installer of programs, added support  of connection to DLNA devices and improved the interface.[4]

Release of the version of Minimal Ubuntu

In July, 2018 there was a version of Ubuntu intended for the cloud systems and the isolated containers based on the Docker platform. The distribution kit which received the name Minimal Ubuntu is created with a careful eye to high stability, maximum capacity, fast downloading and implementation of automatic functions in cloud infrastructure, says Canonical company.

According to developers, in comparison with standard server assembly of Ubuntu the version of Minimal Ubuntu of 157 MB in size occupies half less memory in the computer and also is loaded 40% quicker. At the same time innovation is completely compatible to the same packets from Ubuntu repositories.

The version of Ubuntu for the cloud systems is submitted
The version of Ubuntu for the cloud systems is submitted

The minimum set of packets because the distribution kit is expected the automated maintenance executed without participation of the user is provided in a basic equipment of Minimal Ubuntu. In assembly there are no editors, documentation and the tools necessary for interactive sessions (ssh saved). If necessary all this can be set in addition. The special program under the name Unminimize is applied to the accelerated loading of all packets which are in Ubuntu Server.

Canonical prepared two assemblies of Minimal Ubuntu: they are created on the basis of package bases Ubuntu 16.04 LTS and 18.04 LTS. Support of work in cloud environments Amazon EC2 Google Compute Engine (GCE), LXD and KVM/ is implemented OpenStack. And for each of these platforms the optimized packet option with a core Linux (the core optimized for KVM is by default offered) is prepared and are included necessary for loading and setup of the utility.

Besides, developers created based on Minimal Ubuntu the specialized version for  the organization of accomplishment of the containers Docker, compatible to infrastructures to Kubernetes in a basis.[5]


Withdrawal of Ubuntu 17.10 because of a problem in BIOS

In December, 2017 the Canonical company suspended distribution of Ubuntu because of the serious problem detected in the operating system. It turned out that the Ubuntu distribution kit 17.10 can put out of action of BIOS notebooks.

Fault is that after the Ubuntu installation 17.10 in the BIOS computer an opportunity to save new settings vanishes. Some users also point to impossibility of an exit from the BIOS interface and loading from USB drives as they cease to be distinguished.

Ubuntu interface 17.10
Ubuntu interface 17.10

The problem is aggravated in case of lack of DVD drivers in laptops as at not idle ports USB users cannot be loaded from other distribution kit.

This shortcoming mentioned first of all notebooks of Lenovo, however are recorded complaints and users of devices of Acer, Dell and Toshiba. The Canonical company published the incomplete list of models in which the described bug takes place:

  • Lenovo B40-70
  • Lenovo B50-70
  • Lenovo B50-80
  • Lenovo Flex-3
  • Lenovo Flex-10
  • Lenovo G40-30
  • Lenovo G50-70
  • Lenovo G50-80
  • Lenovo S20-30
  • Lenovo U31-70
  • Lenovo Y50-70
  • Lenovo Y70-70
  • Lenovo Yoga Thinkpad (20C0)
  • Lenovo Yoga 2 11" - 20332
  • Lenovo Z50-70
  • Lenovo Z51-70
  • Lenovo ideapad 100-15IBY
  • Acer Aspire E5-771G
  • Acer TravelMate B113
  • Toshiba Satellite S55T-B5233
  • Toshiba Satellite L50-B-1R7
  • Toshiba Satellite S50-B-13G
  • Dell XPS 13 9350 I7.

As temporary solution of a problem it is recommended to disconnect drivers of Intel-spi - * in  a core which, most likely, were not ready for use on the user notebooks. By December 22, 2017 an opportunity to load the Ubuntu distribution kit 17.10 on the official site is blocked. By this time developers prepare the version of OS without problem drivers. Fault is not detected in the previous versions of Ubuntu.[6]

Canonical returned to Ubuntu the Gnome interface

On April 6, 2017 it became known of plans of Canonical developers - together with release of Ubuntu 18.04 to include in the interface by default of Gnome instead of Unity 8. At the same time development of mobile Ubuntu and a convergent desktop will stop. The company will focus on versions of OS for desktops, servers and Internet of Things.

Financing of development of the Ubuntu Unity 8 interface, as well as creation of the version of Ubuntu for mobile devices stops. Development of the mode of convergence allowing to use a desktop of the stationary PC on mobile devices is also stopped[7].

Gnome will be built in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Long Term Support – "long-term support"). Canonical promises to continue support of all released versions of OS and to satisfy conditions of the connected contracts.

Now Canonical is better to concentrate on development of versions of Ubuntu for desktops, servers and devices of Internet of Things. The most part of public and private clouds use Linux, and many prefer Ubuntu though the competition from RedHat and other distribution kits, of course, is big.

Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Canonical company, Ubuntu developer

From the Gnome interface the company announced failure in April, 2011, promising: since October, 2017 the corporate graphic cover of Unity will become the only interface in basic delivery of Ubuntu. Though on the basis of Ubuntu assemblies with all more or less known alternative covers are created, Gnome was used as the interface by default in all Ubuntu distribution kits, since the first public release in October, 2004 and finishing with version 10.10 Maverick Meerkat.

According to correspondence of developers, the reason of removal of a usual working environment from a distribution kit there was basic disagreement of the Ubuntu command with community of Gnome developers concerning some elements of design, questions of performance improvement and convenience of using of a graphic cover. As a result of a difference of opinion, in Ubuntu release in April, 2011 Gnome assigned a part of an alternative cover and Unity became the main working environment.


Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS

On February 19, 2016 the community of developers provided an update[8].

It included the changes connected with improvement of support of the equipment, upgrade of a kernel of Linux and a graphic stack. Errors in an installer and the loader are corrected, the relevant updates for several hundred packets connected with elimination of the vulnerabilities and problems affecting stability of work are included.

Screenshot of a desktop of Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS (2016)
Screenshot of a desktop of Ubuntu 14.04.4 LTS (2016)

Similar updates of Kubuntu 14.04.4 LTS, Edubuntu 14.04.4 LTS, Xubuntu 14.04.4 LTS, Mythbuntu 14.04.4 LTS, Ubuntu GNOME 14.04.4 LTS, Lubuntu 14.04.4 LTS, Ubuntu Kylin 14.04.4 LTS and Ubuntu Studio 14.04.4 LTS are prepared.

Among features of Ubuntu 14.04.4 there is the return porting of some improvements from release of Ubuntu 15.10 connected with ensuring support of the new equipment. Updating of packets with Linux 4.2 kernel (in Ubuntu 14.04.3 the core 3.19 was offered) is offered. The graphic stack is updated to the latest issues Mesa, X.Org Server and video drivers for chips of Intel, AMD and NVIDIA.

The return porting of corrections for Unity cover is made 15.04 of release of Ubuntu, the modifications connected with use of the keyboard for navigation in Dash and creation of labels of applications on a desktop by transfer by a mouse of the icon from Dash are postponed. The new key for integration with Facebook is added to Shotwell. Verification of presence of Windows 10 at installation is added to an installer. The browser oxide-qt engine is updated (it is used in Ubuntu Touch).

Support of release of updates and corrections of security concerns for server and a desktop editions of Ubuntu 14.04 LTS will last till April, 2019.

Ubuntu 16.04 "Xenial Xerus"

On March 25, 2016 it is announced the beginning of testing of final beta release of the Ubuntu distribution kit of 16.04 "Xenial Xerus" which is referred to category of releases with long term of support (LTS) for which updates form within 5 years[9].

Ready test images are created for Ubuntu, Ubuntu Server, Ubuntu Core and Kubuntu (for them on last test stages only daily assemblies), for Ubuntu GNOME, Xubuntu, Ubuntu Studio, Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE, Ubuntu Cloud and UbuntuKylin (edition for China were offered). The release is planned for April 21, 2016.

Main changes:

  • Upgraded versions of packets, including are involved a core Linux LibreOffice 4.4, 5.1, Firefox Python 3.5, Golang 1.6, Chromium 48, 45;
  • The feature for horizontal placement of the Unity panel is added;
  • Integration of a lancher with a file manager and the interface of connection of new devices is improved;
  • Support of formatting of external drives is added to the menu of a fast call (quicklist);
  • Support of GTK-applications in which the toolbar and the menu are transferred to window title (HeaderBars) is improved;
  • The option for inclusion of permanent demonstration of the menu in applications is added to command center of Unity;
  • Support of scaling of the cursor on systems with HiDPI screens;
  • In a panel demonstration of the working icons of applications is provided irrespective of the fact how the application was started;
  • In Dash support of a design to those is improved and the new blocked scroll bars are implemented;
  • In Dash online-search function is by default turned off, i.e. from now on without special setup a system will not address external resources at accomplishment of search using smart areas (Smart Scope) in Unity 7, including demonstration of contextual advertizing of Amazon will be turned off. Change will be applied only to new installations and will not affect the last releases and systems which passed to Ubuntu 16.04 as a result of updating;
  • All applications and libraries working with web content delivered in basic delivery are translated to the WebKit 2 engine;
  • From basic delivery to a repository of Universe modules of the smart Audacious, Clementine, gmusicbrowser, Gourmet, Guayadeque and Musique areas are moved and also support of Music Store service is completely stopped.
  • Delivery of the proprietary AMD Catalyst (fglrx) driver which was not a part of release is stopped. Users are recommended to switch to the open AMDGPU/Radeon drivers;
  • Work of a welcome screen on screens of high resolution (HiDPI) is improved;
  • Support of languages and packets of localization in basic delivery is expanded;
  • The port server and cloud editions Ubuntu for 64-bit architecture of IBM LinuxONE (z/Architecture) mainframes is provided. To users well to about 95% of packets, including OpenStack, Juju, MAAS and LXD system;
  • Kubuntu: Components of a desktop are updated before releases of KDE Plasma 5.5.4 and KDE Applications 15.12;
  • Ubuntu GNOME: the majority of components of a desktop, including GNOME Shell, are updated to GNOME 3.18. Instead of Ubuntu Software Center the regular interface of installation of the GNOME Software programs is involved. Delivery includes the GNOME Calendar and GNOME Logs programs. Empathy and Brasero are deleted from basic structure. Packets with the GNOME Builder development environment are added to a repository. Testing of an experimental session based on Wayland for which use it is necessary to set a packet of gnome-session-wayland continues and to select at an input of "GNOME on wayland" (works only when using open video drivers).
  • Ubuntu MATE: The possibility of use of a lancher of Synapse (is disconnected by default, activation through MATE Tweak) reminding on the Dash functions is provided. Integration with the composite manager of Compiz is improved. The Plank 0.11 panel is updated. The Software Boutique interface with the overview more than 120 additional programs is added to Ubuntu MATE Welcome (it is possible to install the selected application at once, to filter an output on categories, to look at parts and screenshots).
  • Lubuntu: as development of an environment of LXQt is not completed yet, transition of Lubuntu to LXQt is once again postponed and in Lubuntu 16.04 LXDE will be still used.
  • Xubuntu: error corrections and updating of versions of applications.

Alpha testing of Ubuntu of 16.10 "Yakkety Yak"

On July 1, 2016 the project announced the beginning of alpha testing of the Ubuntu distribution kit of 16.10 "Yakkety Yak"[10].

According to the development plan separate alpha assemblies will not form, instead of them for testing it is offered to use daily experimental assemblies. Ready test images are created only for Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE and UbuntuKylin (edition for China). Assemblies of Kubuntu, Ubuntu GNOME and other editions are not ready yet. The second alpha release of Ubuntu 16.10 is planned for July 28, the release is planned for October 13, 2016.

Logo of the Ubuntu system 16.10 \"Yakkety Yak\", (2016)
Logo of the Ubuntu system 16.10 "Yakkety Yak", (2016)

In alpha release versions of packets from repositories of Debian Unstable are synchronized and transition to Linux 4.4 kernel is executed. In Lubuntu, except updating of LXDM 0.5.3 and LXpanel 0.8.1, notable changes are not mentioned - in Lubuntu 16.10 LXDE as development of an environment of LXQt is not completed yet will be still used. In Ubuntu by default Unity 7 with a possibility of start of Unity 8 as an alternative session which will be offered on the login page is offered as before. The functionality of Unity 8 is going to be brought to parity with Unity 7, including to ensure functioning on multimonitor configurations, to expand management tools windows in a desktop mode, to adjust use of a clipboard and to organize seamless start of X-applications using XMir.

In Ubuntu MATE transition to GTK3+ library is executed (without delivery of GTK2+), the new release of MATE Desktop 1.14 (it is built only with GTK 3.18) is involved, support of an applet of GNOME Main Menu (in MATE 1.16 the new applet with implementation of the menu in openSUSE style will appear) is stopped, Pidgin (it is possible to set through Software Boutique) is deleted from delivery, meta-packets are processed, the Welcome application (the new appearance, port for WebKit2 4.0, are expanded means of primary setup) is updated, the new version of the interface of installation of the Software Boutique programs (search, the list of innovations, queue of installation of applications, for installation well to more than 160 applications is added) is added, is updated the MATE Tweak tool, support of packets of Snap is added.

2015: Ubuntu 15.10 "Wily Werewolf"

On August 27, 2015 the community of developers provided beta release of the Ubuntu distribution kit of 15.10 "Wily Werewolf". It designates transition to the first stage of freezing of package base and development vector shift from development of new opportunities to testing and error correction[11].

Diagram of an output of releases, 2015

According to the development plan for testing it is offered to use daily experimental assemblies. Ready test images are created for Kubuntu, Lubuntu, Ubuntu MATE, Ubuntu Cloud, Ubuntu GNOME and Xubuntu. The release is planned for October 22, 2015.

Significant innovations

  • Ubuntu GNOME: The desktop of GNOME Shell and the majority of the GNOME components are updated before release 3.16. Instead of Shotwell GNOME Photos is used for work with a collection of photos. The GNOME Music application is by default added to delivery. By bluetooth stack it is updated to Bluez 5. The input guide offered at the first start is submitted. Support of syncevolution service is added to GNOME Online Accounts (GOA). The experimental session based on Wayland for which use it is necessary to set a packet of gnome-session-wayland is implemented and to select at an input of "GNOME on wayland" (works only when using open video drivers).

  • Ubuntu MATE: The majority of components of a desktop is updated before release of MATE 1.10. MATE Tweak is ported on Python 3, support of the choice of layouts of a panel as is added to Fedora and Mageia. In the Caja file manager integration into the tool for Deja Dup backup is provided. Access to settings of backup, the firewall and management of users is added to Ubuntu MATE Welcome, applications are separated into categories, references for fast installation of applications are added: App Grid, Chromium, Disks, Hardinfo, SpiderOakONE, Ubuntu Software Centre and VeraCrypt.

  • Kubuntu: Applications are updated before release of KDE Applications 15.08. The desktop is updated before beta release of Plasma 5.4.

  • Lubuntu: as development of an environment of LXQt is not completed yet, transition of Lubuntu to LXQt is again postponed and in Lubuntu 15.10 LXDE will be still used.

2014: Ubuntu 14.04 "Trusty Tahr"

On March 27, 2014 Canonical announced release of the final beta of Ubuntu of 14.04 "Trusty Tahr".

This Linux distribution kit belongs to the category of products with a progressive tense of support (LTS). Updates for this group form within five years. The final version of a distribution kit will appear on April 17. Images of installation are created for Ubuntu, Ubuntu Server, Lubuntu, Ubuntu GNOME, Xubuntu, Ubuntu Studio, Edubuntu and Kubuntu.


  • A large number of changes in version 14.04 affected Unity cover. Developers finished the interface here, introduced amendments in behavior and manipulation with windows.

  • Support of Nvidia Optimus technology which allows to switch between the discrete and built-in the processor graphics in notebooks, for economy of a charge of the accumulator is improved.

  • New types of notifications with recommendations of availability of drivers, more suitable for the equipment, and offers on installation of packets for localization improvement are implemented.

  • The new manager for installation of drivers of devices helps with the choice and installation of hardware drivers.

  • Integration with Google services is improved, the search capability of materials in Google Drive from Dash and an output to panels of reminders on events from Google Calendar is provided. To the control menu the sound adds the button of fast decrease in the sound level, the possibility of installation of volume outside 100% is provided (joins through a special option).

Linux 3.13 kernel is involved in a distribution kit.

As MySQL implementation by default in LTS release of Ubuntu it is decided to use MySQL 5.6.

Canonical does not plan transition by default for MariaDB that practices in other distribution kits. It has a talk noticeable improvements in a support area of packets with MySQL for Ubuntu from Oracle and elimination of the defects taking place regarding its interaction with developers of the Linux distribution kits.

Branches of Ubuntu of 14.04 "Trusty Tahr" changed:

  • Kubuntu. Updating of components a desktop environment before release of KDE 4.12.2. Improvement of the Creator USB interface, increase in convenience of the choice of disks, normalization size of widgets and lists;
  • Ubuntu GNOME. Implementation of support of work in the mode of a classical desktop, in the manager of an input the separate session of GNOME Classic is added;
  • Lubuntu. The new version of the PCManFM 1.2 file manager with support of the two-panel mode and editing the menu is included;
  • Xubuntu. Light Locker is used for blocking of the screen instead of Xscreensaver. Placement of elements on a panel is updated, as implementation of the menu Whiskermenu is used. For management of personal settings the Mugshot application is added;
  • Edubuntu. Support of diskless loading is added. The server of directories for the organization of uniform point of entry of users is integrated;
  • Ubuntu Server. The structure includes Puppet 3;
  • Ubuntu Cloud. System images for start in cloud environments, such as Amazon EC2, OpenStack, SmartOS develop.

As a part of updated applications for Ubuntu 14.04: Firefox, LibreOffice and set of other software.


Ubuntu 13.04 Raring Ringtail

On April 25, 2013 start of the version of the free operating system - Ubuntu 13.04 took place. Ubuntu 13.04 for the desktop systems includes a set of improvements which do it "to the fastest" and "visually polished" by the version. During creation of new release developers concentrated on a problem of obtaining maximum capacity on mobile systems. It became preparation for start of Ubuntu on devices of different form factors. Significant reduction response time in day-to-day running and the smaller volume of the occupied memory became result of work.

The new release shows for 40% smaller load time on the desktop Acer Veriton systems with Intel processors and AMD, takes 50 MB less places in RAM, offers the smaller size of an image and reduced energy consumption, ZDNet reports.

1:04 p.m. the Developer Preview SDK tool kit for developers allowing to create native applications for Ubuntu-devices includes. Using it SDK developers can create uniform applications for devices of different form factors and publish them in Ubuntu Software Centre shop - at once for all devices one packet.

However so far there are some differences in the code of applications for Ubuntu 13.04 and the versions intended for tablets (Ubuntu Touch) and smartphones. The company promises to get rid of these differences in the following releases of the operating system. It is going to be made to an exit of Ubuntu 13.10 in October, 2013.

As for innovations, among the most significant it is possible to call the following: use of a kernel of Linux 3.8; to version 1.8 the system of initialization Upstart is updated, but as an experimental opportunity support of session management of users for graphic sessions is added; from delivery of a distribution kit it is deleted with Windows loader Wubi, allowing to install Ubuntu OS on the computer in the same section, as Windows. (This solution was caused by that circumstance that operation of the loader in view of its incorrect work caused frequent complaints from users that led to decline in demand for Wubi among the bulk of users. Thus, boot LiveDVD or LiveUSB carriers) remain an alternative method of the Ubuntu installation 13.04 on the computer with Windows.

The user cover of Unity was updated to version 7. From changes in the interface it is possible to note new implementation of the menu for synchronization of data with use of Ubuntu One service, new dialogs of completion of work, new visual effects (for example, in the course of movement of a window out of screen limits in a transparent form it is specified area which the application will occupy at release of the mouse button), new icons of a panel and lenses. As for the graphical interface, it includes new animation effects in the home Dash screen, the new search algorithm of files and the improved system menus for power management and Bluetooth.[12]

The Friends service which replaced Gwibber is provided. The service allows to organize access to all accounts of the user on social networks through the uniform account in Ubuntu Online. Release 13.04 includes the Developer Preview SDK tool kit for developers allowing to create native applications for Ubuntu-devices. Using it SDK developers can create uniform applications for devices of different form factors and publish them in Ubuntu Software Centre shop — at once for all devices one packet. However so far there are some differences in the code of applications for Ubuntu 13.04 and versions of Ubuntu Touch intended for tablets and smartphones. The company promises to get rid of these differences in the following releases of the operating system. It is going to be made to an exit of Ubuntu 13.10 in October, 2013.

In server edition to release of Grizzly the cloud platform of OpenStack is updated, new versions of Ceph 0.56.4, MongoDB 2.2.4 and OpenvSwitch 1.9.0 are also submitted. The new means for deployment and management of work of the distributed applications allowing the developer not to think are included where these programs — in private or public clouds, on x86 - or ARM servers, or on the notebook of the developer are executed. The specified means are suitable for local testing and deployment of solutions for the cloud systems. The idea of start of local 'microcloud' based on cloud infrastructure of OpenStack is the cornerstone. After testing of a product in a microcloud the developer can move a product to external cloud systems, such as Amazon's EC2, or on remote servers.

It is necessary to pay attention that version 13.04 will receive lifecycle on the updated (shortened) diagram which was reduced from 18 to 9 months for all not-LTS-versions of the Ubuntu systems. According to the cycle of releases accepted now, in October there will be a version of Ubuntu 13.10. However the version of Ubuntu 14.04 can become the last, released within a semi-annual cycle of releases. 2:04 p.m. also becomes the next version with the increased term of support (LTS).

Ubuntu 13.10 Saucy Salamander

On October 17, 2013 Canonical announced availability of the server version of Ubuntu 13.10. According to Canonical, installation of server edition Ubuntu 13.10 will take no more than three minutes.

New opportunities

Code name of release of Saucy Salamander (Bright Salamander) and it is available to loading since October 17, 2013. The product contains the improvements directed to speeding up. As explain in Canonical, it is made within the plan for transformation of Ubuntu into an ideal development environment, testing and execution of cloud services.

New edition of a cloud platform OpenStack — Havana will be a part of Ubuntu 13.10, it will leave on October 17, 2013.

  • The new installer reduces installation time of OS on network by physical servers or virtual machines less than to three minutes.
  • In this version of a system support of technology of virtualization of Linux Containers is improved. Canonical says that containers hold less resources, than full-fledged virtual machines therefore their start in bigger quantity is possible. Containers share some resources, but are completely isolated from each other.
  • In OpenStack Havana the Heat system for management of difficult compound services and the mechanism of storage of objects Swift will appear. Besides, the new version will be able to work with other hypervisors in addition to KVM, in particular, with VMWare of ESX — through a plug-in Nova.
  • The new graphic stack of Mir created on replacement growing old X Window, 13.10 is not a part of Ubuntu yet.

Ubuntu 14.04

On December 20, 2013 there was a version of Ubuntu 14.04. Canonical developers improved a number of different components in this version.

The advanced tool for the updating set on the software system - Software Updater became the most significant change. The upgraded software solution is more convenient, than ever before. Now it will be much simpler to the users for the first time setting Ubuntu to understand the OS interface, to make the list of software packages necessary for them.

New Software Updater provides more detailed information on what is set by the owner of a system. In the long term developers intend to implement reflection of information on changes in new versions of different programs.

Ubuntu 14.04 LTS - in development stages, it is possible that by the time of an exit of stable release developers will add the optimizing updates to the operating system.


Mark Shuttleworth wants to make Ubuntu the national operating system of the People's Republic of China

The founder of the Ubuntu project Mark Shuttleworth wishes to give to Ubuntu the status of the national operating system of the People's Republic of China – the chairman of the Chinese league on promotion of the Open source software Lu Shouqun reported about it.

Lu Shouqun provides excerpts from correspondence with Mark Shuttleworth, the head of the Canonical company conducting development of the popular Ubuntu Linux distribution kit in the blog. Mark Shuttleworth reported that he is going to visit China in 2011, to provide new projects of Ubuntu and to render assistance in creation of 'the official state version of Linux' for desktop application. It is remarkable that Mark Shuttleworth is also the adviser of Expert center of the Chinese association of promotion of the Open source software.

Mark Shuttleworth recognizes that in China there are already several local projects on creation of the Linux distribution kits, however he all the same hopes to discuss the offer. 'I am going to meet representatives of several firms and very much mister Lu would like to meet you, again, – Mark Shuttleworth writes. – I will be very glad if you are able to help me to meet authorities of the government of China', – the head of Canonical company writes.

Lu Shouqun notes that last year Mark Shuttleworth already came to China and read the offer. However it was not apprehended with big enthusiasm – most of the Chinese producers of the Linux distribution kits base the products on source texts of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and transition to Ubuntu will mean failure from a usual technology platform. However Lu Shouqun considers that return to this question in the current year 'makes big sense'.

Mark Shuttleworth plans arose not from scratch. In spite of the fact that software from Microsoft takes the dominating positions in this country, in China exists several companies which are releasing the Linux distribution kits. Besides, the known national development – the Loongson processor – is simply incompatible now with Windows and is used only in a combination to free operating systems. By the beginning 2010-2011 academic years of 60,000 notebooks with this processor were already delivered in schools of the Province of Jiangsu.

In 2009 the representative of the Ministry of science and technology of the People's Republic of China reported that development of the Open source software will become one of priority problems of the 12th five-years period (which should be approved in the first quarter 2011). In spite of the fact that the recommendations about the 12th five-year plan published in October, 2010 in an explicit form do not mention the Open source software, nevertheless, in them it is told about development of 'system software'. According to forecasts of the analytical agency CCID Consulting, development of 'basic software', including, the output to international market of the Linux OS desktop distribution kits from the Chinese producers, will become one of the main results of the 12th five-years period.

It is also necessary to note that recently published Plans of transfer of federal authorities and budgetary institutions for the free software in Russia with great interest were apprehended in the West. Many observers consider that the Russian initiative can be taken up also by other countries. If it happens, then to such companies as Canonical, it is profitable to provide to itself the most advantageous positions in advance.

Version 11.04 Natty Narwhal (graceful dug)

The user interface Unity developed for the simplified access to programs and data of the user became the main innovation. According to creators, the new graphic cover most optimum uses screen space and offers more effective instruments of work in comparison with environments of GNOME and KDE, popular in Linux. The new interface supports hardware acceleration that, in general, increases risk of interruptions in operation of the computer.

Among other features of the operating system it is necessary to select the upgraded installer of the OS and the updated software package as a part of which office LibreOffice 3.3.2 set which succeeded and also the improved manager of installation of applications (Ubuntu Software Center) who provides a possibility of purchase of commercial solutions and fact-finding start of programs on a remote server before their installation on the PC is provided.

The most remarkable among many fundamental changes in Natty Narwhal is the new desktop of Unity with support the multi-touch screen replacing GNOME and using the icons built along the left edge of the display. Canonical conceived Unity as means of pushing through of Ubuntu on tablets and also notebooks and netbooks with touch screens. However at the moment very few users of Ubuntu have computers with such displays. So life or death of Unity depend on a mouse.

In the left part of a desktop of Unity there is a start panel which can be hidden to increase a free space. It is one of many functions designed to make Ubuntu more convenient in relation to small screens of netbooks and tablets. Other important new feature is Dash which can be caused click in the display upper left corner. After that access to icons and a search mechanism opens.

In Unity also debuts the new mode of demonstration of working spaces intended for management of several windows and applications. Working spaces should facilitate switching between the started applications. Among other Unity functions it is necessary to call rescheduling of icons using drag and drop, a full support of navigation using the keyboard, 'hot' keys and mice caused by the right click context menus for quick access to commands, project participants report.***

LibreOffice and improvement of Command center of software

11.04 treat inclusion in a packet of LibreOffice 3.3.2 instead of serious improvements of Ubuntu and such updates as Firefox 4 and Banshee 2.0. As other improvements call the installer of Ubiquity which became to simpler in use and Network Manager which gained further development.

The cloud service of Ubuntu One ensuring data storage and functioning with musical files had the new control panel giving an opportunity to selective synchronization and displaying synchronization process, project participants report. Besides, file synchronization began to be performed quicker.

Improvements concerned Command center of software which allows to define the rating of programs and to make about them responses. Now thanks to new features of integration of the updated application of Gwibber the Center gives an opportunity to publish responses in social networks.

As it was already noted in our former publications, in Command center of software the possibility of commission of 'a trial trip' — tests of the selected applications before their installation appeared. However, when we decided to use it, it turned out that it is available not at once, and requires additional preparatory actions. Applications are started on a remote server using the NX protocol. For this purpose it is necessary to set manually a special packet under the name qtnx.

Among the updated components it is necessary to call 1.10.0 and Mesa 7.10.1, GNU gcc 4.5, Python 2.7 and Upstart 0.9.7-1. One of noticeable innovations in Ubuntu 11.04 are Qt libraries as a development environment instead of Gtk + the GNOME project.

Kernel of Linux 2.6.38, power management in Natty and updating of the server

At the end of April the Phoronix company published the results of testing of the latest beta of Ubuntu 11.04 which showed existence of a serious problem with power management because of which energy consumption grows on average by 10%. This problem is connected with a new kernel of Linux 2.6.38, used in Ubuntu. So in the nearest future it is necessary to expect it emergence and in other distribution kits. So far project participants study it.

However the version of a core of Linux 2.6.38 is very good. It provides to users of Natty Narwhal protection of AppArmor, support of Intel of IPS (Intelligent Power Sharing), a possibility of shutdown of the Big Kernel Lock function and use of the Btrfs, Ext4 and XFS file systems.

AppArmor and many other features of a kernel of Linux 2.6.38 will be reflected first of all in Ubuntu Server 11.04. This operating system is available too. It includes the updated Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud (UEC) platform based on Eucalyptus 2.02 and also the fact-finding version of a cloud platform open source of OpenStack Cactus. Among other features it is possible to call simplification of selection of server resources, new features of power management and improvements mentioned above connected with use of the version of a kernel of Linux 2.6.38.

In more detail server edition is covered in our former publications. Besides, it is probable, in the next weeks corporate systems specialists from eWeek will carefully study Ubuntu Server 11.04.

Desktop of ARM Unity-2d, autonomous versions for PandaBoard and BeagleBoard

As well as the majority of the distribution kits Linux, Ubuntu intends first of all for x86 processors, but now supports also ARM processors. Though from this release for systems based on x86 edition Ubuntu Netbook Edition (UNE) which functions are included in the major desktop version disappeared, the preset images of Ubuntu Netbook are available to ARM processors. Among them there is a version of an Unity-2D desktop of Unity based on Enlightenment Foundation Libraries for the graphic cards supporting a two-dimensional graphics.

There are also autonomous reference images for developers for two open Texas Instruments OMAP/ARM platforms which distributor is the Digi-key company. These images support PandaBoard boards with the Cortex-A9 OMAP4430 dual-core processor of 1 GHz and BeagleBoard with ARM Cortex-A8 OMAP processors of 1 GHz, including the GGts latest DM730 1 TI processor.

Ubuntu was announced in network: There references to accompanying notes and reviews are given, the addresses for loading are specified. It is possible to address directly a source on the page for Ubuntu loading where references to the on-line test version, the websites for loading and the version on USB/CD are had.

Ubuntu Linux 12.04 (Precise Pangolin)

In October, 2011 Ubuntu Linux developers reported that the new version of the platform – Precise Pangolin – should become the powerful platform suitable for industrial use in crucial applications.

The version of Ubuntu Linux 12.04 will receive the status LTS (Long-Term Support) which guarantees a full support of the platform from the producer within three years from the moment of release. Such, expected long perspective products optimum are suitable for application in crucial applications and on large enterprises. Developers are going to pay special attention to support of the new equipment in Ubuntu 12.04 throughout all cycle of support.

After transition to own graphic cover of Unity and to the GNOME 3 environment the Ubuntu Linux system will offer even more advanced versions of these components. Management of the PCs big parks at the expense of the increased security and convenient updating of program components, including transition from Ubuntu 10.04 LTS to version 12.04 LTS will be simplified. It is going to improve work with several monitors on one PC.

For the first time the Ubuntu platform will get support of server machines with ARM processors in version 12.04 though at an initial stage only some models of the integrated chips with the specified architecture will be supported. Support of ARM architecture is especially important in conditions when essential is density of placement of computing powers, but not performance on single-threaded applications. Besides, the new version of Ubuntu will be optimized for cloud computing – with its help customers will be able easily to start and control services in private, public and hybrid clouds.

The following release of Ubuntu will switch on the new user interface Head-Up Display (HUD) which will allow to execute any function of any application by a set of the key word describing it in the command line. Besides, HUD will support voice commands. The first version of the interface will appear in April, 2012 in Ubuntu 12.04 Long Term.

HUD is performed over Unity, the standard Ubuntu interface for the desktop systems, and looks as the translucent console which in fact is the search system on resources of applications. By a set of a key word in it it is possible to find functions, tabs and files. After the first access to function the subsequent addresses to her will quicker happen thanks to autocompletion of input. Any program supporting the Unity menu will be able to work with HUD.

HUD is created as the alternative to traditional menus deprived of their shortcomings — difficulties of search of functions, need of storing of the hot keys, etc. Thanks to a search mechanism of a fuzzy matching HUD allows to find quickly commands about which users do not know how they precisely are called. HUD transactions are supported in the command line of Linux — them it is possible to include in scripts and command pipelines.

Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal

According to developers, a new system "destroys a barrier between the computer and the Internet" by integration of a desktop into Network. Thus, it is supposed that users of a system are able to move easily between local and web applications and also content, placed on the PC and on the Internet.

So, for example, search in documents with the help of local search engine Dash in Ubuntu 12.10 joins, for example, search results on online services: in Google Drive Gmail Twitter, Flickr or Facebook.

In practice inclusion in search space of local search of Dash of commercial and free offers of Amazon online store became the most disputable implementation of this concept. This innovation caused ambiguous reaction in Ubuntu beta testers, and, in response to criticism, Canonical included in a distribution kit an opportunity to disconnect results of online search in the Security tab of the System Parameters menu. However, use of this opportunity leads to shutdown of Internet search in all sources.

Among interesting technology innovations of Ubuntu 12.10 it is possible to call support of the mode of safe loading UEFI (UEFI Secure Boot). Thus, new Ubuntu can be installed including on the computers using UEFI instead of BIOS. Support of UEFI Secure Boot in Ubuntu is performed by means of the regular GRUB 2 loader.

The new cover of Unity 6.8.0 with the improved yuzabelnost is constructed on the basis of the GNOME 3.6 graphical interface though as a file manager Nautilus from the structure of GNOME 3.4 owing to its higher functionality is used. Support of the "facilitated" cover of Unity 2D is not provided in a new distribution kit.

The release of Ubuntu 12.10 is presented in versions for desktops, servers and cloud-environments. Along with the main release a number of collateral projects is issued: Kubuntu using an environment of a desktop of KDE 4.9, Xubuntu with an environment of Xfce 4.10, Lubuntu with a cover of LXDE, the multimedia focused Ubuntu Studio, Mythbuntu, and Edubuntu with a selection of the training software.

Starting with the present version of Ubuntu 12.10 creation of the images of a distribution kit which are located on CD of 640 MB is stopped. Now a system is delivered in the form of an image of 800 MB in size which can be used at its installation with DVD - or the Flash-carrier.

According to the technical director of the company of Canonical, developer Ubuntu, Ollie Olli Ries, additional section which users see, executing search, it is designed to help to find information in the Internet in addition to that which is on their device that is good example of implementation of function of universal search in Ubuntu.

However the true motive of adding of new section as notices ZDNet, disappears in another - it is a new source of income for Canonical, and in the company in it were recognized. "In certain cases, when the user clicks on the link and buys goods, a part of revenue from its sale arrives to us. We invest this revenue in our project. We understood that this source of income is capable to help us to develop Ubuntu", - Rice reported.

Emergence of advertizing caused acute negative reaction of community of the users who tested it in the beta of a system, ZDNet with reference to the websites Slashdot and Reddit on which the set of negative reviews is published reports.

2010: Ubuntu 10.10

At the beginning October, 2010 the Canonical company updated options of the Ubuntu Linux distribution kit for desktop computers, netbooks and servers. It is possible to download Ubuntu 10.10 in editions Desktop, Netbook and Server Edition since October 10.[13]

Ubuntu for netbooks had a user interface Unity which is specially expected screens of the smaller size. In editions Desktop and Netbook basic support of simultaneous contacts when using touch screens is also provided. In the desktop version the maximum simplicity of search and installation of the software is provided. An expanded set of cloud services of Ubuntu One for Ubuntu Desktop Edition: the possibility of exchange and file synchronization, contacts, tabs and notes with platforms is provided Android, iPhone and Windows.

The server version is optimized counting on execution in a cloud and development of cloud applicaions. In particular, in Server Edition an opportunity to perform images of cloud applicaions in the Amazon Machine Image format locally in virtual machines under control of a hypervisor of KVM is provided. Within the stock Ubuntu Server on Cloud 10 persons interested can work free of charge with Ubuntu 10.10 Server Edition on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud service within an hour.