Translated by
2010/05/26 15:18:08


Information  — according to the Act of the Russian Federation "About Information and Data Protection", it the information about people things, the facts, events and processes. In a broad sense, this abstract concept having a set of values depending on a context. In a confined sense of this word  — data (messages, data) irrespective of a form of their representation.


The concept of information was considered still by antique philosophers. Prior to industrial revolution, determination of an essence of information remained a prerogative mainly of philosophers.

After mass implementation of personal computers and a global network the Internet information became the main object  — science, new for that time  — information science.

Properties of information

The main property of information  — reliability  — compliance of information of reality and to the real situation.

Reliable information is considered the truth. Reliable information is of value for people as it reflects realities.

Unreliable information  is a lie. False unreliable information is usually rejected by people in a type of its inconsistency of reality.

Accuracy of the information is the main question in science, management and law and also in everyday life of people.

Misinformation is called one of methods of manipulation of information, false representation by providing incomplete information, distortion of a context, distortion of a part of information.

Information in scientific research

In science and law information should rely on the established facts, data and proofs relying on authentic data.

Scientific theories in terms of logic submit the applied logical theories with the facts, proofs and to laws relying on reliable patterns.

Scientific publications  are messages about new established facts, observations, generalizations and scientific the theory, being based on reliable data.

Unreliable information in science, law and management is cut as information contradicting reality and the real situation.

Information science as science

Information science — the science and a subject matter connected with questions, methods and the principles of Processing, accumulation and information transfer in a computer and using computers and computer networks. Information science as science and a subject matter is studied in Russia, in Ukraine, in Belarus, Kazakhstan, France and Germany.

Information science as scientific discipline in Russia was stated in the fundamental monograph by the academician Glushkov V. M. "Paperless information science" in 1978. The academician Glushkov wrote: "In HH1 a century the most part of information will be stored in computer memory".

The first encyclopedic edition "Informatika" under the editorship of the academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences of Pospedovaa D.A. appeared in 1994 and contained a large number of the materials connected with information science, information systems, information technologies and researches in the field of artificial intelligence.

Informatization of society

Informatization of society  is a saturation of society and public institutes information  — about news, events, goods services, exhibitions, fairs, the markets  , etc.

The constitution of the Russian Federation  — the Fundamental Law of the Russian Federation  — declares freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of information exchange  — a paper and electronic form, including via the Internet.

Censorship  — as restriction of freedom of speech is banned in the Russian Federation. Exceptions of freedom of speech and printing are regulated by the Act of the Russian Federation "About State Secrets". The act of the Russian Federation "About a State Secret" prohibits disclosure of information on the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, internal affairs of the Russian Federation, bodies of state security, foreign affairs of the Russian Federation and foreign trade of the Russian Federation.

Law on data protection

Legal definition of the concept "information" is given in the federal law of July 27, 2006  No. 149-FZ "About information, information technologies and on data protection" (Article 2): "information  — data (messages, data) irrespective of a form of their representation".

The law "About Information, Information Technologies and Data Protection" defines and affirms the rights to the protection of information and information security of citizens and the organizations in a computer and in information systems and also questions of information security of citizens, the organizations, societies and the states.

The main threats to data protection in a computer and information systems represent the computer viruses and computer hacking pursued under the law according to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Hackers are engaged in computer hacking and spread of viruses.

The Government of the Russian Federation and personally the Russian President Medvedev Dmitry Anatolyevich made the decision on transfer for the purpose of ensuring national security in the field of IT of all state and budget organizations on the open domestic software [a source?].

According to "The information security doctrine in the Russian Federation" data protection and information security in information systems and the automated control systems (ACS) are a priority strategic task. For this purpose within training in information science carrying out a computer educational program on studying of methods of data protection, fight against computer viruses and computer hackers is necessary.

Information right

The information right as science  is the system of scientific knowledge of the information right as a branch of law, its subject, methods, the principles of legal regulation of the information relations, the history of development, its main institutes, the comparative and legal analysis of rules of law and the public relations in the information sphere of foreign countries. And this science is at the initial stage of the formation.

The information right as a subject matter  is the system of knowledge of the information right obligatory to studying in the relevant educational institutions, first of all legal.

The information right as one of the industries of Russian law represents the system of the rules of law governing the relations in the information sphere. It is one of the youngest industries in the system of Russian law.

See Also


  • Glushkov V.  M.  Paperless information science.  — M.: Science, 1978.
  • Bauer F., Gooz Informatika. M.: World, 1979.
  • Information science: encyclopedic dictionary. / Sost. Pospelov D.A.  — M.: Pedagogics press, 1994.
  • Yershov A. P., etc. Fundamentals of information science and VT. The trial textbook for high schools. M.: Education, 1985.
  • Kaiming V. A., etc. Fundamentals of information science and VT. The textbook for high schools. M.: Education. 1988 — 1989.
  • Kaiming V. A., Piterkin  V. M.  Fundamentals of information science and VT. The textbook for students. M.: MIEM, 1985.
  • Kaiming V. A  .  Information science. The manual for going to the universities. M.: Bridge. 1984.
  • Kaiming V. A  .  Information science. The textbook for students. the 6th edition. M.: INFRA-M, 1998 — 2009.
  • Baturin Yu.  M.  Problems of the computer right. M, 1991.
  • Bachilo I.  L.  Information right. M.: The higher education, Yurayt-Izdat, 2009. ISBN 978-5-9692-0462-1.
  •  Gorodov O.A.  Information right. M.: Avenue, 2009. ISBN 978-5-392-00411-9.

Internet links