|Cloud computing |
Cloud computing (engl. Cloud is a cloud; computing are calculations) — "cloud computing" — the concept of "a computing cloud" according to which programs are started and issue results of work in a window of the standard web browser on the local PC, at the same time all applications and their data necessary for work are on a remote server in the Internet.
The computers performing cloud computing are called "a computing cloud". At the same time loading between the computers entering "a computing cloud" is distributed automatically. The simplest example of cloud computing are p2p-networks. According to specialists, cloud computing is the group of the technologies which are heading information technology development in general, having even a greater influence, than in due time electronic business.
 Opredeleniyenatsionalny institute of standards and technologies of the USA: according to a NIST "cloud computing" is a model of ensuring universal network access on demand to a shared pool of the configured computing resources which can be provided and implemented quickly with a minimum of administrative efforts or interactions with service provider. Cloud computing also should have five main characteristics: self-service on demand, broadband network access, a pool of resources, a possibility of fast reconfiguration or expansion and the measured service. Three service models - the program, the platform and infrastructure in the form of service and four models of implementation - are listed private, public, hybrid and public (community). The last is defined how "cloud infrastructure for use of consumers by limited community from the organizations having common interests".