|Developers:||W3C are WWWC, World Wide Web Consortium, Consortium of a World Wide Web|
|Last Release Date:||October, 2014|
|Branches:||Internet services, Information technologies|
|Technology:||Development tools of applications|
HTML 5 (engl. HyperText Markup Language 5) — the fifth version of one of the main markup languages of web pages, HTML. The version of language which is completely conforming to the XML standard is called XHTML 5.
HTML5 includes elements both HTML4, and xHTML (the version of a markup language of web pages meeting the XML specifications) and also the interface for access to HTML and XML-objects of Document Object Model.
Many ideas of HTML 5 were initially offered WHATWG in the Web Applications 1.0 standard. HTML 5 includes other standard WHATWG, Web Forms 2.0.
2007-2008: Start of development of the standard
Development of HTML 5 began in the new working group of W3C in 2007.
The first draft copy of the specification became available to the general public on January 22, 2008.
Initially HTML was created as platformenno independent language for a marking of technical documentation using hyperlinks, at the same time all multimedia component was introduced there much later. The problem of HTML5 is rather trivial – to provide support of the spread multimedia information only by means of resources of the browser.
Also differences of HTML5 from the new version include more convenient marking, new semantic tags, correction of values of tags, support of canvas and svg. The speech also goes about new API for development of web applications, however, in terms of the specification, these are the separate standards (for example, Web Storage) studied in WebApps WG in W3C. The most expected marking elements which were supposed to be entered in the new version of HTML are audio (sound), video (video) and also a set of new semantic tags, such as nav tag (navigation).
2010: Microsoft starts W3C alternative - HTML5 Labs
The Microsoft corporation announced in December, 2010 start of the new project under the name HTML5 Labs which should collect different developments of prototypes or unconfirmed versions of specifications of web standards. The project is alternative in relation to activity of consortium W3C and is focused on support of HTML5 in the Microsoft Internet Explorer 9 web browser. In it two prototypes – developments of IndexedDB (implementation of storage system of large volumes of structured data (tabs, letters, etc.) in the form of the database with a possibility of quick search) and WebSockets are already described (replacement of a data exchange system under protocols in the form of a uniform transport socket of the TCP protocol). Nevertheless so far Microsoft does not consider them ready so to apply in IE9. However the corporation does not speak about "stillbirth" of these standards and suggests developers to improve them or to create other solutions in the context of development of HTML5.
The Consortium World Wide Web Consortium announced in October, 2012 plans according to which the final version of HTML5 standard will be approved by 2014, and HTML 5.1 — to the 2016th.
To avoid past problems, now more modularly is decided to develop HTML, it also causes the solution at once to start creation of version 5.1. Initially a number of the elements which now became separate specifications — Web Storage, Web Workers and WebSocket Protocol wanted to include in HTML5. But now all unstable components are decided to be taken out in the separate version of HTML 5.1. It will allow W3C to focus on stability augmentation and interbrowser interoperability of other HTML 5 components.
W3C will be difficult to achieve the planned goals: at this time according to the website of consortium, in HTML5 ten unresolved problems, 300 errors and 11 features which received formal objections of developers.
2012: W3C submitted final HTML5 specifications
The global consortium on web standardization of W3C announced in December, 2012 completion of process of formation of HTML5 specifications. New specifications are recognized complete and stable thanks to what developers and representatives of business can officially consider them as the standard for now "implementation and planning" the web projects.
The HTML new specifications is not the standard for the web industry yet: officially they will be able to become like that only when are everywhere and are correctly implemented. Taking into account that the majority of HTML5 specifications is already maintained by modern versions of browsers and applied in web development, final transformation of HTML5 into the standard can be expected to the middle of 2014.
Work on HTML5 specifications passed into a test stage of compatibility of available implementations. Within two years application developers for work with Web should provide uniform support of the offered specifications to minimize risk of fragmentation in the field of web technologies. As soon as testing yields an acceptable result, HTML5 standard will be approved finally.
The consortium is going to develop tests for correctness of implementation of standards in the existing software and to adjust work with community on carrying out these tests. Testing will allow W3C to be convinced that all desktop, mobile and the web applications applying HTML5 are browsers, the systems of creation and content management, e-mail clients, server applications - equally correctly implemented the offered specifications.
HTML5 represents the complex open platform which is not limited to language of a hypertext marking. Enter a program environment for work of the cross-platform applications available via the browser, diverse technologies of work with graphics, animation and video and also the means offering enhanced network capabilities the difficult enrollment of web technologies creating HTML5.
According to the list on W3C website, HTML5 standard will include the following documents: description of basic API; description of a markup language of HTML (syntax, attributes, data types); the list of differences HTML5 from HTML4; the description of means of ensuring of availability to physically disabled people and also a number of the documents covering unique aspects of HTML. So, separate documents will be devoted to the Microdata mechanism allowing authors to add on the web pages elements for which there are no corresponding HTML tags or attributes and also XML - to a compatible marking of XHTML and opportunities of a tag of alt.
Along with completion of standardization effort of HTML5 preparation of future series of the HTML standards began, reports W3C. In particular, the first draft copies of HTML 5.1 and HTML Canvas 2D Context, Level 2 are already ready. In the latest version of HTML5 essentially new main element intended for selection of the main significant content of the page will be entered. Draft specifications for this large innovation are already published on W3C website.
In total some days before release of HTML5 the consortium at last submitted one more open web standard - the standard of the WOFF web fonts (Web Open Font Format). WOFF represents the open specification of a container for structure of SFNT which is used in the TrueType and OpenType fonts intended for implementation in Web.
The first draft copy of WOFF was submitted in 2010, and implementations of the standard already exist in all large desktop browsers, including Chrome, Firefox, Safari and Internet Explorer. Mobile browsers lag behind in this plan - did not manage to implement the new standard neither in the preset Android browser, nor in Opera Mini.
2013: Fast distribution of HTML5
Experts of ABI Research analytical company (data of April, 2013) assume that by the end of 2013 the total quantity of smartphones and tablets whose Internet browsers will support HTML5 technology, will exceed 1.4 billion units. Thus, the number of mobile devices with support of this technology in comparison with 2012 will grow by 87%. In spite of the fact that at this time application developers prefer to create the so-called native software created with a binding under a certain platform, programmers will not be able to ignore emergence of enormous number of gadgets any more based on HTML5 and therefore it is necessary to expect market development of web applications.
According to the analyst of ABI Research Aapo Markkanen, HTML5 develops generally thanks to the developers using cross-platform development tools of software. So far such applications concede native, including on work speed. The situation can change in process of deeper implementation of HTML5 on Wednesday of the operating system. First of all, it concerns Firefox of OS, Sailfish, Tizen and Ubuntu. Support of HTML5 at the hardware level will also favorably affect popularity of technology, Markkanen considers.
Interest of developers in HTML 5 can be attracted also by the growing problems of Google and its Android OS with the European antimonopoly authorities that can make this platform of more risky in terms of investments. At the same time the popularity of HTML can be promoted by the cooperation in creation of the open Servo engine which is recently stated between Samsung and Mozilla for web browsers.
2014: W3C approved HTML5 standard
On October 28, 2014 the consortium W3C approved HTML5 standard. Thus, the work on specifications of this technology of a marking of web pages is completed. The published final document with the recommendations of developers occupied more than 1.3 thousand pages.
It is curious that the current set of HTML5 specifications corresponds to the fact that it was created in 2012. Since then developers of the standard were engaged in its testing and check of compatibility with different Internet browsers, platforms and programs. In seven last years more than 4 thousand defects in work of HTML5 were corrected and also over 45 thousand e-mails with offers on completion of a product, says consortium are received.
"Now we do not think of how to watch the video or to listen to music directly in the browser, and we do not think of operation of the browser in the mobile phone. We only want to share photos, to make purchases, to read news and to look for information anywhere and everywhere, on any device. Most of users do not see how HTML5 standard and the Open Web Platform environment allow to turn their dreams into reality" — Tim Berners-Lee, the director of W3C and one of inventors of the World Wide Web told.
The work on specifications of the standard of a marking of HTML5 web pages is completed
The chief executive officer of W3C Jeff Jaffe said that after completion of process of standardization of HTML5 the consortium will focus on development of a complex development environment of the cross-platform Open Web Platform applications. It is for this purpose going to pay attention to such key areas as security and confidentiality of data, interaction of devices, duration of lifecycle of applications, social services and communications in real time, performance and a usability, Jaffe noted.
Earlier it was reported that the actual statement of HTML5 can take place not earlier than 2020, however in W3C decided to accelerate this process, having created the special working group which irrespective of the main developers of the standard was engaged in creation of the specifications.
The version of the HTML standard — with index 5.1 — is already developed. Its final version is going to be approved at the end of 2016.
HTML5 offers a method of creation of a multimedia content and required functionality of applications without use of non-standard settings over browsers. He allows to solve in Web and a set of other tasks, for example to display a scalable vector graphics (SVG) and mathematical characters and constructions (MathML).
7 reasons to pass to HTML5
HTML5 is a new stage of standardization of a web
Popular belief that HTML5 is a modern language of a marking which will not be clear to old versions of browsers which are generally installed at users now. Many think that all those opportunities which are actively advertized by supporters of HTML5 will be available only to those who have most current releases of browsers.
Actually, HTML5 all this the same markup language clear to browsers to which just added additional tools for work with objects and multimedia. In fact it is just new version of the HTML4 standard used on the Internet standardized by Consortium W3C in 1997 for a long time. Thus, from the point of view of developers, HTML5 – it is not something essentially new what it will be necessary to learn to work at. The new standard just expanded possibilities of developers. Now HTML5 environment allows to implement those visual "counters" and options which were available only thanks to Flash technology earlier.
The conversation on that, will get accustomed or not HTML5 technology in web development, is deprived of any sense: distribution of HTML5 is a new stage of standardization of W3C web technologies. Even the presumable term when complete completion of all HTML5 components – should be performed 2014 is known. After that the Consortium W3C will announce the recommendation to all developers application of the new standard of imposition. The same as it once happened to HTML4 in 1997 and its predecessors even earlier. The question of the choice of an alternative is not even necessary – all browsers will support HTML5 by default.
Physical laws in "digit"
What potential does HTML5 have? In fact it is an empty cover in which it is possible to implement anything. Thanks to such tools as Box2D, Canvas, on the website it is possible to implement 3D models of objects which will move and interact with each other under physical laws.
"Multiple layers" of the website
Thanks to HTML5, it is possible to implement complex animation on the corporate website as it became widespread recently. At the same time the animated components will not mix up with page contents, they will be kind of on different "layers" and will be limited to object circuits, but not area of its movement / transformation. Better to understand a difference, we will give a simple example. If as the animated object moving over the website to make the car, then when implementing using Flash technology all rectangle in which the machine circuit is entered will be clickable even if visually there will be a text of the main contents of the page there. HTML5 works more correctly and allows to avoid this 'ghost effect'. Even at a deviation in 10 pixels from object of animation the website will perceive clicking as work with other "layer".
Animation without borders
This important advantage of HTML5 in comparison with Flash technology. If earlier all animation concentrated in so-called "heading" of the website, and all other blocks went separately, then now borders between animation and blocks of content disappeared. Animation can be performed anywhere and somehow, and at the same time will not disturb the main site content.
The third measurement
HTML5 allows to give to the website effect of three-dimensional space. Same "layers" can move when scrolling with a different speed and, thus, create effect of parallax.
Work with video without failures
HTML5 allows to work with video so no failures in work of a Flash-player will deprive of a possibility of users of joy of viewing a multimedia content any more.
Work without reset of internal pages
Confidentiality during HTML5 era
New API in the forthcoming HTML5 allow web applications to get much more simply access to program and to the hardware, especially on mobile devices. The consortium of the World Wide Web of W3C treats a question of confidentiality seriously, adding final strokes to HTML5, but it is necessary to consider some more important things.
There are most interesting HTML5 specifications:
- Geolokation's API allows the browser the nobility where you are
- Media Capture API permits the browser access to the camera and the microphone
- File API permits the browser access to the file system
- Web Storage API allows web applications to store large volumes of data on your computer
- The DeviceOrientation Event specification allows web applications the nobility when your device changes orientation from book to landscape.
- Messaging API gives to the browser access to the system of messages of the mobile device
- Contacts Manager API allows to get access to the contacts saved in the database of contacts of the user
Having read this list, you can conclude that HTML5 is developed especially for hackers and theft of personal data. However, in reality authors of HTML5 treat confidentiality very seriously.
HTML5 improves network security, allows to do without plug-ins
Present network condition, even without taking in attention of HTML5, includes the tracing cookie, a flash-cookie and the cracked websites distributing the malware. Besides, 6.3% of web surfers worldwide (many of them of China) still use exclusively unsafe Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.
HTML5 aims to make Web safer, in particular, due to elimination of need of plug-ins for the browser. This excellent beginning. Two most often installed browser modules - Java and Flash, are also two largest holes in security in any browser.
Just being set, plug-ins do the browser to less safe. But matter not only in it. Plug-ins are, as a rule, written for several operating systems. Vulnerabilities in plug-ins, such as Java or Flash are vulnerabilities in Windows, MacOS and Linux. Other problem is that the big percent of the installed plug-ins have no last updates of security. In general, plug-ins represent a big problem.
HTML5, many of new features, - the built-in video and audio reproduction, vector and raster animation, access to devices and network storage, are intended for elimination of need of plug-ins. The purpose - to collect what was considered as "excess" functions under a roof of the browser and that is more important, under a roof of the approved standards of security and confidentiality, and then to integrate in much more consecutive, careful manner.
Access to the device through API in HTML5 and settings of confidentiality
Access to such broad category of devices through API represents one more potential problem of confidentiality of HTML5. For many of us it seems natural that the continuing expansion of network and Internetization of various devices creates many innovation products and services. As well as in desktop applications where Web applications cover many tasks which were a prerogative of software packages earlier, and in mobile devices everything is displaced towards the Internet.
The biggest missing element of today's mobile web applications is limited access of the browser to device opportunities in comparison with opportunities of native mobile applications. The mobile web application cannot include, for example, phone vibrocall, check a current status of the battery or measure illumination. However, the majority of new mobile browsers can get access to your current location and the camera. As these new opportunities are built in browsers, personal privacy becomes a serious problem.
In "native" applications of setup of confidentiality of the device are, as a rule, configured in installation process. For example, at the Android installation of the application you receive the notification on the access types required to the application. At this moment you can permit or prohibit the requested access. After installation of the application settings are saved and the application can get access to the camera, contacts and to anything that you permitted.
It is difficult observe confidentiality and security in mobile web applications as the web application can change at any time and updating does not require your active participation. In most cases, it is big advantage of web applications - you receive permanent updates without the irritating updating process as happens in case of native applications. A shortcoming is that any change can lead to the fact that earlier safe and reliable application can become less safe or even harmful.
To understand how browsers will cope with this potential problem, we should define some terms at first:
- The notification - the mandatory requirement for API announcing to the user data collection. Now browsers have a few other mechanisms of notifications, but the panel of notifications in an upper part of a window of the browser becomes the most widespread method. You can see an example of a call of the notification API, having visited the site which uses HTML5 geolocation with the browser which supports a geolocation - the latests version of all main browsers are able to do it.
- Consent is process of issue of permission by the user of access of API to the device. Soglasie can be explicit or implicit. For example, if you click "photograph", you implicitly granted permission to the application for use of the camera. On the other hand, if you click Send to the Friend, you do not grant permission to API for spam to someone through the database of your contacts. Each API in HTML5 assumes that explicit permission is required by default, but defines circumstances under which implied permissions is acceptable.
- Minimization - the requirement that API was allowed to be brought together only necessary for the current immediate goal of information.
- Management - a possibility of the user to manage the choice of permissions. Users should have an opportunity to withdraw access of the browser to the device after they gave it. Optionally, they should have an opportunity to keep the white and black list of applications.
- At last, access - a possibility of the user to browse and delete history of the sharing device.
- Geolocation, perhaps, potentially the biggest violator of confidentiality in HTML5. It is interesting that it is also one of the most widely implemented API. To gain an impression about confidentiality measures of protection in API devices, it is useful to look how it is implemented in a geolocation.
Section 4 of the offered API specification of a geolocation is devoted to confidentiality. It divides confidentiality into two directions: reasons for contractors of API of a geolocation (creators of the browser) and for receivers of information on location (software developers).
For requests, receiving and management of access rights actually the browser gets work on design of real mechanisms and user interfaces. The specification just says: to meet the specification, information on location should not be obtained without the permission of the user of the web browser.
The specification also sets additional requirements to receivers of data on location. They should notify the user that collect data, to protect these data from unauthorized access, to give the chance to users to change and delete any data which they store, to tell the user as data will be long stored, to inform the user whether data will be repeatedly transferred and to explain what specifically in the way data are protected.
The browser member of equation is not alarming. Producers of browsers very seriously treat a question of providing the safe environment. But developers of web applications nevertheless should worry. Compliance of the specification of processes by means of which the receiver takes data on location from any device depends on the certain developer. Some developers do not even know requirements, and there is no mechanism of coercion.
Though the browser specially warns that your data on location can be obtained, you have neither information, nor guarantees that data will not be stored or be used in other purposes, than those which you permitted. It is the following front in fight for web confidentiality.
It is a little solutions for privacy protection
The World Wide Web Consortium developed the Privacy Preferences Project (P3P) platform for the solution of such problems by creation of standard language using which websites could exchange politicians of confidentiality. With P3P browsers could inform users on policy of the website and even to allow them to refuse visit of the websites with policy with which they do not agree. However P3P did not win popularity at creators of browsers therefore work on it was suspended.
The group of Privacy protection (Privacy Interest Group) of consortium W3C and the Working Group of Protection against Tracking Protection Working Group are two only forces on strengthening and standardization of security and confidentiality on the Internet and in HTML5.
Perhaps, the most noticeable achievement in confidentiality of browsers is implementation of the specification prohibiting tracking in recent months – Do Not Track (DNT), – all main producers of browsers. Some browsers, including Internet Explorer 10, came so far that DNT by default include.
DNT is preference of the browser, and goes through the heading HTTP to websites. Actually, it is quite weak protection, but websites should observe voluntarily the user preferences now not to be traced.
Though the advertizing industry in general told that it will respect preferences of DNT, little was made in this direction. The law (California Right to Know Act) of 2013 offered in California, for example, would allow people to require from business of the report that business knows about them. After it was resisted by lobbies of industrial groups of the Internet, the law was disqualified, at least, until the end of 2013.
In the absence of the voluntary viable mechanism for the websites to open the politicians, it seems, the legislation - the only solution which is only aggravated as marketing specialists collect more and more data on users. The head of Federal trade commission, Edith Ramirez, urged the advertizing industry to execute the DNT promises recently. At the same time, the bill of DNT was offered in the Congress, and now more and more attention is paid to it while the standard is actively discussed.
HTML5 vs Flash
Common truths about what the website with beautiful, original design, the blank code and simple structure allows to increase many times the number of potential clients are known to all today. Also mechanisms by means of which such results are achieved are known: the resource, on the one hand, is pleasant to search robots, and with another - to ordinary people who look for certain goods or service in network.
Developers of programming languages constantly implement all new and new projects and technologies to give the chance to the websites to realize all the potential and to replace multimillion advertizing campaigns. Yes, quite so: the resource, convenient for users, with bright and unusual design which is in TOP of search issue is more effective than any advertizing. Users do not trust it for a long time, and here to the eyes and feelings – yes. Now in hands of web designers there was a new powerful tool allowing them to implement all the ideas and opening doors to the world of bright future of a saytostroyeniye. It is about html5.
Html5 vs Flash: fight of titans
Flash remains in the past. And whatever his supporters, it so spoke. Despite all shortcomings inherent in the new HTML standard – from explicit "neobkatannost" to high resource intensity, it will force out Flash technology. The simplified service, lack of need to install various plug-ins, cross-platform with cross-browser compatibility of the 5th html are its main "pluses" and the key to success. Yes, it is necessary to recognize that Flash meanwhile has some advantage in a quality plan of animation, video, vector images. But every day there are more and more websites written using html5, exceed the "fleshevy" competitors. It is impossible to say that Flash during the near future will sink into a non-existence (more correct, to the area of the interactive presentations where, undoubtedly, equal to it is not present). But also to believe what in 2-3 years of html5 will not subdue open spaces of the Internet – illogically.
Html5: expanding edges of possible
In what secret of success of html5? Perhaps, in good base, in fact, it is not a modern language of programming, but the same html, but already with scripting opportunities of processing of pictures. For this reason to it Mozilla is actively integrated, creating Canvas 3D. The Canvas function implemented in the fifth version of HTML gives the chance to create the websites of higher quality, expands opportunities for their design and also allows to design essentially new user interfaces. Speaking to marketing language, html5 does resources "clinging" that is important for any company ordering their creation, and wishing to receive the fastest return from investments.
If in brief to list advantages of html5 to users and web designers, then very interesting list will turn out:
- The new version of a programming language will give the chance to watch video and to listen to music directly in the browser.
- By means of html5 a design of the website will become similar to expensive glossy magazine, and integration of the text into images will be phenomenal.
- In all questionnaires and forms which are filled by users errors will be displayed in real time.
- In galleries of images without any additional programs it will be possible to use the mass of different effects.
- The new standard absolutely universal is also compatible as to the PC, notebooks, and tablets, smartphones, iPhones, etc. At the same time it will become much more convenient to users of "smart phones" to visit the sites, and the speed of their loading will increase many times.