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Android

Product
Developers: Google
Date of the premiere of the system: October, 2008
Last Release Date: 2019/03/13
Technology: OS

Content

Android is the operating system for mobile phones based on Linux kernel. It was initially developed by Android Inc. company which then was purchased by Google. Afterwards, Google initiated creation of Open Handset Alliance (OHA) which now and is engaged in support and further development of the platform. Android allows to create the Java applications managing the device through the libraries developed by Google. Also there is an opportunity to write applications to Si and other programming languages using Android Native Development Kit.

Android for Work

Main article: Android for Work

At the end of February, 2015 Google submitted the new Android for Work platform by means of which the company should strengthen the positions in the market of mobile devices of a corporate class.

App stores for Android

Main article: App stores for Android

The overview of the shops for downloading of applications working at the Android platform.

Android ecosystem

  • Google secretly collects identifiers of base stations from  phones running Android.
  • Information gathers even if the user turned off services of a geolocation and GPS in  the device,  did not install any applications, recovered factory defaults or even took out the SIM card.
  • Data are transferred in  the encoded view of  servers of Google every time when the device gets to  an area of coverage of other base station, writes the Quartz edition

Security of Android

Main article: Security of Android

The overview of questions of data protection in devices based on Android.

Revenues of Google from Android

Main article: Revenues of Google from Android

As Google earns billions from the operating system, free for users.

Success indicators

2017: Android for the first time overtook Windows in popularity

The independent analytical company StatCounter issued statistics on use of operating systems. It turned out that for the first time Android overtook desktop Windows by the number of Internet users.

Users of notebooks, tablets, desktop PCs and smartphones were considered worldwide. It is necessary to tell that if researchers took only desktop computers, then Windows would have 84%, and if only users from Europe and the USA, then Windows would also win (51.7% against 23.6%): especially positions of Android are strong in Asia where 52.2% of Internet users use it. In America Android overtakes even iOS for 4.5%.

It is interesting that 5 years ago the share of Android made only 2.4%. It is great success for a system which is almost not widespread on stationary devices — in honor among people now portability when mobile Windows did not manage to win any significant share.

History

2019

The Kotlin programming language became the main thing for Android

On May 7, 2019 Google officially announced that Kotlin became a preferable programming language for development of the Android-applications. Support of Java and C ++ remains, but for Kotlin new features and API for Jetpack libraries will be issued first of all. Read more here.

The European fight for a search line on smartphones

Google will allow users of Android from Europe independently to select the browser and the search system which are used by default on their devices. The company reported about it in March, 2019 in the blog. A system itself will ask the user what browser and the search engine he would prefer to use. The question will be set both on new, and on the devices which are already in operation,[1] specifies[2].

The company writes that it discusses ten years features of work of the products with European Commission regarding antitrust violation. In July, 2018. The European Commission fined Google 4.3 billion euros for abuse of a leading position of Android in the market of mobile OS. At that time it was the largest penalty which is written out by this antimonopoly authority of one company.

After this Google changed license model for the products, having created new separate licenses for app store of Google Play, the Google Chrome browser and the Google search engine of Search. Thanks to it smartphone manufacturers can separately purchase the license for shop, without browser and the searcher now. The company writes that thus it supported an opportunity to install any alternative applications along with products of Google for smartphone manufacturers.

Investigation and role of "Yandex"

The European Commission paid attention to features of distribution of products of Google for Android in 2013. Investigation was begun on the basis of the complaint filed by the alliance Fair Search consisting of the companies Microsoft Nokia Oracle, Expedia and Tripadviser. Participants of alliance complained that Google does not allow them to exercise their right to use Android fully. Also Aptoide and Disconnect companies joined complaints.

Since July, 2014 was connected to this case as the witness of "Yandex". In November, 2015 the Russian company submitted own application to European Commission, having stopped being simply the witness and having joined number of prosecutors. At the European Yandex level demanded from the same Google, as in Russia — to cease to force smartphone manufacturers to install together with Google Play other products of Google and to refuse practice of priority placement of labels of Google applications on the screen of devices. "Yandex" then mentioned that the result of investigation of European Commission can influence development of its business in Europe.

Release of the beta of Android 10 OS

On March 13, 2019 the company Google announced release of the public beta mobile OS Android 10, also known as Android Q. It has no code name yet.

As reported in CNews, right after release the beta is available to downloading and installation on corporate smartphones Google Pixel all three generations. Freeware distribution of a distribution kit among owners of other gadgets including Google Nexus devices, are not supposed yet.

Developers gave to users of Android Q the chance to control use by applications of function of determination of its current place of dislocation. The owner of the smartphone will be able to prohibit or, on the contrary, to permit software to trace it, and this time GPS without the appropriate rights of access will not be able independently to activate applications any more. Android Q will never allow to select for each separate application when it is able to trace coordinates of the current location – always (including in a background), only from an active mode or. It will give the chance to prohibit all programs which by default are not needing coordinates of GPS to receive them, and to navigators and services of the taxi to have to them access at any time. Indirectly it will be reflected also in gadget operating time from the accumulator.

In addition to it, the point Privacy to which transferred permissions of applications, the history of tracking of location and other parameters in a varying degree influencing data protection is added to the menu of settings.

Also Google integrated regular support of folding devices into Android Q.

Android is ready to an era of folding gadgets

For March, 2019 it is still unknown how it will be implemented in the final version of a system, but the first hints on the regular version of a cover under flexible screens already are, consider in CNews.

Android 10 will get a possibility of change of a color box in a blind of notifications, it will also be possible to configure a standard font of a system.

The color palette of the dropping-out blind can be changed at any time

The list of notifications underwent insignificant processings. In the provided version if any of notifications, when finding the smartphone in the Without Sound mode after all arrives with a sound, on it there will be an icon in the form of a hand bell that the user could disconnect in addition sound notifications in settings of the notification of the specific application.

By one more addition in Android10 prohibition to applications it will become spontaneous to be developed on all screen from the background mode. For example, if in it there were changes, or the new notification arrived, then it can notify the user, having opened the interface in all screen, over the used program. In Android 10 this function can be turned off compulsorily for each separate application.

Also Google processed the Share menu. In it it is possible to add labels of contacts to Android 10 instantly to send to the necessary people files and not to look for them in the notebook or the contact list of messengers.

It became even more convenient and simpler to share files with friends

Also changes concerned the module Wi-fi and multimedia opportunities. The module Wi-fi locates the Adaptiptivny Wi-fi mode necessary for economy of energy of the accumulator and achievement of maximum speed of data transmission. As for photos, the used algorithms will allow the third-party applications working with pictures to use the cards of scene depth created by cameras. Similar is useful when processing photos in mobile editors. CNews also noted support by the system of the open AV1 codec and proprietary API for work with MIDI devices.

Module Wi-fi

According to information for March, 2019 day of a premiere Android 10 is not installed yet. Under an assumption of CNews demonstration of Android 10 can take place at the I/O 2019 conference which will take place from May 7 to May 9, 2019.[3]

2018

Google introduced a payment for suppliers for installation of the services

In October, 2018 the Google company announced intentions to levy from Android electronics producers a payment for use of corporate services of the company, such as Google Maps and Google Play. As a result of innovations smartphones and other devices running Android can rise in price.

According to Reuters news agency with reference to the informed source, the new system of licensing of Google which will become effective on October 29, 2018, will assume contributions to advantage of the company in the amount of $2.5 up to $40 for each gadget. Final cost will depend on the country and type of devices.

Installation of the set of applications of Google on Android smartphone for the market of the EU will cost some producers 40 dollars
Installation of the set of applications of Google on Android smartphone for the market of the EU will cost some producers 40 dollars

For example, maximum payments, i.e. $40 for one smartphone or the tablet, will work in Britain, Holland, Norway and Germany for devices with the screens having pixel density more than 500 ppi. Installation of applications of Google on devices with displays 400-500 ppi will cost producers $20 counting on one copy of the equipment. In a case with the tubes equipped with less high-quality screens, payments will not exceed $10. Only $2.5 for the smartphone equipped with the display with a pixel density up to 400 ppi will be measured in some regions of assignment.

Producers, like Samsung and Huawei, will be exempted from a duty to preset the Google search engine, the Chrome browser and other services, but since October 29, 2018 connection of these programs will become paid.

Theoretically nothing prevents to create to producers the software environments for devices — like systems with the Opera browser and search of Bing from  Microsoft, but from the practical point of view the mobile industry realizes that devices without Google are uninteresting to the European users, Reuters notes. At the same time some users look for alternatives after scandals with leaks of personal data.[4]

Google ceased to oblige producers to install the applications in Android

On October 16, 2018 Google announced that it stops imposing to smartphone manufacturers obligatory installation of services of the company. The Internet giant made such statement after a fine of $5 billion which was imposed by the European antimonopoly regulator.

As the senior vice president of the company Hiroshi Lokhaymer supervising its products for mobile devices since October 29, 2018 reported in the blog of Google Google will levy a payment from mobile device manufacturers for preset of the applications on Android gadgets, released in European Economic Area.

Producers of mobile phones will pay for Google services on Android
Producers of mobile phones will pay for Google services on Android

According to new rules the smartphone manufacturers wishing to set Google services "from the plant" will have to list to corporation licensing fee. Its size is not specified. Assignments for use of the Google search engine and the Chrome browser will not be required.[5]

Earlier Google required obligatory preset of 11 services in Android devices which producers want to start app store of Google Play in the equipment. In these actions the European authorities saw antimonopoly practice which interferes with use of devices of any alternative version of Android by producers which  was not approved by Google.

Now the company permitted partners to create own versions (so-called forka) of Android for smartphones and tablets, including in them applications at own discretion. However use of Google services in devices by default will become paid for producers.

As notes CNBC TV channel though Google does not earn directly from Android, the company gains income from the advertizing placed in the services including Chrome, Google Maps and Gmail. It is also known that Google collects user data for increase in advertizing efficiency in the platforms. And also the third-party companies with which Google cooperates can use this information.

Release of Android 9.0 Pie

On August 6, 2018 Google submitted the final version of the Android 9.0 operating system. She received the name Pie (about engl. "pie").

The updated platform already appeared in a public access, and the first to set it users of the Google Pixel and Essential Phone PH-1 smartphones had an opportunity. Gradually Android 9.0 will find application in other devices.

It is known that the devices participating in beta testing of Android 9 will receive this OS until the end of fall of 2018. It is about models Xiaomi Mi Mix 2S Sony Xperia XZ2, Nokia 7 Plus, Oppo R15 Pro, Vivo X21 and OnePlus 6 and also about phones on the Android One platform.

Google submitted Android 9.0 Pie
Google submitted Android 9.0 Pie

In Android 9.0 the Google company told about some innovations in May, 2018. At the Google I/O conference it was said that the operating system will receive the name beginning with the letter "P", and the name "Pie" was published on August 6. At the same time Google planned the official presentation of Android 9.0 for August 20.

Adaptive Battery and Adaptive Brightness technologies which use artificial intelligence for automatic acceleration and deceleration of a chipset and also for automatic adjustment of screen intensity were among the main innovations of Android 9.0 Pie. Thanks to it economy of a charge of the accumulator is provided.

The App Actions AI function which foresees intentions of the user and suggests to pass to the necessary sections of installed applications quickly is also added. Developers increased security  and confidentiality  — now applications will not be able to get access to the microphone, the camera and other services  in a standalone mode.

For all the time of testing of Android 9.0 Pie five test assemblies which differ the friend from the friend in the user interface and in functionality were released. During public testing different errors were found and eliminated.[6]

The most problem smartphones

In July, 2018 Blancco company which specializes in software development for erasing of data from computers and smartphones published a research in which told about the most problem phones.

Devices on Android  are recognized  according to the results of testing more problem, than based on iOS. The first in general showed 18.9% of failures and errors, the second — 15.2%. Read more here.

Corporate functions in Android 9.0 P

In May, 2018 Google submitted the new version of the Android operating system. Some functions of the platform which at the time of the announcement call Android 9.0 P are addressed to corporate users and focused on increase in security and capacity of the devices used in the working purposes.

In Android P it became simpler to separate the personal applications from corporate. Google started a special tab for working programs in the menu of start of OS. Besides, icons of such software are marked with an icon of a blue briefcase for search simplification.

Google told about business functions in the new version of Android
Google told about business functions in the new version of Android

In the new menu when clicking the button of a power supply also blocking function is available. It allows to block the device, having switched-off at the same time the fingerprint scanner and other biometric sensors. For access to the device it will be required to use a reserve method of an unblocking: password, PIN code or graphic key. When using a graphic key the trace behind a finger does not remain that the people standing nearby could not spot it.

In the mobile platform the special switch between office and personal operation modes also appeared. The function located in a working tab disconnects the corresponding applications, notifications and use of data of a profile.

Application developers can turn on smooth switching between working and personal accounts in the applications in Android P, eliminating need of return to an applications launch panel. 

Besides, in Android P there was an improved support of devices which several employees use.  Now reliefs who give the device at the end of the day can just quit the system, and the new team member can log in and use the device at once.

At last, the Kiosk Mode mode allowing to use the smartphone as the payment terminal, the information booth and other means when only one application works with limited access is updated. To Android P administrators could select only the only application for this mode on one device.[7]

Google blocks not certified versions of Android

In March, 2018 Google began to block not certified versions of Android that can negatively affect business of Amazon and small Chinese producers of electronics.

Though Google distributes Android Open Source Project for free and open source, corporate services of the company, such as Google Play, Gmail and Google Maps, can be used "from a box" only in the certified versions of the Android operating system. For obtaining the corresponding license producers should fulfill certain rather strict requirements – for example, to deliver all collection of official applications of Google entirely and to provide compliance of the devices to numerous requirements.

Those who refuse to satisfy these conditions cannot apply the name Android in the name of the versions of the platform. One of the most known companies using not certified modifications of Android (so-called forka) is Amazon which installs the Fire OS operating system in the tablets. In many respects thanks to lack of runtime royalty fees for benefit of Google the Amazon company offers ultracheap gadgets worth $30-50. Active users of forok of Android are also the Chinese producers of electronics.

Owners of devices with unofficial Android firmwares could install separately Google applications, but in March, 2018 this opportunity was gone. Users of such devices cannot come into the account of Google now. In attempt of application launch of Google check of date of assembly of the Android operating system is performed. And if it is found out that start is performed on not certified device, and the version of Android was compiled after March 16, 2018, then Google services will not work.

However, Google offered an opportunity to add the smartphone or the tablet with a custom firmware to the list of permitted, having tied them to an account of Google. For this purpose it is necessary to enter a unique identifier (Android ID), but the number of such registration should not exceed 100.[8]

2017

Release of budget Android Go OS

On December 5, 2017 the Google company announced release of the budget Android Go configuration on the platform 8.0 Oreo. It is focused on the OEM manufacturing releasing cheap smartphones with amount of memory less than 1 GB.

This OS moves Google as technology of initial level - it will help to provide access to mobile devices to the so-called "following one billion users". Three main features of Android Go were noted by Google:

  • Android OS with the simple user interface, security and functions of work with data,
  • a set of the "facilitated" applications for all occasions,
  • the app store of Google Play Store attached to them.

Google positions Android Go as a software platform for smartphones with amount of memory from 512 MB to 1 GB, having all advantages of Android Oreo, but passed "all necessary for Go-optimization".

According to data of Google, the version of Android Oreo Go Edition on smartphones of initial level provides to 15% performance gain in comparison with start of full-scale Android OS.

Considering that in budget smartphones small amount of RAM and the built-in drive, in the company offer Android Oreo Go with a packet of the "facilitated" applications which, according to the company, take 50% less places.

The list of the "facilitated" Google applications:

  • Google Go,
  • Google Maps of Go,
  • Gmail Go,
  • YouTube Go,
  • Google Assistant Go,
  • Files Go,
  • Gboard,
  • Chrome
  • Play shop.

Some of these applications have specific functions – like loading of rollers through Wi-Fi at YouTube Go. The Google Go search engine optimizes amount of data to 40% and occupies volume less than 5 MB.

Devices running Android Oreo Go Edition receive a packet of functions of data compression of Google. It is included by default. According to the company, the Data Saver function in the Chrome browser allows the average user to save up to 600 MB of traffic a year. The owner of the smartphone can disconnect and turn on these functions at discretion.

All devices with Android Oreo Go Edition have the built-in Google Play Protect protective function. It scans installed applications in a standalone mode, irrespective of a loading source.

As the initiative of Google Go is focused on providing the software for budget devices with limited characteristics of processor performance, memory and communications, most of potential users of such devices live in developing countries and Third World countries, and, therefore, do not talk in English. In this way in Google are going to be focused on questions of bilingualism and to give to users an opportunity to master the Internet not only in English, but also on the native.

Unlike Android One, budget Android Go OS is offered as release with an open program code, producers can receive it on the website of the Android Open Source Project project.

One of the first countries where presumably Android Go will be widely adopted, call India[9].

Announcement of Android Oreo

On August 21, 2017 the Google company submitted the version of the Android Oreo operating system. It is called in honor of the Oreo cookies.

The company designated by this release the beginning of cooperation with the Oreo brand (Nabisco company). The superhero of Android Oreo will become the face of this joint product.

According to the statement of the partner companies, Android Oreo combines the playful nature of Oreo and intelligence of Android. As all superheroes of Android Oreo is born at the unusual moment - on August 21, 2017, in day of a total solar eclipse.

Following tradition, to opening of the version the Google company set a kinetic sculpture of Android Oreo in the headquarters to Mountain View, California.

Submission of Android Oreo OS, (2017)

Announcement of Android O

On May 17, 2017 Google announced the new version of the Android operating system. In it developers placed emphasis on optimization of a software platform.

The picture-in-picture function (engl. "picture in picture") allowing two applications to work at the same time on  the screen of the mobile device became one of innovations. For example, it will be possible to start the videoplayer and  at the same time to type the text in  in the editor. The size of windows can be regulated manually.   To close one of  windows, it will be necessary to lower a program icon in  the lower corner of the screen.

Android O on the smartphone
Android O on the smartphone

The applications using notifications received the separate menu using which it is possible to react to them or to remove absolutely. Function of autocompletion of forms is processed. So, the saved fields with data in one application will be able to be autocompleted also in others.

There were adaptive icons which will adapt to styles of each producer. The adaptive icon can become round on the Pixel phones, square with the rounded corners on Samsung, etc.

Android O got new restrictions for applications which work in the background that helps to improve operation of the device. Applications in a background cannot consume intensively Internet traffic and data with GPS now.

Function of copying and text insertion will get support of artificial intelligence. The algorithm will define in the text names, company names and institutions, the addresses and phones: on long or double clicking they will be selected entirely automatically.

Besides, the system of protection Google Play Protect is provided in Android O. It is intended for detection of vulnerabilities and also unsafe applications. If necessary a system blocks them.

By May 18, 2017 the beta of Android O is available on the website of Google, it can be loaded on Nexus 5X and 6P, Pixel and Pixel XL devices and also Nexus Player and Pixel C. Exact date of a release of the final version of the operating room is not reported. It is known only that it is the third quarter 2017.[10]

2016: Android 7.0 Nougat

On August 23, 2016 the Google company announced release of Android 7.0 (Nougat).

In this version, the company stated, more than 250 additions and changes are made.

Advertizing of Google, (2016)
Advertizing of Google, (2016)

During creation of Android 7.0 Nougat developers considered wishes of thousands of users of the platform and application developers.

The company separated the main innovations in Android 7.0 into five sections:

  • personalisation,
  • productivity,
  • power supply,
  • graphics and virtual reality
  • security.

More than 1.5 thousand smilies are added to the version of Android Nougat. Users had an opportunity to interchange the position of tiles in the Quick Settings menu (earlier it was available in alternative firmwares). In applications support of several options of location and languages at the same time appeared - if the user speaks several languages, search systems can show results all[11].

In Android 7.0 support of the multiwindow mode is implemented. Users can start two applications next to each other and move a divider. There were Direct Reply and Quick Switch functions. The first function allows to send the answer directly in a notification window, without switching in the application. The second function helps to switch between two last started programs by means of double clicking the button.

In the previous version of Android — Marshmallow Google implemented Doze technology which muffles background applications and does not allow them to spend the rechargeable battery that allowed to prolong battery life.

In the version of Nougat the company continued to work in the direction of decrease in consumption of battery power. Devices under the upgraded OS will "fill up" even more deeply. For example, when they are in a pocket or a bag. Developers said - energy consumption in the "sleeping" mode became less.

In the current version of Android the graphic Vulkan technology (the program interface for 3D - diagrams with support of multinuclear architecture) and Daydream support is implemented (platforms of virtual reality from Google).

In this version of Android users should not reboot the device and to wait for optimization of applications after installation of large updates — everything will be executed on the working device, a background.

Android Nougat supports enciphering on the basis of files. Developers consider that it will help to protect better data of different users of the same device.

OS included Direct Boot technology. It accelerates loading of the mobile device at inclusion and provides the protected applications launch before the user unblocks the screen.

Updating to Android 7.0 Nougat within the next weeks will be available "by air" to Nexus 6, Nexus 5X, Nexus 6P, Nexus 9, Nexus Player, Pixel C and General Mobile 4G (Android One).

2015: Android 5.1

On March 10, 2015 it became known of release of the version of Android 5.1 Lollipop OS by Google company.

Emergence of the option HD Voice and the new system of protection of the smartphone and[12] the main innovations which the company - an opportunity for work with two SIM cards announced [12].

Behavior of phone with multiple SIM cards, 2015

HD Voice expands the frequency range of the transmitted sound therefore transmission quality of a voice increases, the recognizability of a number of sounds, for example, "With" and "Ф", M from N, "П" from T improves. An important condition is need of support of this option smartphones of both subscribers and support of HD Voice from the cellular operator.

The Device Protection function blocks the smartphone or the tablet in case of theft or loss, doing it actually useless until this owner does not undergo verification of Google account on this device and will not remove program blocking.

One more change: hardware encryption of data. For March 12, 2015 it is declared for the device Nexus 6. In Android 5.0 the special mode within which the system section can be ciphered is offered. It considerably increases reliability, but reduces work speed. Hardware encryption should eliminate a defect with a speed.

The complete list of changes in OS exceeds 14 thousand. All this corrections in work of a core and other internal system modules, they affect the general stability of system operation: optimization of use of RAM, improvement of energy efficiency of a system.

In Android 5.1 unexpected closing of some applications is corrected, the problem of overheating of devices when using Wi-Fi is fixed [13].

Date of a release of Android 5.1

At the beginning of February, 2015 in India and Indonesia the first smartphones of the Android One series on which it is set to Android 5.1 were available for sale. Nobody made official representation of a system though devices went on sale, and soon from them uploaded screenshots and video.

File:Version-Android-5-1.jpg

Screenshot of the device, 2015

Right after this Google laid out assemblies of Android 5.1 for Nexus 5, Nexus 6 and Nexus 9.

During 2015 Android 5.1 will be installed on new smartphones from other producers, but it is hardly worth expecting emergence of version 5.1 on all devices before summer of 2015, market observers draw a conclusion, and by that moment there will be Android 5.2.

Android 5.1 is not the really considerable updating which received change of the minor version for the reason that Google was necessary to add new functionality and to improve the interface. At the same time nothing essential in a system appeared that is emphasized with preserving of a code name – Lollipop.

2014

Android 5.0 (Lollipop)

On October 20, 2014 Google announced a release of the new version of the mobile platform Android 5.0, she received the name Lollipop ("lollipop")[14].

Google carried on tradition and appropriated to the new version of Android the name of sweet in alphabetical order (the previous release of Android 4.4 is called KitKat).

Image:Android 5.0 Lollipop 2014.jpg

In release of Lollipop there are a lot of innovations from which main thing the design under the name Material Design is considered. Google saturated Lollipop with animation. A system is scaled on devices with the different resolution of displays. The Pallete function is provided in the platform, it will help developers to automatically determine colors on the image and to arrange to them interfaces. By means of graphic Android Extension Pack technology in Lollipop support of a tesselyation, computing and geometrical shaders and compression of textures of ASTC on the modern single-processor Nvidia Tegra K1 systems is provided.

Significant program innovation - the new effective environment of execution of the ART applications (Android Run Time). This virtual machine succeeded Dalvik and offers the improved performance of the operating system and applications, a full support of 32-and 64-bit execution on architecture of x86, ARM and MIPS. Due to transition to ART applications launch will accelerate and the overall energy efficiency of the platform will increase. Function of charge retention of the accumulator which, according to Google, will prolong device operating time for 90 minutes is provided in the new version of Android. The user can observe what amount of time remained before the device needs charging, and at connection to network — what is the time will pass to a total charge of the accumulator.

The system of notifications which is rather developed and in the previous versions of Android, gives more opportunities in Lollipop. She helps to browse and respond to messages directly on the screen of blocking and to install filters on the displayed messages. A system is finished so that incoming calls will not stop watching the movie or a game - it is possible to reject a call quickly. The list of applications which can send notifications is configured.

On one device a system supports several user accounts and the mode of a guest access. On all new devices with Lollipop data encryption and a control system of access of SELinux are by default included. It is supposed that these measures will be able to resist to the malware, vulnerabilities in a program code and leakages of confidential data in case of theft of the device. Delays at audio playback are reduced, support of a multichannel sound is implemented, up to format 7.1. The standard of USB Audio is supported, now it is possible to connect compatible microphones, acoustics to the device, amplifiers about a DAC, mixers and other.

The graphic library OpenGL ES 3.1 with new opportunities of writing of shaders, the modes of drawing, smoothing, a tesselyation, etc. is supported. There was a support of YUV and Bayer RAW, capture of the personnel of complete permission with a frequency of 30 a frame / with and record in metadata of noise performances and optical information. The High Efficiency Video Coding video codec (HEVC H.265) playing 10-bit video in permission 4K is supported, tunnel decoding of video reduces energy consumption when viewing.

OS is translated into 68 languages. 15 new transfers are added. Attention is paid to physically disabled people: it is possible to increase contrast of the text, to invert colors, to configure a color gamma.

It was planned that in November, 2014 the final version of Android 5.0 Lollipop will be released.

Lollipop shortcomings

Updating of Android Lollipop OS caused not only joy, but also indignation of many. At all not because people did not want something new: shortcomings of release of the fifth version repeatedly exceeded advantages[15].

The first - brakes a shortcoming

The gluttony of OS from Google becomes a legend: the smartphones are more powerful, the each new version of Android is more gluttonous. The reason, according to analysts, is in desire of developers to improve and decorate OS, but for some reason everything not to correct Android problem in any way - not limited consumption of RAM, inability to unload not used and parasitic applications, and, as a result, deceleration of action of a system in general.

Android Lollipop OS interface, 2015

"Five" defines under itself 2 GB of the RAM as the minimum sufficiency. It is visible already at least that on devices from 1-1.5 GB delays and a podvisaniye are obviously noticeable. With KitKat (4.4) too not everything was smooth.

Developers promised to correct everything in Android 5.1.1. Fast discharge of the accumulator it is possible to refer "gluttony" of OS to determination too.

The second shortcoming - the interface

According to precepts of IT, the system interface should be convenient and friendly to the user. Apple changes the interface of the system slightly, from the version to the version. Microsoft too once tried to depart from all of the favourite Start-up button and a desktop — but all this, invented 20 years ago, vividly still and being rejected, returns under oppression of discontent of users.

And even when Microsoft tried to impose all the "tiled" interface, in Network the programs returning the Start-up button were multiplied. Microsoft thought, and reconciled a little, pretended that it returns Start-up in Windows 8.1, but upon it - "window-dressing", and programs like Classic Shell still is held in high esteem as return old interface. Because it is convenient!

Android Lollipop OS interface, 2015

With Android all looks not so. From the version to the version (if to consider major — 2, 3, 4, 5) developers fairly tried to improve the interface though in fact it for very few people was necessary as "the main producers" developed own covers to the smartphones (for example, Samsung or LG). But were not appeased by Google. And if all already got used to the fours interface though they first and abused lack of buttons (still many producers of gadgets leave touch buttons on the body, without paying attention to carrots of Google), then in "five" of new nonsenses increased. "The Belyosost and blueness" of the new interface not to tell that it was to the taste to users, and the mash in the list of notifications is awful.

Shortcoming three: all of you misunderstand!

Developers of the whole world like to simplify everything (more often only they so think). Many of them claim that they care for users, but as a result it turns out... Lollipop simplified a lot of things that can be listed signed "minus".

  • There is too much space on big screens because dashboards brought down in a heap, having spoiled convenient separate mini-panels at the top of the screen.

  • Information on a charge of the accumulator was simplified so that at all deleted: only that charge is shown that remained.

  • "Gallery" was replaced with simplified by Photo, having put emphasis on work on the Internet. If there is no Internet — pictures will be organized chaotically, not on albums. This "bug" is allowed by forced replacement by old Gallery through third-party APK.

Android Lollipop OS interface, 2015

  • Messages in an upper tray replaced with icons - to guess that they wanted, it is impossible.

  • There are no convenient points of functionality of the button of blocking any more.

  • In version 5.0 the "silent" mode which was returned to 5.1 (Google solved probably that shutdown of a sound to users to anything) is excluded.

  • The panel of notifications was combined with settings: in "four" they functioned separately and it was very convenient. Partially returned to 5.1 it: in particular, the connectivity on Wi-Fi or Bluetooth without transition to the main settings was added. Though something.

  • Esthetics: new three buttons in the bottom of the screen turned into three simplest geometrical figures. Minimalism, but to a descent not to understand — what that it means.

In 5.1 support of smartphones with two SIM cards appeared. In 5.0 was not. In 4.kh — was. Why was to do so — a question rhetorical.

Generally, "five" abounds with the whole ocean of small inconveniences about which developers Google assure users, it, on the contrary, is extremely convenient. Possibly, to conveniently developers Google Android.

Shortcoming four: support is very partial

If on the smartphone many third-party applications, then not the fact are installed that in new OS they will correctly work. There passed half a year from the moment of a release of the fifth version, and this problem is relevant. Android applications — hundreds and hundreds of thousands, some, necessary of them in general are thrown (but are vital to the user) therefore transition to new OS can end is very deplorable.

File:Lollipop-интерфейс-3.jpg

Android Lollipop OS interface, 2015

Analysts advise before the Lollipop installation to walk according to the vital applications and to find out when they were updated and whether something is written in an updating log it seems "support of Android 5 Lollipop". Generally the incompatibility of applications is connected with the new environment of execution of ART, and developers need really to move hands and to make something.

The question - what to do with the necessary applications which are not updated already for many years and the worried Ice Cream Sandwich, remains open and sad.

Shortcoming five: and whether Lollipop is necessary?

For what in principle the operating system which became inconvenient is necessary? If conveniences to which users in five years got used replaced with something new and absolutely inconvenient, and there passed half a year after release, and the convenience did not increase … Why "it"?

But, users can always refuse updating to this version, having waited for stabler release. If it leaves sometime. Because if also leaves 5.1.1, correcting the main lack of Android OS — this really serious reason for updating installation even on devices will be more senior than two years.

The myth about free of charge and openness of Android is dispelled

The Android platform is not at all free as propagandizes Google, approves the The Guardian edition. It found out the principles of relationship of the developer of the platform and mobile device manufacturers[16].

If Android is installed on the device without Google applications, such as Gmail, Google Maps and Google Play, producers really should not pay for a system.

However in fact almost nobody sells the device without Google applications because in this case the platform loses the value: at the user an opportunity to get access to official app store disappears.

If the producer decides to supply the new smartphone or the tablet with Google applications - i.e. almost always, - he is obliged to pay the companies for each released device approximately on 75 cents.

The Android code is distributed under the open license, i.e. any producer can install it on the devices free of charge. However the platform is of the greatest value only in the presence of app store of the Google Play containing millions of programs. Under the terms of Google if the producer wishes to install Google Play to install on devices, he is obliged to deliver also all other Google applications. These are profitable corporations as than more is installed its applications on mobile devices, owners of these devices use that Google services more often. Respectively, the frequency of demonstration of declarations, clicks on them increases, and the company receives from advertisers more.

2013

Android 4.3

Support of Bluetooth Smart (Bluetooth Low-Energy) will allow to connect different medical sensors and other similar devices to Android devices. According to developers, the Bluetooth Smart standard gives new opportunities in the field of fitness, medicine, cartography, measurement of distances and so on. Support of the Bluetooth AVRCP 1.3 profile for the organization of control of multimedia devices through Bluetooth is in addition noted.

Besides, in the new version of Jelly Bean function of autocompletion in dialing unit appeared — when the user enters number, and the device in the automatic mode offers the available customer addresses. Users will notice the updated application of the camera (it is already present at Google Play in versions of Samsung GALAXY S4 and HTC One). Also new options in settings will be added. For example, one of them will allow applications to turn on Wi-Fi for a short time to define location (in case of need), without forcing the user to do excess movements.

As approves Google, Android 4.3 improves performance of applications, doing them faster, smooth and effective and also brings a number of new API for developers. By the way, provided considerable number of innovations in the new version of the Google platform for developers. First of all it is necessary to tell about support of the OpenGL ES 3.0 standard and the EGL expansions at the level of OS. In addition application developers will receive means for full control of applications over the notifications output in status area, API for access to the built-in encoder of video of VP8, the improved instruments of profiling, including a possibility of tracking of load of GPU in a schedule type displaid over the screen, etc.

In Android 4.3 optimization of functioning of services of position fix is also continued. For example, hardware-assisted devices Geofencing of service Google Play will be able to use advantages of this optimization for economy of battery power when moving the device. Also there was a special operation mode of Wi-fi in which the device scans networks for improvement of accuracy of position fix, but at the same time is not connected to them. Users can turn on the mode in the expanded Wi-fi settings. There was also a support of new sensors.

Also the Chrome browser which learned to translate pages from different languages automatically is finished in the new version of Android. Some changes appeared also in other standard applications of Google, Hangouts chat with a possibility of a group video chat is preset.

Android 4.3 Jelly Bean is preset on new model of the Nexus 7 tablet. This version of Android will be available in the form of OTA updating (by air) and to Nexus 7 devices of first generation and also to the Nexus 4, Nexus 10 and Galaxy Nexus HSPA+ smartphones.

Android 4.2

In 4.2 "from a box" there was an opportunity to place a widget elements on the blocking screen. Earlier such function which was entitled the word Daydream (dreams, dreams) was available only to those users who decided to install the corresponding special applications. The new version of Android 4.2 without additional superstructures is capable to perceive text typing in the mode which is known to most of users as Swype, i.e. without lead of fingers over the touch screen. In a new system this feature is called Gesture Typing.

In addition, the original application for creation and editing photos in Android was trained to do spherical photopanoramas (Photo Sphere function). Also now from smartphones and tablets running Android 4.2 it is possible to transfer stream video with YouTube to television devices with support of Miracast technology. As for the functions which are specially developed for tablets, here the opportunity for work with gadgets under several accounts especially is selected. Each user can use the same tablet with the personal settings. This function is not available to users of Android 4.2 on smartphones.

Smart screen saver

The Daydream program in Android 4.2 is a smart screen saver. In this quality it will be possible to use a slideshow, headings of news, etc.

Continuous input

Do you use Swype — the popular program replacing the standard keyboard? If yes, that you find the similar Gesture Typing functions improving the standard screen keyboard in the new version of OS. Perhaps, it not absolutely what will force the convinced users of Swype to refuse the favourite virtual keyboard, but many users of the standard keyboard will open for themselves more convenient method of text typing.

Miracast: playing of movies from the tablet or the smartphone on the TV-screen

Apple provided AirPlay Mirroring for IOS 5 and Mac OS X 'Mountain Lion' recently. By means of this function you can transfer the image from the screen of the tablet to the TV with the connected prefix of Apple TV. Android 4.2 allows to do the same with any TV, a DVD player or other device, the supporting Miracast.

Miracast is a trademark of technology of direct connection WiFi Direct (or WiDi). It is the protocol compatible with 802.11n and intended for connection of the external screen. Having the network adapter supporting Multicast you can give a TV-show and movies from the tablet or the smartphone to the TV. Miricast adapters will be available for sale in the next quarter.

Support of the multi-user mode

In tablets on Android 4.2 (but not in smartphones) the multi-user mode will appear. Each user can create a personal profile with own personified by settings. It means that you can configure the home screen, a substrate, widgets, applications and games at own discretion. It is possible to customize a system so that for switching to other user it was necessary to quit the system and to come again, and it is possible to switch just on clicking of a certain button.

Why this opportunity is absent in the version of OS for smartphones? It is unknown. It is rumored that it is made to avoid a patent dispute with Nokia with its multi-user interface in smartphones. Perhaps, in it there is a sensible grain, but as the multi-user mode exists in the world of ADP equipment even from 60th years, I tend to believe that Google, most likely, did not make this opportunity in smartphones owing to lack of demand. People without problems borrow each other tablets, but considerably less willingly exchange smartphones.

2012

50% of the market of mobile OS in the USA

According to a research of the company ComScore, the device based on Android occupy 50.1% of the market USA. On the second place smartphones based on iOS — 30.2% of all market, the third place in this rating smartphones on the platform of the company RIM, releasing smartphones under a brand BlackBerry — 13.4% of the market. Further operating systems Windows Phone and Symbian, the borrowing 3.9% and 1.5% of the market respectively follow.

Structures of Samsung enjoy wide popularity at Americans, the producer occupies 25.6% of the market of smartphones. On the second place the LG company occupying 19.4% of the market of mobile devices. 13.5% fall to the share of Apple. Practically does not concede it Motorola at which this result is one several less than the tenth — 12.8%. The Taiwan HTC which has 6.3% of the market closes the first five.

Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean)

The Google corporation can release the next version of the mobile platform Android, under the code name Jelly Bean, in the II quarter 2012 (April-June), DigiTimes with reference to the Taiwan producers reported.

Having released the new version of Android in the first half of year, Google will be prepared for fight for the world market of tablets against Microsoft and its Windows 8 in advance, explained the edition. In the IV quarter 2011 the Android platform possessed 39% of the market of tablets, and Windows - 1.5%, according to Strategy Analytics. Android 5.0 should be even more optimized for tablet computers. It was expected that the new operating system will play two roles: the main OS on tablets and minor OS on the tablets working running Windows 8. The corresponding option will be offered vendors. It is going to make so that to switch between Windows and Android users could without reset of the device.

Using Android 5.0 the Google corporation will try to catch also again some positions in the market of cheap notebooks, add sources. The company tried to make it with Chrome OS, but came to grief.

It was expected that the interface in this version will work quicker and more smoothly in comparison with Ice Cream Sandwich. The project on improvement of speed of operation of the graphical interface is called Project Butter which sense - to force the central processor, graphic cores and the display to work in a tandem, due to technology of threefold buffering. According to Google, this approach allowed to reach the speed of plotting of 60 fps.

Also vertical synchronization was improved and the speed of a response of the touch screen which as writes PocketNow, "foresees" the subsequent clicking now is increased, in advance processing possible actions. Besides, quicker to react to clicking when the processor is in standby mode (saving a charge), a system will send it "the entering impulse" at the expense of which the chip will be wakes up quicker.

2011

Platform No. 1 on number of the loaded applications

In October, 2011 the ABI Research company opened data of amount of loadings of applications for different mobile platforms according to the results of the second quarter 2011[17].

The amount of loadings of mobile applications for different platforms in the 2nd quarter 2011 (data of ABI Research).

In the leaders of the rating as it is reported, there was an Android operating system: in a total amount of the downloaded programs the share of applications for this platform made 44%. For comparison: at the end of the first quarter this indicator did not exceed 35%.

The Apple iOS, on the contrary, hands over positions: if according to the results of the first quarter of the 2011th this operating system by the number of the loaded applications won first place from shares more than 40%, then it the second with result in 31% now.

Software platforms of Nokia, the share of applications for which in the lump of loadings in the second quarter equaled about 10%, close the three.

Analysts believe that in 2011 in general the number of downloads of mobile applications will reach 29 billion against 9 billion in the 2010th.

Forecast of ABI Research: By 2016 Android will take 45% of the market of smartphones

After IDC the ABI Research analytical company issued the forecast of market development of operating systems for smartphones in the next 5 years. Experts of the company also gave a palm to the Android platform and predicted that by 2016 it will occupy 45% of the market of operating systems for smartphones.

The IOS platform which in 2010 possessed 15% of the market as analysts consider, will continue the stable, but moderate growth, and by 2016 its share will make 19%. The BlackBerry platform, as expected, will lose a part of the market – its share will make 14% by 2016 against 16% by 2010. At the same time analysts specify what insignificant losses of RIM company of a share in the market does not mean falling of deliveries of devices on this platform. This operating system occupied the niche in the market, but the general growth rates of the market will be higher, than at its separate parts.

Analysts of ABI Research predicted also good growth rates for Samsung Bada OS (its share by 2016 should make about 10%) and success to the Windows platform of Phone 7 which received a new boost after the conclusion of Nokia and Microsoft of strategic partnership. However in the forecasts concerning the future of Windows Phone 7 experts of ABI Research are more conservative, than their colleagues from IDC: by their estimates, the share of this OS by 2016 will make about 7% of the market.

HTC pays a royalty of Microsoft from each released Android device

In May, 2011 it became known that HTC will pay Microsoft of a royalty from each released device based on Android. In total Microsoft should receive $150 million that in 5 times more, than it earned from sale of licenses of own mobile platform Windows Phone.

Within the reached agreements the Taiwan mobile device manufacturer of HTC undertakes to pay Microsoft $5 from each released smartphone on the Android platform, Business Insider with reference to the report of the analyst of Citi Walter Pritchard reports.

For May, 2011 HTC produced about 30 million smartphones on Android. If the company will really pay $5 from each device, Microsoft will gain an additional income in the amount of $150 million. For comparison, by this moment of Microsoft implemented about 2 million licenses for own platform for smartphones, Windows Phone. Taking into account that the cost of one license is equal to $15, income of corporation from sale of all licenses was about $30 today that is 5 times less than the amount which HTC, reported on the website of Asymco analytical company undertakes to pay.

The corresponding licensing agreement of the technologies of Microsoft used in the mobile platform Google Android, the parties concluded in April, 2010. At the same time HTC became the first company which went to world at once, in difference, for example, from Motorola which also releases Android smartphones, however selected a way of fight against Microsoft.

According to Pritchard, in the whole Microsoft requires from the companies which release Android smartphones, for $7.5-12.5 from each device. The analyst believes that with the current victory of Microsoft the situation around Android within the coming months will become more intense - as the patent pool of Google is rather small effectively to be protected.

In April, 2011 Google of the first performed with intention to purchase a patent portfolio of the Canadian producer of telecommunication equipment Nortel Networks which will help to uphold the positions in court. The company offered $900 million for a portfolio, is going to hold an auction in June, 2011.

According to calculations of other analyst of Citi, Kevin Chiang, operating profit of producers from each smartphone on the Android platform is 10-15% while from tablets - is even lower, only 2-3%. Taking into account that Microsoft is not the only company applying for this profit through the patents (Oracle also hunts Google), over time this value can become even lower that will help such companies as Microsoft and Apple.

Hatred to Apple - the mass phenomenon among users of Android

More than a half of owners of smartphones on the Android platform were recognized that they hate Apple and for this reason will never pass to its smartphones. Among the polled users of smartphones on the Android platform of 55.7% said that will never purchase iPhone because "hate Apple", reports the Business Insider resource which conducted a research. The others are ready to pass to iPhone if it satisfies to one of three conditions: it will become better to work together with products of other brands (31.2%), will be cheaper (7%) or will offer ampler opportunities in respect of text entering and work with e-mail (6.1%). During the research the website Business Insider polled more than 2 thousand respondents. Why more than a half of owners of Android smartphones hate Apple, the resource promises to find out in the next polls.

Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich)

On the presentation of Samsung and Google in October, 2011 not only the leader of Samsung Galaxy Nexus, but also the operating system from Google - Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich was provided.

Android Ice Cream Sandwich received new design. Izmeniya concerned practically all all elements of design, moreover - all widgets and official applications from Google are brought into accord to the new user interface under the name ROBOTO now. Probably it is a part of strategy of reduction of all Google services to the single interface which in the company declared on the eve of the presentation.

The new screen of blocking in ICS looks laconically, the unblocking is made by means of a ring with the lock, having pulled for which it is possible to unblock the device or to get access to often used functions - to photographing, messages.

The built-in widgets in Android 4.0 support scaling, practically all of them underwent cosmetic changes. Except widgets in the built-in desktop (launcher'e) support of folders appeared - to drag program icons one on another enough, the folder contents preview is available, the size of space of the folder changes depending on the number of applications in it.

Important difference is also support of virtual touch keys in the lower part of the screen - earlier they were used only in the tablet version of Android Honeycomb, now they will be present at Android 4.0 everywhere. Obviously it is a step towards universality of the user experience when using tablets or communicators on Android. The new system of notifications in ICS got support of an output of icons of the application and photos of users (in case of the notification about calls or IM clients).

The keyboard in Android 4.0 supports voice input now - to click a microphone icon enough. Perhaps it will increase popularity of voice input from Google which was available in the form of the separate application earlier, and could be activated, for example, in Google Translate.

One more innovation - a device unblocking by means of the front camera, method of recognition of the person of the owner of the device.

Also the browser in Android underwent big changes - he received the new interface, support of synchronization of tabs with the Google Chrome browser, the full-screen mode. Together with the browser practically all Google applications were updated - in particular the email client of Gmail had an opportunity of offline search of letters. In the Calendar application support of gestures is expanded.

The new interface was received also by the camera and a photo gallery. Information about built-in the photo editor was confirmed, besides the camera received a number of the new modes of shooting - panoramic (one click), timelapse, and new features when shooting video. An opportunity to send the photo is expanded (without processing or after use of photofilters) in social networks and cloud services of information storage).

The application Contacts (People) is integrated with social network Google now + (the client of Google + was also updated and now allows to carry out video conferences) and supports an output of big photos of contacts in a new type. Integration concerned also such moments as support of an output of the high-quality photo of the subscriber for a call, support of loading of the photo of contact from social networks, a possibility of viewing history of messages with contact directly from the application.

It is necessary to tell that this mode and the concept of the application very much reminds the solution applied in the Windows Phone operating system. By means of NFC technology it is possible to transfer information to other Android smartphone (equipped with the NFC chip) now having just brought closer them rather closely to each other. A new opportunity received the name Android Beam.

Information about updating terms to Android 4.0 for the communicators which are released earlier did not arrive yet, as well as information about availability of source codes within Android Open Source Project.

In more detail about new features of Android 4.0 of Ice Cream Sandwich and about new information on its release read for day in our blog R2-D2 today: Android with advantage.

Android 3.1

One of the main problems of Android is solved (at least partly) directly — release of Android 3.1. Since May 11, 2011 this version is established on Motorola Xoom tablets. Android 3.1, replacing the perspective, but unsolved version of Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) intended for tablets corrects its many errors and riddles of the user interface which prevented sales of the Xoom tablet developed in Motorola Mobility.

Android 3.1 facilitates switchings through a user interface both in a system, and between standard applications, Google reports. For example, switching between Launcher and a list of applications is optimized. Color, positioning and the text are finished for the sake of simplification of their perception. Now the interface provides an accurate feedback, the corporation claims. Besides, from now on users can configure touch duration to the screen.

Among other corrections of the user interface it is necessary to mention that the Home button which is on a system panel opens the last used home screen now. And at the appeal to an internal system of storage the volume occupied by broader set of types of files is shown, Google reports. The list of recently started Recent Apps applications can be expanded. Users had an opportunity to glance over it and to see icons of all tasks which are in process of accomplishment and recently used applications, the corporation claims.

In addition now it is possible to change the sizes of widgets of the home screen, dragging their borders. They can even be expanded due to adding of new content if the widget supports him.

As for the hardware, began to support by Android 3.1 a host of USB and also to automatically detect the equipment that allows to support more than the different devices connected through USB port. Now users can connect 'the external keyboard or a mouse practically any type'. Support of video game consoles and joysticks for the PC with the USB interface or Bluetooth is added, the corporation reports.

Android Open Accessory API interface

Along with Android 3.1 the tool kit for application development was announced (application development kit, ADK) Android Open Accessory allowing any accessory connected to USB port with the necessary API interface to interact with devices running Android 3.1. This set supports also Android 2.3.4.

ADK uses the improved support of USB in Android 3.1 and Android 2.34 and helps developers to create the peripheral devices connected through this port for Android. At the same time the device running Android performs functions of a host of USB.

A set of reference design of the equipment for the API interface will be based on the platform of the gadget open source of Arduino. Thus, in any case, at first all external devices should use this popular platform of the microcontroller.

In addition to new the API interface for USB and ADK port there were such features as the improved support of external video cameras and stream audio intended for developers. Performance for what several acceptances are used, including a new 'class of a cache of LRU' is increased, Google claims.

Wi-Fi continues to work after switching off of the device

In Android 3.1 there was a possibility of isolation of Wi-fi network then the Wi-fi connection is supported even at shutdown of the screen of the device. It allows users long 'listen to music and watch videos reflected by a continuous flow and also use voice services, even when all other functions of the device are turned off', Google reports.

In similar situations the new feature of Preferred Network Offload (PNO) saves a charge of batteries, the corporation claims. Among other improvements relating to Wi-fi networks it is necessary to call a possibility of creation of the HTTP intermediary for each access point of Wi-fi.

Also a number of applications is improved. Browser is updated and its user interface Quick Controls which gives to users an opportunity to browse icons of open tabs, and then to close an active tab is processed. It is reported that this function provides also a menu call for instant access to settings. Browser supports CSS 3D, animation and standards of the fixed positioning of CSS. Besides, the player of video content HTML5 is built in it, informs Google.

From other improvements it is possible to mention Gallery updating, emergence of support of the protocol Picture Transfer Protocol (PTP), Calendar with larger cages. In the Contacts application search is allegedly improved. Besides, at the answer to the message in the HTML format or its transfer the Email application sends it in two formats — text and HTML — as the message of MIME consisting of several parts, the corporation reports.

Nothing was told about when Android 3.0 or 3.1 appears in the form of an open source code. In March Google postponed this event indefinitely.

However many problems of Honeycomb to which specialists in the responses paid attention in new release are not solved. The error of rendering of the image which is well noticeable in the Gallery application when images look indistinct and deprived of parts unlike initial belongs to their number.

Experts note also that badly implemented return button still closes applications instead of transferring them to the background mode.

Android 3.0 (Honeycomb)

The leading designer of the new version of the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) mobile operating system Mathias Dyuarte told about some of its opportunities. Originally the task of adaptation of a system to work on tablet computers was set for development team of Honeycomb, Dyuarte explained. However the changes made during development made a system more flexible and suitable not only for tablets, but also for devices practically of all possible form factors. The system interface does not depend on existence in the device of hardware keys any more. Based on Honeycomb it is possible to make even the device in which will not be not only hardware, but also screen keys — it will be controlled entirely gestures. Honeycomb developers aimed to provide convenience of work with a system both on short, and on long periods — both in mobile, and in the stationary mode when the device is at home or in a workplace.[18]

During the I/O conference the senior vice president of Google for mobile technologies in May, 2011 Andy Rubin openly said that the company is not going to publish source texts of the release of the Android 3.0 Honeycomb operating system focused on tablet PCs. The reason consists that in this release the functionality connected with mobile phones is broken. Google is afraid that if to publish source texts in the current type, then equipment manufacturers right there will begin to create insufficiently high-quality smartphones on the basis of Honeycomb that will negatively affect reputation of Android. Thus, the developers and equipment manufacturers wishing to receive source texts of Android should wait for the publication of the following release Ice Cream Sandwich which exit is expected at the end of 2011.

Andy Rubin explained a position of the company concerning interaction with community the following words: "The open code differs from development in style of community. The party connected with development in style of community is not important for Android, but that party which is connected with the open code is important. Everything that we do, eventually is published in an OpenSource-repository", – Rubin says.

There is a variety of reasons on which Google is not interested in ceding control over development of the platform in hands of community:

"We create the platform, but not the application, – Rubin says. – Developers improve API and eliminate unnecessary API, they constantly add new functionality. When we create new API, in my opinion, the processes accepted in community do not work. It is very difficult to define when you already finished work, it is difficult to distinguish release from the beta", – Rubin explains.

Besides, the excessive openness in development would lead to the fact that equipment manufacturers based on Android would create devices which would be incompatible among themselves from the point of view of application developers. It in a bigger degree would aggravate an incompatibility problem between different versions of Android on different devices which already does development of the Android-applications by more problematic in comparison, for example, with applications for iPhone.

Android 2.4 (Ice Cream)

The next version of the Google operating system for mobile phones — Android 2.4 Ice Cream — had to be released in June or July, 2011. The specified term answers the diagram of a release of Android according to which every year there are about two updates of OS: the previous version, Froyo, was announced in May, 2010 (and on phones appeared in the summer), and the last, Gingerbread, is provided in December, 2010. In January Google also announced the Android option for tablet computers — Honeycomb, but as point to Pocket Lint, this version of OS will hardly be applied on mobile phones.

2010

Android 2.3 (Gingerbread)

In December, 2010 Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) succeeded Android 2.2 (Froyo) and comprises a number of evolutionary changes. The main innovations are a support of new technologies of communication and multimedia formats, enhanced capabilities and the increased performance in game applications. Besides, the graphical interface is improved.

The Android OS interface in the emulator

Developers of game applications from now on can use a gyroscope, a barometer, sensors of rotation, linear acceleration and gravitation. Thanks to Concurrent Garbage Collection technology it was succeeded to reduce pauses in games, to make smoother animation, and thanks to the improved event handling - to reduce load of the processor. There was a support of the VP8 and WebM formats and also AAC and AMR Wideband Encoding.

Quick entry of the text

The built-in Android keyboard is changed and optimized for quicker entry / text editing. Also the design of buttons is updated — now to click them comfortably even at a high speed of set. Hints with the dictionary will simplify input, and it became even easier to select characters thanks to support the multi-touch and key shortcuts.

Selection in one contact

During viewing the text or the web page just click, hold — and the selection/copying mechanism in a clipboard is activated. If at this time to carry out on the screen, then tags for selection of a certain fragment will be displayed.

The improved power management

The operating system participates in saving of battery power more actively now. Android 2.3 can independently close unnecessary applications, releasing memory, resources of the processor and, thereby, prolonging battery life. In settings it is possible to look now how many energy consumes components of the device and each of the opened applications. It allows to make a better understanding about energy consumption and if necessary to optimize it manually.

Control of applications

In the Parameters menu of the Android 2.3 operating system there is a point "management of applications" using which it is much simpler to control activity and a programs runtime. At once after an input the list of the started processes with display of statistics and the consumed resources is available to the user. From here it is possible to browse expanded information, to close the application or to contact the developer.

New methods of communication

It is the whole group of innovations opening new opportunities of interaction of Android communicators with other devices and users with each other.

  • Internet telephony. If you have an accounting record of SIP provider, then connect it to a communicator with the Android 2.3 operating system, and to you new opportunities of commission of calls on the Internet will open. And, SIP mechanisms are rather deeply integrated into the operating system: for the Internet subscriber number the special field is provided, and the button for commission of new type of a call is near traditional.

  • NFC Near-Field Communications is the standard of communication at small distances adding a feature for use of special tags. For example, tags in advertizing, posters or stickers from which easily it is also just possible to read out certain data: additional information, url-address, etc. It should be noted that the technology relies on specific hardware opportunities of communicators therefore its support depends only on producers of devices.

Thanks to NFC the mobile device can be used as a purse, the admission or to read out data from NFC tags (the corresponding chip in phone is for this purpose necessary).

Download manager

Android 2.3 provides to the user easy access to all files gone from the browser, received by e-mail or from other application. Besides, any programs can use the built-in manager that will provide centralized operation with loading and storage of files

Cameras

Also new version of the operating system allows to get access to any camera of the device — the main or frontal if like that is available.

Only the changes visible to users are given above. Developers and just the interested can look at the complete list of changes in Android 2.3 on the official site.

Oracle files a lawsuit against Google for patent infringement in Android

In August, 2010 Oracle submitted the legal claim concerning Google, having accused the company of patent infringement, connected with Java technology. In the statement of claim it is specified that patents of Oracle are violated in the platform for the Google Android mobile phones. Add to the companies that Google should be informed on this circumstance as its head Eric Schmidt worked earlier in SUN Microsystems company which developed Java. "Creating Android, Google knew about violations, but continued to neglect the patent legislation. We expect the legal compensation", - said in Oracle. In October, 2010 the wording of the claim against Google concerning patent infringement and copyright of the Java technologies implemented in the Android mobile operating system were specified. The first version of the claim taken to court in August, 2010 contained few technical details, but now the company applies to the claim even excerpts from source texts of programs.

Oracle claims that about a third of packets in the program interface (API) Android are derivative of Java packets, copyright of which belongs to Oracle. It concerns, in addition, names of classes and methods, parameters, determinations and the general organization of the code and documentation. A part of the source code was directly taken from the texts of programs of Oracle protected by copyright. The licenses to use Java in itself are free, but in the Android system instead of the Java virtual machine the machine Dalvik of own development of Google, programs for which, however, are written in the Java language, is used. Google considers that claims of Oracle to it and to community of program writers with the open code in general are unreasonable.

The Java technology carried over Oracle together with Sun acquisition. Completion of the transaction worth $5.6 billion it was announced in January, 2010. The head of Oracle Larry Ellison said that Java is one of the most interesting assets for them as it is used in wide range of products and devices. In addition to patent infringement, Oracle accused Google of violation of the law about protection of copyright.

Oracle requires to stop further development and distribution of Android and also to impose a penalty on responsible. The Java language is used for creating applications under Android which then are transferred to a bytecode and are started in the Dalvik virtual machine developed by Google. Means for development of Java applications are included into Android SDK.

The complaint of Oracle, according to analysts, is a consequence of desire of the companies to control use of the software belonging to them more tightly. Earlier the claim connected with patent infringement in the Android platform was submitted Apple company. However in this case it was submitted not on the author of the platform, and on one of producers of devices - the Taiwan HTC.

Start of App Inventor for Android for application development

In August, 2010 Google had an App Inventor for Android service allowing practically everyone to create applications for mobile phones on the Android platform. The website of service began work in the beta mode. He offers users of the idea of applications, for example, use of GPS for determination of location, creation of SMS mailings for friends and creation of the collages which are connected to other services, such as Twitter.

A person interested to use App Inventor will be the personal computer, phone on the basis of Android and an account in Gmail enough. In Google for the first time announced work on service about a year ago, having specified that teachers of tens of universities take part in its creation.

2010: Mobile OS No. 3 in the world market

According to Gartner, the Android platform in the 2nd quarter 2010 became the third most popular in the world market, having overtaken IOS, and the most popular in the market of the USA in which overtook not only the platform developed by Apple, but also the BlackBerry OS platform. Analysts predict that by 2012 Android will become the world's second most popular platform for smartphones.

The Japanese market, despite force majeur circumstances in which there were producers and retailers in connection with an earthquake on March 11, 2011 was fertile for all who delivered on the Google Android operating system. According to Android OS MM Research Institute research company occupied 57 % of the market of smartphones of the land of the rising sun in 2010, in comparison with 38% of shares, received by the iPhone smartphones. For the Apple iPhone which is highly esteemed in Japan this serious decrease - from 72 %. Other platforms lost on growth of popularity of "little green man" too. So, the share of the Finnish Nokia and Canadian Research in Motion appeared less than 5 %. Android grows due to reduction of a share of other producers not only in Japan, but also worldwide, according to the last report of comScore.

2008

Opening of the source code

On October 21, 2008 the alliance OHA published the source code of the Android platform. All stack of Android entered release: both the operating system, and the middleware (middleware), and the main final applications written on Java. The total amount of the source code Android was 2.1 GB. "The preferable license" for the source code Android is Apache License 2.0.

The HTC smartphone is the first device on Android

The T-Mobile G1 smartphone developed by HTC company which presentation took place on September 23, 2008 became the first device working running Android. Soon numerous announcements of other smartphone manufacturers about intention to release devices with Android followed.

Besides, enthusiasts ported Android on a number of the known devices among which there is, for example, a N810 Nokia Internet tablet, the HTC Touch smartphone and a photoframe. Cases of successful porting on computers of architecture of x86 are also known.

Separate mentioning the initiative of Koolu company which was engaged not only porting of Android on Neo FreeRunner is worthy, but also builds the business on sale of these OpenSource-smartphones with the preset mobile platform Google. The first official and public beta release of Android port on Neo FreeRunner from Koolu took place in the second half of December, 2008.

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