Translated by
2011/10/27 17:35:41

Open source software Open Source

Open source software (engl. open source software) is an open source software. The source code of the created programs is open, i.e. is available to viewing and change. It allows to use already created code for creation of new versions of programs, for error correction and, perhaps, to help with completion of the open program.


Model of the open source software in comparison with proprietary products

The open source software has several advantages before the software products delivered on proprietary model (see Advantages of the open source software).

In the 1990s the free software was considered as exotic in corporate environment, and long time the Red Hat company was the only noticeable competitor of proprietary giants led by Microsoft, however from the second half of the 2000th years the situation began to change quickly. Open source software became a mainstream for many large companies, and there were dozens of reliable suppliers of the open source software who reached the proper high level of examination and experience to service large and exacting corporate clients.

For 2014 many players who in a number of the directions successfully compete with suppliers of the commercial software act. In addition to Red Hat, it is such organizations as Google, Apache Software, Novell, SUSE, Acquia focused on open software, etc. In the market more and more OpenSource of analogs of the existing propriyetartny solutions appears. Communities of developers of the open source software become stronger and increase quality and functionality of products.

As a rule, development is offered free of charge, and it is commercialized due to support and customization. It creates the additional competition and, as a result, contributes to the development of open software products.

Almost in all industries and activities there is a possibility of use of software on the basis of an open source code. Almost each proprietary software has an operating analog open source:

Proceeding from specific objectives of business, it is possible to compare the cost and an implementation time of the solution based on the proprietary software and OpenSource.

The open source software in the countries of the world


In March, 2016 the administration of U.S. President submitted the preliminary version of the bill of use of the open source software by the state departments. Market participants supported the initiative.

According to the document published by the White House, the American public institutions can share with each other the source code for these or those projects with the purpose of increase in their efficiency and disposal of need to develop a product again. In more detail about it here.


In October, 2011 it became known[1]that the government of the State of Punjab decided to purchase software from Microsoft, canceling the decision on installation of free software made in 2008 on 46,000 computers at 4,956 schools. 'We decided to review the previous solution,' - the minister of school education of the state said Baldeo Purushartha.

The government of Punjab started the program of informatization for pupils of 6-12 classes in 2004-2005. The department of ICT formation of the State of Punjab implements the project within which at all elementary schools computer classes with the necessary equipment, software and broadband Internet connection will be organized. At the same time at the state level broad support received the solution Bharat Operating System Solutions (BOSS) tested and certified by Linux Foundation for work at schools thanks to the financial availability.

According to the statement of the president of the State of Punjab, as of 2008 the minimum cost of software updating with the license of Microsoft - on 16,578 computers at the rate of 1,375 rupees on the computer - was 23 million rupees in five years. For this reason in September, 2008 the government of the State of Punjab decided to purchase and install BOSS at all public elementary schools and stated that since 2011 all pupils of elementary schools will study use of BOSS. The works were completed in April, 2011, including training of 6600 teachers.

But on August 8, 2011, after the comprehensive analysis of project deliverables, the Head of Department of school education of the State of Punjab said that 'the department of school education will return to use of software from Microsoft... for training of children in initial classes of public schools'. The cost of updating of licenses will be about 7 million rupees from which 3.77 million are already selected with the government.

Moreover, about 90000 computers will be installed at the public schools connected to EDUASAT network through which pupils will be able to watch live broadcasts from different lectures. According to predesigns, the starting price of software and the license of Microsoft will be 30 million rupees. This amount does not include the equipment price, etc.

Earlier, in February, 2011, the decision about use of BOSS for net surfing of EDUASAT was made. But now, according to Purushart: 'For the purpose of as much as possible complete use of the installed computers on which pupils will master software of Microsoft we want to use Microsoft as well in EDUASAT'.

Let's note that Punjab was the first state which actively implemented Linux at schools. Now BOSS is still used in the Indian states Haryana, Gujarat, Kerala and Uttar Pradesh.


According to a recent research of Institute of Technology of Georgia (USA), Germany takes the fourth place in the world on the level of penetration of Open Source in a public sector. In 2001 passed the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany to Linux (and together with it — all embassies and consulates). Several times the consulting company McKinsey confirmed: the Foreign Ministry significantly saves, using Linux, OpenOffice and Thunderbird instead of maykrosoftovsky set of Windows, Office and Outlook. It was said even that diplomats spend for IT less, than the staff of any other state agency.

But focus is that in operation conditionally free software is sometimes more expensive, than certainly paid. Dinosaurs like Microsoft can perform maintenance more qualitatively and cheaper, than the small companies which are engaged in support of Linux. Also it is sometimes more profitable to purchase the license. Therefore, for example, the same German Foreign Ministry this year returns to software of Microsoft. Officials estimated in money permanent problems with technical support and also complexity in mastering of Open Source (many employees complained of it) and spoke in that spirit that penny-wise and pound-foolish[2].


Decisions of the government and the Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, domestic open source software in 2008 is implemented at all schools of the Russian Federation and will be set in all state and budget organizations for ensuring national security in the field of IT.

The Penguin project is implementation of the Open source software

The Penguin project - an implementation project of Technologies Linux and the Open source software in schools and universities of Russia in 2009-2010 is financed by FAO - the Federal Agency of Formation of the Russian Federation. Under the contract on the Penguin project three phases should be completed:

  1. Completion of textbooks and methodical providing
  2. Development of technical support and Internet portals
  3. Training of 60 thousand teachers in technologies Linux and to the Open source software

1. Development of basic Textbooks on information science for universities and schools based on the Open source software according to state standards and to requirements of the Unified State Examination in information science and ICT was executed in 2008-09gg. 2. Development of Internet support with basic textbooks by information science and basic packets of the Open source software for Vinduz and Linux was executed in 2005-2009. 3. Trial rates for prepodavtayely information science and teachers of schools to Technologies Linux and to the Open source software were carried out and fulfilled in 2005-2007 together with the Moscow teacher training Universities of MPGU and MGPU with assistance of UNESCO, IBM corporation and Linuxcenter.

The open source software - opinion of the Russian President

At this meeting D.A. Medvedev told:

"... If we sit down completely on a needle of the foreign software now and "we will be put" for many years, then we from it will not get down. Also we will develop contrary to global trends. At the same time to announce that we at schools (and potentially it is much more serious network of computers) will transfer tomorrow all computers to programs with the open code, with the free license, it is impossible too because there are problems of joining, there are technology problems. So there is no readiness complete too. What to do?

We suggest to go on a compromise way, and this way began to be implemented now. For three years to purchase a license packet from basic programs (first of all operating systems, archivers, offices, editors, "photoshops" mean – generally, everything that is usually used by users including at schools), but at the same time not to stop, and to work on the domestic software package with open access (and now we will in more detail talk about it) in order that then, eventually in three years (if it turns out earlier – even better),

Create such optimal model at which and, potentially, all public institutions will be able to select schools that it is necessary for them: or to continue to use commercial products at own expense, but not at the expense of federal funds, or to pass to the system which is already absolutely adapted, accepted for them based on open access on the open code...".

December, 2010: Putin disposed to transfer the power to Linux

The prime minister Vladimir Putin signed the document in which the diagram of transition of power structures to the free software (Open Source) is described. The document is called "The plan of transition of federal authorities and federal budgetary institutions for use of the open source" and lights the period from 2011 to 2015.

The deputy head Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications Ilya Massukh told CNews that the document provides complete transition of the federal authorities and state employees to the free software. The plan occupies 17 pages, it is possible to download it here (the idea to save the document on Open Source in the .doc format belongs to the Russian Government Office).

By III quarter 2011 specifications of formats of data which will be supported by the free software should be approved. Besides to term according to the plan changes of the instruction for accounting of intangible assets will be developed. This point of the program should solve an old problem of accounting both free proprietary, and the free software, not having own cost.

Approbation of a basic packet of Open Source in pilot organizations should begin in the II quarter 2012. Implementation of a packet of the free software in authorities and budgetary institutions should be complete by III quarter 2014.

Mentioning of a national repository which should be created by II quarter 2012 became one of the most interesting points of the plan. The Deputy Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications Ilya Massukh explained that in the document the assembly repository of the Linux distribution kit, how many the app store similar to App Store, but for free operating systems means "not so much". The creator of a repository will be selected or the government decree, or on a competitive basis, Ilya Massukh explained.

One of the oldest repositories of Open Source in Russia, Sisyphus, the developer of the distribution kit of the same name Alt Linux company owns. According to her CEO Alexey Smirnov familiar with the plan of transition of authorities for Open Source, the speech does not go giving Sisyphus the status national, and about that as much as possible to use it. In 2010 Sisyphus was performed 10 years, the number of packets in it exceeds 10 thousand.

In the text of the document will mention the All-Russian state information center (OGITs, which had a chance to become the uniform Russian portal of public services as technology base of creation of a federal repository. However, at the beginning of 2009 the project was transferred from maintaining Scientific Research Institute "Voskhod" to Rostelecom, and the new option of the All-Russian website of state services in December, 2009 was started to the address

The document history about transition of authorities to the free software lasts since 2007 when in the Ministry of Information Technologies and Communications began to develop "The concept of development of development and use of the open source in the Russian Federation" which was published in the spring of 2008. However, the resignation of the minister Leonid Reiman which followed soon and appointment to his position of Igor Shchegolev entailed review of the concept.

Despite it, spring of 2008, some days before transfer of power to Dmitry Medvedev, Vladimir Putin, still being the President of Russia, mentioned the plan of migration for Open Source of federal institutions in the list of the instructions to the government, thus, having set this task to itself.

The present text of the order signed by Putin and published on the website of the government was submitted to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications for approval in the government in November, 2010.

Packets of the Open source software for schools

Packets of the Open source software for schools are expected installation of programs in schools and home computers with the Windows and Linux operating systems. The compact disk the Linux Live-CD is expected for work on with the Open source software on home computers with Windows without the Linux installation a computer.

Domestic open source software in 2008 and 2009 was sent by decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation in all schools of the Russian Federation and will be set in all state and budget organizations for ensuring national security in the field of IT.

Open Linux operating system

Linux, GNU/Linux is the general name of UNIX-LIKE operating systems on the basis of the core of the same name and libraries which are brought together for it and system programs developed within the GNU project. Linux OS can freely be installed and used on personal computers, servers and supercomputers together with packets of free open source software.

Unlike the majority of other operating systems, GNU/Linux has no uniform "official" complete set. Instead of this GNU/Linux it is delivered in a large number of so-called distribution kits in which the GNU programs connect to a core of/Linux and other programs.

The most known GNU/Linux distribution kits are Slackware, Debian GNU/Linux, Red Hat, Fedora, Mandriva, SuSE, Gentoo, Ubuntu. From distribution kits of the Russian developers are most known [the source is not specified 33 days] ALT Linux and ASPLinux.

60% of servers in the world use the Linux operating system having high reliability and safety in operation. Tens of thousands of computer viruses for Windows cannot extend and be multiplied on computers with the Linux operating system.

Open office suite proramm

The open Open Office office suite can freely be established and used not only on personal computers from Linux OS, but also on computers from Windows OS. At the same time the documents and files prepared in the MS Office office suite can be read and processed in Open Office packet.

Structure of the Open Open Office office suite:

  1. Writer - the Writer Text editor with rich opportunities for creation of letters, books, reports, newsletters, brochures and other documents, we will combine with MS Office.
  2. Calc - Spreadsheets of Calc have advanced means of the analysis, constructions of charts and a possibility of decision making expected from high-quality spreadsheets, we will combine with MS Office.
  3. Impress - the editor of the presentations of Impress provides all general means of representation of multimedia, such as special effects, animation and means of drawing. Let's combine with Microsoft PowerPoint file format, and can also save your work in numerous graphic formats, including Macromedia Flash (SWF).
  4. Base - the Base database provides work benches for work with databases within the simple interface. It can create and edit forms, reports, requests, tables, representations and the relations, so that management of the connected database was almost same, as in other popular applications of databases. Base includes HSQLDB as its mechanism of a relational database set by default. He can also use dBASE, Microsoft Access, MySQL or Oracle, or any ODBC or JDBC the compatible database.
  5. Open Office Draw the vector graphics editor Draw using which it is possible to execute everything from simple charts or flowcharts before three-dimensional artworks. Draw can import graphics from many widespread formats and save it in more than 20 formats, including PNG, HTML, PDF and Flash.
  6. Gimp - the raster graphics editor Gimp, the program for creation and processing of bitmap graphics. The vector graphics is partially supported.

Open Writer text editor Writer is the word-processor and the visual editor of hypertexts, is a part of and is the open source (is issued under the license LGPL).

Writer is similar to Microsoft Word and the functionality of these editors is approximately equal. Provides to the user modern tools for enrollment, editing and formatting of documents.

Along with the usual interface and functionality:

* creation and execution of paragraphs of the text and pages, * adding of sections and headlines, * insert of images and multimedia objects, * print preview and printing of documents, * record of changes and reviewing of texts, * automatic execution of the table of contents, pointers and footnotes, * adding of macroes and controls, * work with tables, * spelling and many other things,

The concept of use of styles — the remarkable solution facilitating creation and formatting of documents. Work with styles is supported in all components of the office suite, but in Writer it is implemented most fully.

Five groups of styles: paragraphs, characters, pages, inserts and lists — give to the user a set of opportunities for easy formatting of documents. The special panel "Styles and Formatting" allows to manage styles, changing existing and creating new. And than the document is more difficult, than more often it is necessary to change it, especially obvious is an advantage of a style design.

Other tool — the Navigator — gives opportunities of fast transition according to the document, selecting headings, footnotes, inserts or other objects from quality of reference points.

As well as for other components, for Writer there is a large number of the additions (expansions) improving basic functionality of a component or providing additional functions, for example a grammar check or the publication in MediaWiki.

Writer supports a large number of formats for import and export of files, including preserving in PDF and import of docx. And sending the file by e-mail is performed by a one click of the button.

Open spreadsheets of Calc

start: Calc is the application for work with spreadsheets. With its help it is possible to analyze the entered data, to be engaged in calculations, to predict, consolidate data from different sheets and tables, to build charts and diagrams.

Calc — the relevant and demanded in a business environment component for work with spreadsheets. The Izlyubenny tool of accountants and managers for creation of the reporting.

Step-by-step input of formulas in cells of spreadsheets using the Master facilitates formation of the difficult and enclosed formulas, shows descriptions of each parameter and the end result at any stage of input.

Conditional formatting and styles of cells allow to arrange ready data, and pivot tables and diagrams show work results.

More than two tens formats of import and export of files, including functions of import of the text allow to operate practically with any data. Also using a special tool it is possible to import data from other sources, for example, of databases, and it is possible to create the updated range that the imported data were always relevant.

Communications between different spreadsheets and joint editing data are supported (starting with the version of 3.0).

Various settings are available to printing of ready sheets on the printer: scale, fields, headlines. And the built-in check of spelling as in the text editor, will allow to improve quality of the ready report.

Open vector graphics editor Draw Draw is the vector graphics editor, on functionality comparable with CorelDRAW, is a part of

The vector graphics editor Draw represents the paint tool using vector graphics. It supports a number of the services allowing to create quickly all types of drawings. The vector graphics allows to save and display images in the form of vectors (two points and the line), but not in the form of a set of pixels (points on the screen). The vector graphics simplifies preserving and scaling of images.

the graphics editor Draw is ideally integrated into the system that allows to perform exchange of drawings between any system modules very simply. For example, if you create the drawing in Draw, then can easily use it in the document Writer using copying and an insert. You can also work with graphics directly in the modules Writer and Impress, using a subset of functions and tools from Draw.

The packet includes full-function "connectors" between figures which can use various styles of lines and allow to draw drawings, for example flowcharts.

Need of presence of the vector editor as a part of the office suite does not raise doubts. Scope of such editor quite wide: from the simplest drawings and declarations to schemes, charts and drawings.

Except own objects, it is possible to insert into drawings of the chart, a formula and the other elements created in other components. Draw is also supported by export of bitmap images of the majority of formats, both widespread, and special.

Draw has all necessary tools inherent in vector editors:

* Trunk lines, dimensional lines, tables. * Work with the text and text effects; * Change of color filling, shadow, transparency; * Placement, a binding and object management by means of slides, layers and guides; * different transactions over objects Are supported: addition subtraction, grouping and conversion of figures; * Drawing of three-dimensional objects; * Drawing using graphic primitives, Bezier curves; * Effects: lighting, morphing and duplication;

Except own objects, it is possible to insert into drawings of the chart, a formula and the other elements created in other components. Draw is also supported by export of bitmap images of the majority of formats, both widespread, and special.

Use of Gallery (storage of objects) allows to arrange the available images, and support of text styles saves time at production of the same objects.

The ready drawing or the drawing can be printed or exported to the bitmap image or, for example, to PDF.

The maximum size of the drawing in Draw — 300х300 cm.

Starting with version 3.0 of, Draw supports not only export, but also import of PDF (installation of the special expansion is necessary).

Open relational database of Base

Base is the open relational database allowing to create, edit and process tabular data.

Quite big set of data processing facilities and tables is provided to users: editors of forms, requests, reports, tables DB. With their help it is possible to analyze the entered data, to be engaged in calculations, to predict, consolidate data from different sheets and tables, to build charts and diagrams.

The editor of requests allows to create practically all range of SQL queries to databases on selection, change, adding of data. Nested queries and requests with parameters are supported. Visual part of the editor will simplify to the beginning user process of designing of requests.

The editor of forms allows to use practically any standard management tool to DB contents. Here controls by text, numerical, binary boxes, lists, the "dropping-out" lists, tables, buttons, the calendar and other elements are provided.

the tool for work with external data sources plus the built-in HSQLDB DBMS. Using Base it is possible to add, delete, edit records of databases: MySQL, HSQLDB (it is usually delivered complete with, PostgreSQL, DB2, Oracle.

Work with the tables DBF, MS Access, address directories, text files and also the spreadsheets created in Calc or the MS Excel is also possible.

Access to external data sources is provided using ODBC, JDBC, SDBC and other technologies. The complete list of the maintained technologies and data sources depends on the used operating system.

More complex management and data processing is executed by means of macroes and means of the OOBasic programming language.

The editor of tables will help to create tables and to manage them in an embedded database of HSQLDB and also with some possible restrictions for other databases.

In Base there is a built-in master of reports with basic functions on creation of reports or tables or requests. But there is more best instrument of creation of reports — Sun Report Builder. This tool allows to create reports practically of any complexity. It supports grouping, accomplishment of the built-in user functions, conditional formatting. The document Writer or Calc which can be printed or edited further is result of work of SRB.

Using Base it is possible to create data sources. For example, having organized connection to the external database in Base and having filtered the necessary data the SQL query, it is possible to work with these data in OOo Calc.

Open systems of programming

  1. FreePascal 2.0.4 - The free Compiler Pascal and the Object Pascal - as IDE is recommended to Lazarus or KDevelop.
  2. Eclipse is the Open complex of open systems of programming for development of building cross-platform block applications.
  3. Gambas is the free programming system 2)VISUAL BASIC IDE for creation of programs on the basis of Qt, GTK, OpenGL, SDL and also CGI WEB

The minimum packet of the Open source software for schools

Includes programs of the Open source software

#графическую XFCE environment;

  1. fast Abiword text editor;
  2. spreadsheet processor of Gnumeric.

Minimum software package of the Open source software:

  1. Office suite: 2.3;
  2. Web browser: Firefox 2.0;
  3. E-mail: Claws Mail;
  4. Image editor: Gimp 2.4;
  5. and even more than 1000 programs allowing to solve the most wide range of tasks.

The additional disk Contains programs for schools and other educational institutions:

  1. Editor web of pages of Bluefish;
  2. pascal Programming languages (Free Pascal and Lazarus), basic (gambas), logo (KTurtle);
  3. Systems of mathematical calculations (Maxima and Scilab);
  4. the Antivirus of ClamAV and the caching Squid server, PostgreSQL DBMS

It is optimized for installation and work on a computer from 128 to 256 MB of memory and the processor from PI 233 MHz.

Compact disk Linux LiveCD

The compact disk the Linux Live-CD is expected for work on with the Open source software on home computers with Windows without the Linux installation a computer.

The compact disk the Linux Live CD is optimized for work with a compact disk for installation Linux on the computer from 128 to 256 MB of memory and the processor from PI 233 MHz. The sessions allowing to save tuning properties and documents in the house folder between resets are supported.

The option with the lowest hardware requirements, provides acceptable performance even on systems with an amount of memory of 128 MB.

Includes the graphical environment XFCE; the easy and fast Abiword text editor and the program of editing spreadsheets Gnumeric are a part of this distribution kit.

Besides, on the first disk contain:

  1. Office suite: 2.3;
  2. Web browser: Firefox 2.0;
  3. E-mail: Claws Mail;
  4. Work with images: Gimp 2.4;
  5. and even more than 1000 programs allowing to solve the most wide range of tasks.

School server

The school Server — server operating system with broad functionality, completely configured via the web interface via which control of components is exercised.


  1. web applications for the help in the organization of educational process:
  2. Moodle is the system of distance and interactive learning, contains examples of rates;
  3. Mediawiki is a system for the "knowledge bases" organization, using Wiki technology;

for the organization of a local network:

  1. DHCP-and DNS servers;
  2. the Squid proxy server (with support of an output of statistics of access);
  3. firewall;
  4. management of network interfaces;
  5. time server;
  6. file servers:
  7. the Samba-server (for the organization of access to the directories available for the Samba protocol);
  8. FTP server;
  9. the interface for creation of local mirrors of repositories;
  10. CUPS print server;
  11. MySQL (for Moodle and Mediawiki);
  12. Apache2 Web server;
  13. the interface for updating of a system (including setup of updates);
  14. backup;
  15. management of accounts (a possibility of import of accounts from a 1C system: Chronograph);
  16. the mail server with support of means of fight against viruses and spam.

The open source software in Russia

Now open source software begins to be widely adopted in an education system of Russia, among the reasons for what call wide illegal dissemination of the commercial closed import software.

Domestic open source software in 2008 is implemented by decisions of the government at all schools of the Russian Federation and will be set in all state and budget organizations for ensuring national security in the field of IT.

Open source software can freely be established and used at all schools, offices, universities and on all personal computers and in all state, budget and commercial organizations and organizations of Russia and in the CIS countries according to the General public license (GPL).

The open source software at schools and universities

Use of the Open source software and Linux Technologies at schools and universities of Moscow began in 2005-2006 after holding workshops "Technologies Linux and the Open source software" together with IBM and UNESCO corporation based on MPGU.

In 2007 basic packets of the Open source software were recommended by decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation for implementation in all schools of Russia and use for training in information science and information technologies in all offices of information science of all schools of the Russian Federation.

The background of basic software packages on information science, their developments, implementations and distribution to schools of Russia and the CIS countries began in the late nineties when basic software packages were developed for domestic personal computers of BQ, the Corvette and UKNTs and extended in the form of the Open source and Free software for schools.

All high schools of Russia in 2008-2009 received basic packets of license commercial and free open source software for training of computer literacy, to fundamentals of information science and new information technologies with operating systems Windows and Linux.

Works on implementation and use at high schools of basic software packages for offices of information science and ADP equipment are developed in four regions of Russia in 2008-2009 and training of teachers and teachers of information science of technology of work with open source software in the environment of Windows and Linux is begun.

According to the Information security doctrine of the Russian Federation, training of computer literacy and information science should be followed by a legal educational program in training in data protection in a computer, protection against computer viruses, the pornowebsites and to information security support on the local and global area networks of a computer based on free open source software.

In 2007 the first textbooks by the information scientist for universities and schools for training in information science according to state standards of education with free opened commercial the closed software in Windows and Linux are published.

Textbooks by information science of Kaiming can be used for preparation for the USE and entrance examinations in information science in universities based on the Open source software in the environment of Windows and Linux.

Open Source determination

Determination of Open Source (Open source software) is used by the Open Source Initiative organization for determination of degree of compliance of the software license to standards of Open source software (Open source software). Are based on directives of Debian for the open source which a botshy part are written by Bruce Perens.

Determination consists of ten requirements to licenses for the Open source software:

  1. Freeware distribution. It means that the license should not impose restrictions for sale and distribution of software.
  2. Available source texts. Even if software is not delivered with source texts, these texts should be easily available.
  3. Possibility of modification. A simple opportunity to read source texts does not allow to experiment with them and to release modifications
  4. Even in case of inviolability of an author's source text, derivative programs and their source texts should extend freely.
  5. Lack of discrimination against people and groups of people. Some countries, for example, of the USA, have some export restrictions of software.
  6. Lack of discrimination on the application purpose. The free license should permit all types of activity, including genetic and nuclear researches, commercial application etc.
  7. Distribution of the license. The rights connected with the Open source software should be applicable to all users of the program without the conclusion of supplementary agreements, for example, of the nondisclosure agreement.
  8. the License should not limit other software products. Except for banal incompatibility, the user has the right to select, than to use.
  9. the License should be technology neutral. So the license should not demand something from the interface or technologies applied in the derivative program.
  10. the License should not be tied to a specific product. The rights to a program code should not depend on whether the program is a part of some product. The person who is distributing the program in a separation from the collection or transferred a part of the code to other product has the same rights what the collection granted.

General Public Licence GPL

The majority of software licenses deprives of you the right to extend and make changes to this software. The general Public Licence GPL, on the contrary, is developed with the purpose to guarantee you the right to share and make changes to the open source, i.e. to provide free access to the software for all users.

Conditions of the General Public Licence GPL are applied to the most part of the software of Free Software Foundation and also to any other software at the request of his author. (Conditions of the General Public Licence GNU for Libraries are applied to some software of Free Software Foundation). You can also apply the General Public Licence GPL to the software developed by you.

Speaking about the open source, we mean freedom, but not gratuitousness. The general Public Licence GPL is developed with the purpose to guarantee you the right to distribute copies of the open source (and if desired to earn a reward for it), the right to receive a source text of the software or to have an opportunity to receive it, the right to make changes to the software or to use its parts in the new open source and also the right to know that you have all above-mentioned rights.

To protect your rights, we introduce a number of restrictions nobody had opportunities to deprive of you these rights or to address you with the offer to refuse these rights. These restrictions impose on you certain duties if you distribute copies of the software or modify the software.

For example, if you distribute copies of such software for a fee or free of charge, you are obliged to assign to new owners all rights in the same volume in what they belong to you. You are obliged to provide new owners of the program of its source text or an opportunity to receive it. You are also obliged to acquaint them with conditions of the General Public Licence GPL.

For protection of your rights we: (1) we reserve exclusive copyright of the software and (2) we suggest you to use this License, in accordance with the terms which you have the right to reproduce, extend and/or modify the software.

Literature and Textbooks

  1. V. Kostromin, "Linux for the user", prod. BHV-St. Petersburg, 2002.
  2. Beluntsov V. Self-instruction manual by the user of Linux. M, DESS-KOM, 2003.
  3. " Theory and practice". Binom publishing house, series "ALT Linux Library". Authors I. Hakhayev, V. Mashkov, etc. Moscow, 2008.

Textbooks by information science

  1. Kaiming V.A. Informatika. The textbook for students. M. INFRA-M, 1999-2009.
  2. Kaiming V.A. Informatika. The textbook for school students. M, Avenue, 2009.
  3. Kaiming V.A. Informatika. A benefit to examinations. M, RIOR, 2008.
  4. Kaiming V. A., Kasayev B.S. Informatika: a practical work on a computer, M. INFRA-M, 2000-2003.
  5. * Kaiming V. A., Kaiming S.V., etc. The basic software package for IBM PC. M, VAK, 1984.

See Also


Information science


innovations in information science and ICT


  1. Kaiming V.A. Informatika. The textbook for students. M, Infra-M, M.,2006-2010.
  2. Kaiming V. A Informatika. A benefit for arriving. M, Avenue. 2007-2010.
  3. Kaiming V.A. Informatik. A benefit to examinations. M, RIOR, 206-2008.

Internet sources