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OneWeb LLC


Telecommunication and communication
Since 2012
Great Britain, 195 Wood Lane W12 7FQ




+ OneWeb LLC

OneWeb LLC earlier known as WorldVu Satellites is telecommunication company which was created with the purpose to provide hundreds of millions of potential users broadband access living in places where it is absent.

Business in Russia

Main article: OneWeb in Russia (Uanveb)



The government of Britain buys a share in OneWeb for $0.5 billion

At the end of June, 2020 it became known that the government of Britain buys a share in OneWeb for $0.5 billion and 20% of the company will own now. This solution was approved by the prime minister Boris Johnson and Risha Sunak Minister of Finance.

The experts polled by The Telegraph call the plan of the authorities "senseless" as the OneWeb company does not even make that type of satellites which are necessary for the country after Brexit. Investments should help Great Britain to save access to the Galileo navigation satellite system of the EU in which development it also participated in due time. However the OneWeb company uses satellite network absolutely other type.

The government of Britain buys a share in OneWeb for $0.5 billion and 20% of the company will own now

According to the analyst Giles Thorne, each large system of positioning, now in use - the American GPS, the Russian GLONASS, the Chinese BeiDou and Galileo, the project of the EU — is on a medium earth orbit. The OneWeb satellites, 74 of which are already started, are on a low earth orbit, only at the height of 1200 km.

Doctor Bleddyn Bowen, the expert in space policy at Leicester University, told:

If to you it is necessary GPS for the systems of military level i.e. ciphered, the safe network transmitting signals with an accuracy of centimeters, I am afraid, the OneWeb satellites in that case will not approach.

The idea of OneWeb is similar to Elon Musk's Starlink: the mega-constellation of satellites on a low earth orbit which are used for connection of people on the earth to the Internet. Bowen considers that talented lobbyists of OneWeb just convinced the government that they will be able to remake completely a number of satellites under navigation loading though initially they were developed with absolutely other purpose.

Thorn assumes that investments were made not so much on the basis of sensible reflections, how many for the approval of "the nationalist agenda". OneWeb formally is the British business with the British headquarters. Earlier Great Britain was going to create own global navigation satellite system which, by estimates of independent experts, could cost 3-4 billion pounds sterling.[1]

Sending an inquiry in FCC on increase in number of satellites to 48,000

On May 27, 2020 it became known that communication company OneWeb which purpose to provide with Internet access of users worldwide, sent an inquiry to the Federal commission on communication of the USA (FCC) for increase in number of satellites in the grouping up to 48,000. The bigger number of satellites will allow OneWeb to provide flexibility in satisfaction of the growing needs for connection.

The global restrictions introduced as a result of a pandemic of a koronavirusny infection emphasized importance of high-quality and uninterrupted broadband communication for economy, business and society in general. Satellite groupings on a low earth orbit are capable to provide communication in the most remote and hardly accessible areas and also in strategically important places, such as the Arctic, for ensuring protection and security, satisfaction of needs of the government and also other consumer segments for which the stable high-speed relation with low signal delay is necessary.

In 2017 OneWeb became the low-orbit satellite grouping which got approval on provision of services of communication in the USA within the first stage of licensing of FCC for the systems of Ku/Ka-range. Since then OneWeb achieved progress in creation of the system, having launched 74 satellites for May, 2020, and having unrolled an essential part of land infrastructure. In August, 2019 the OneWeb system met requirements of the International union of telecommunications (ITU) and successfully exercised the rights to use a global priority range in Ku-and Ka-range. The specified request connected partly with the declaration of FCC of the second processing stage for the systems of Ku/Ka-range goes with the purpose to update the existing permission issued to OneWeb by the United States and to bring it into accord with the last system specifications and also to increase the number of satellites in grouping.

We always considered that low earth orbit satellites should be a part of convergent strategy of broadband networks to allow business and government institutions to provide necessary communication, to offer more ways to a 5G and to become closer to IoT to the future. This considerable expansion of the OneWeb grouping will provide long-term flexibility and guarantees our readiness for satisfaction of the growing demand and the future technology changes,
told Adrian Stekel, the CEO of OneWeb

In March, under the influence of a situation with a pandemic of a koronavirusny infection, OneWeb was forced to submit the application for bankruptcy according to Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy code of the USA. For May 27, 2020 the company continues process of restructuring and sale.

Bankruptcy of OneWeb breaks start of 10 Russian rockets

Bankruptcy of OneWeb breaks start of 10 Russian space rockets, the head of Roskosmos Dmitry Rogozin said on April 19, 2020. According to him, with the British company negotiations are conducted. Read more here.

The declaration of bankruptcy after failures with receiving financing

At the end of March, 2020 OneWeb declared bankruptcy. The company as she explains, could not receive financing which  would provide it  start of the remained satellites and  ground stations.

The reason for this purpose the developer of a global system of the satellite Internet calls the global economic crisis connected with  a pandemic of a new coronavirus of SARS-CoV-2. According to  the Financial Times newspaper, OneWeb tried $2 billion investments from  SoftBank, but  the transaction broke  several hours prior to  start of 34  satellites, a past  on March 21, 2020.

OneWeb declared bankruptcy

According to the head of OneWeb Adrian Stekel, the company had to dismiss many employees. He also noted that the command of a startup is still convinced of "the social and economic value" of the project, and therefore the company will try to obtain sale of the business at the maximum price.

Today very difficult day for OneWeb. We hope that at some point we will be able to find a way forward which will allow us to finish our mission. Now I am forced to announce that most of our employees will be laid off, and remained will be engaged in maintenance of already existing network — Stekel concluded.

OneWeb submitted the application for voluntary bankruptcy and intends to continue sale of the business. The corresponding petition  according to Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code came to court of the Southern federal district of the State of New York.

The CEO of JSC Satellite System Gonets Pavel Cherenkov told  TASS  on March 28 that the statement for bankruptcy and reorganization of OneWeb so far will not influence work of the joint Russian-British venture in any way. 

Creditors  of OneWeb  will not receive the money. It was stated by the company. The largest creditor on unsecured debts of OneWeb is  the Arianespace company  with the amount more than $238 million[2]

Reduction of 10% of the state and stay on the verge of bankruptcy

In March, 2020 it became known of dismissals in OneWeb and also that the company is on the verge of bankruptcy. The operator of the satellite Internet for inaccessible areas confirmed reductions of jobs, but did not specify quantity of the liquidated working positions.

According to TechCrunch, about 10% of employees of a total quantity of the people working in OneWeb were dismissed. The company explained that staff reduction is a compulsory measure which is undertaken because of an economic crisis.

OneWeb dismissed 10% of employees and is on the verge of bankruptcy
Unfortunately, we consider inevitable that we will have delays with the diagram of start and production of satellites because of increase in restrictions for trips and violations of supply chains around the world. Therefore we made the difficult decision to reduce some positions to be focused on primary activity. We regret that it was necessary to take this step, and we will do everything possible to support victims — reported in OneWeb.[3]

On March 19, 2020 the Bloomberg agency announced economic problems of OneWeb company. According to the edition, the British company considers the possibility of filing of application about bankruptcies.

If OneWeb really goes bankrupt and will refuse starts of new satellites, for Roskosmos it can become a serious problem, the research supervisor of Institute of space policy Ivan Moiseyev considers.

It is very unpleasant for us because according to the plan of OneWeb had to buy from us on one billion service in start of these devices. And we only began this program, somewhere, probably, hundred million only from this one billion received. If it goes bankrupt, so for us it will be loss of a remaining balance of the world space market on starts which we still held. There will be absolutely small things. We had customers, but all of them went to SpaceX. And now Khrunichev has at all no orders therefore for us this bankruptcy will strike stronger, than OneWeb — he reported in a conversation with the BFM edition.

The third start brought number of satellites to 74 pieces

On March 22, 2020 it became known that global communication company OneWeb which purpose to provide with Internet access of users worldwide, confirmed officially successful removal of the next batch from 34 satellites into an orbit. Start was performed on March 21 at 8:06 p.m. Moscow time from Baikonur Cosmodrome on the carrier rocket "Union-2.1b". The OneWeb satellites separated from a rocket nine groups.

The third successful start which allowed to bring number of the OneWeb satellites on a low earth orbit to 74 pieces.

The first test start of 6 satellites took place on February 28, 2019 from Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana. On February 7, 2020 years from Baikonur Cosmodrome the first start of 2020 which marked the beginning of a starting campaign was performed. Each device is an integral part of a high-speed global satellite broadband network which by the end of 2020 will provide partial Internet access, and in 2021 – a full-fledged round-the-clock covering of Earth.

After global flash of COVID-19, people around the world try to continue usual tenor of life and to work online. In present realities we see the need for OneWeb services more, than ever before. Access to the high-speed Internet is "lifebuoy" which allows people to work, continue the education, to be aware of important information and to keep in contact with each other. Crisis showed the imperative need of universal connection and revealed important shortcomings of communication in many organizations. Our satellite network is ready to fill many of these critical spaces in global communication infrastructure. I very much am proud of our command and our Russian partners who continue to cooperate to realize our ambitious plans. Russia was and remains the leading spacefaring nation, it has a wealth of experience not only in space exploration, but also in creation of spaceships, and today's successful start on the carrier rocket Union once again confirms this fact,


We are grateful for so harmonious and effective work of the enterprises of the Russian cooperation together with our foreign partners on such important and ambitious project what OneWeb is. Work on global projects always inspires, and the high level of interaction and trust allows us to look forward surely,


The satellite network OneWeb will provide a combination of high data transfer rate, low value of a delay, a global covering "from a pole to a pole" and supports of a wide number of the user devices for the different markets.

Communication of the OneWeb satellites with Earth will be performed in Ka-and Ku-ranges. Ka-range will be used for inter-satellite relaying and lock stations which will provide communication between the OneWeb system and the Internet, and Ku-range — for inter-satellite relaying and the user devices that will provide Internet access for end users.

OneWeb - among the European companies which attracted most of all investments in 5 years

The European the technology companies which attracted most of all investments from 2015 to February 2, 2020

Plans for start of 34 satellites on February 7 from Baikonur Cosmodrome

On January 30, 2020 it became known that the global communication company OneWeb confirmed officially that start of 34 satellites will take place on February 7, 2020 at 0:42 a.m. (Moscow time) from Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan).

This event marks the beginning of regular starts which not only will become a campaign for removal of civil satellites into an orbit, but also will allow OneWeb company to increase quickly grouping of the first phase from 548 satellites. Each device is an integral part of a high-speed global satellite broadband network which by the end of 2020 will provide partial Internet access, and in 2021 – a full-fledged round-the-clock covering of Earth.

During the first start of 2020 onboard the carrier rocket Union there will be 34 OneWeb satellites. The Arianespace company will make start which will put satellites to near-polar orbit on the initial height of 450 kilometers from where they will rise to the target orbit 1200 kilometers high and will become a part of a global network of communication of OneWeb. All satellites are made by OneWeb Satellites company, OneWeb and Airbus Defence and Space joint venture.

"Space for all" - the subject of the first start of the starting OneWeb program of 2020, emphasizes the fact that Space becomes a relevant source of communication for everyday life more and more.

The memorandum with MFTsA for the purpose of acceleration of providing satellite broadband communication in Kazakhstan

On January 27, 2020 it became known that OneWeb, the communication company which purpose is providing with communication "everyone irrespective of location", announced signing of the Memorandum of understanding (Memorandum) with the International Financial Center "Astana" (IFCA), financial center in Central Asia to accelerate providing universal broadband communication in Kazakhstan.

The memorandum marks the beginning of the partnership directed to achievement of two important purposes in Kazakhstan and Central Asia: providing in Kazakhstan the first high-speed broadband satellite communication with low signal delay and creation in the country of a technical node for ensuring provision of services of communication of OneWeb across all Central Asia.

The memorandum was signed by Managing MFTsA Kayrat Kelimbetov and the CEO of OneWeb Adrian Shtekel. They discussed OneWeb role on assistance of implementation of the key government program "Digital Kazakhstan" and other initiatives of cooperation increase between OneWeb and Kazakhstan.

The Digital Kazakhstan program is directed to providing high-speed broadband access to the Internet across all territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan by 2022, thereby promoting increase in the standard of living of citizens and development of national economy using digital technologies. For achievement of this purpose, Digital Kazakhstan is urged to expand telecommunication networks of the country and attaches priority significance to providing broadband access to world network by means of satellite communication in 6600 rural and remote localities.

OneWeb is going to attract local telecom operators among his partners in distribution to provision of services of universal high-speed broadband Internet access "similar to fiber-optic communication" in private and state sectors, including schools, hospitals and other enterprises and organizations of Kazakhstan.

Also, creation in Kazakhstan of a technical node which will service all Central Asian region, using the existing infrastructure of space communication of the Republic of Kazakhstan is considered. OneWeb considers the possibility of creation of joint venture in jurisdiction of MFTsA for ensuring work of the Central Asian technical node.

OneWeb supports the aspiration of Kazakhstan to carry out digital transformation the economies and to become the pioneer in implementation of modern technologies of satellite communication, contributing to the further development of Kazakhstan as innovation state, especially in technologies of "New space" that will give an additional impulse to development of satellite communication.

I am very glad that MFTsA and OneWeb became strategic partners, and we consider it as a basis for broader partnership with Kazakhstan. The government of Kazakhstan, as well as OneWeb, sees importance of overcoming digital inequality and ensuring digitalization of the economy using modern innovative satellite technologies,
told Adrian Shtekel, the CEO of OneWeb


Sending first batch of satellites to Baikonur Cosmodrome

On December 17, 2019 became izestno that the first batch of satellites of the British OneWeb project is sent to Baikonur Cosmodrome.

Satellites are delivered to the place using the airplane An-124-100. In the nearest future preparation of spacecrafts for start which is planned for January 30, 2020 will begin.

OneWeb (earlier known as WorldVU) is the British company which purpose is creation of the international satellite network of mobile data transmission which will provide high-speed Internet access to everyone. In total the company wants to unroll on Earth orbit grouping from about 600 low earth orbit satellites and to begin their commercial operation in 2020. By 2021 OneWeb intends to provide the round-the-clock covering of Earth.

Execution of works on start of spacecrafts of the OneWeb grouping provides "Glavkosmos" ("subsidiary" of Roskosmos) within contracts with the French company Arianespace.

In February, 2019 six OneWeb satellites were launched from Guiana Space Centre in French Guiana on a rocket "Union ST".

Also in April, 2020 the first commercial start-up from East is planned [4].

Detailed plan on deployment of high-speed Internet services in the Arctic

On September 4, 2019 the OneWeb company announced a detailed plan on deployment of high-speed Internet services with short delay of connection in the Arctic. OneWeb will develop IT infrastructure the general capacity of 375 Gbps in the region to the north from the 60th parallel north. Services will be available in 2020, and there will be enough selected resources to connect to the Internet at a speed comparable to the speed of fiber optic connection, hundreds of thousands of families, employees of aircraft and navigation – only millions of people in all Arctic.

Dense and flexible covering of the OneWeb satellites in a polar orbit in combination with high-speed links of communication and short delay will provide excellent connection for 48% of the territory of the Arctic where there is no access to the broadband Internet. Quite recently the OneWeb company already showed possibilities of the system within test HD videotranslyatsy: its first six satellites provided the high connection speed and a low delay in 40 milliseconds.

The global Arctic covering will already be unrolled by services of the Internet from OneWeb at the initial stages, and infrastructure capacity by 200 times will exceed possibilities of the planned systems. Access to the main service package will be provided towards the end of 2020, and the full-fledged permanent covering will appear at the beginning of 2021 that will provide a complete scope even of the most remote sections of the Polar circle.

Access to network in the conditions of modern economy is a crucial factor. Existence of inexpensive and reliable broadband communication in process of mastering of the Arctic will make this process safer and stabler and also will create additional opportunities for development of infrastructure of the next generation in this dynamic region of the planet,


Access to communication services – the major requirement and fundamental human right. Our satellite grouping will provide a universal high-speed covering of all Arctic before any other of the offered systems that will allow to satisfy the needs for a universal Internet access for all region,
noted Adrian Steckel, the CEO of OneWeb

The Arctic where there live millions of people, becomes more and more important center of attention of a set of the important industries. The full-fledged global network of OneWeb will simplify intellectual cargo delivery, will provide with communication aircraft, will help with collecting of climatic data and will promote development of digital economy in the region.

Industrial technologies will accelerate growth of the Arctic as the key economic region, significantly having improved a situation with security and communication and also contributing to development of education, health care and economy in the most remote corners.

The OneWeb system already acts in Norway and on Alaska where its ground antennas will be completely put into operation by January, 2020 and will begin to service the Arctic region. The name of one of the first operating OneWeb satellites – Nanuq-Sat – is translated from Inuktitut as "polar bear". The name children, residents thought up Anchorage, the State of Alaska, the USA.

Attraction of $1.25 billion investments for mass start of satellites

On March 18, 2019 OneWeb announced attraction of $1.25 billion investments that became in the largest volume in the history of the company. Taking into account these investments the British startup received from investors in total more than $3.4 billion.

SoftBank, Qualcomm, the government of Rwanda and also the Mexican group Grupo Salinas participated in a round of financing which it was announced on March 18, 2019. Intelsat, Bharti Enterprises and Virgin Group were also among other investors.

OneWeb attracted $1.25 billion investments for mass production of satellites
This round of financing which is for us the largest at the moment is credibility of our key investors in a business model of the company and its competitive advantages — the CEO of OneWeb Adrian Steckel reported.

OneWeb is going to spend the raised funds for mass production of satellites. These investments will make start of the broadband Internet  in 2021 "inevitable", declared Stekel.

Since October, 2019, OneWeb intends to start on 30 satellites every month to create network of 650 satellites on a low earth orbit to the 2021st. Satellites should provide the universal high-speed Internet: from airplanes and cruise liners to schools, the centers of ambulance and houses. According to plans of the company, by 2027 orbital grouping from about 900 satellites thanks to which the fast Internet with the minimum delays will earn from all planet will be created.

In 2019 OneWeb is going to double the production capacities at the new plant in Florida. According to Adrian Stekel, the company refused plans for financing of the rest of the project by building of debts. Such model would lead to the fact that the first clients would begin to use the Internet of OneWeb at the reduced prices, and to remove these discounts further will be difficult. Such situation will strongly limit possibilities of development of service, the head of the company considers.[5]

Start of the first 6 satellites using the Union of ST-B rocket

On February 28, 2019 it became known that the Arianespace company started the first six devices of a global system of the satellite Internet OneWeb using the Union of ST-B rocket. If trial operation of these devices is considered successful, since the end of 2019 regular starts for deployment of full orbital grouping from 650 satellites will begin.

Satellite network OneWeb

The OneWeb project represents the system of the global satellite Internet consisting of several hundred low earth orbit satellites and also ground base stations. The initial plan provides deployment of 650 satellites in circular orbits with height of 1200 kilometers. It is supposed that thanks to such orbits and the number of satellites a system will be able to provide Internet access in almost any point of Earth with capacity of 50 megabits per second and a delay in several tens of milliseconds. As primary clients the company considers residents of hardly accessible areas with the low-quality or absent connection to the Internet and also transport, such as ships and airplanes.

The active role in the OneWeb project was played by Roskosmos. First, the corporation signed the contract for 21 starts of satellites of a system on rockets of the Union family from the spaceports the Kura, Baikonur and East. Secondly, Roskosmos owns a controlling stake in Uanveb joint venture which is responsible for system operation in the territory of Russia. However, this work still is questionable because the State Radio Frequency Commission did not select frequency for system operation, but also, the company will have to get the work authorization in Russia according to the latest revision of Rules of use in the territory of Russia of the satellite communication networks which are under jurisdiction of the foreign states.

The Union of ST-B rocket with the six first OneWeb satellites started from Guiana Space Centre on February 28 at 0:37 a.m. Moscow time. The first six satellites will be put to polar orbit with an inclination of 87.77 degrees, and satellites will separate from the upper stage, being in an orbit with height of 1000 kilometers though height of their working orbit is 1200 kilometers. In case of the successful test of the first satellites and land terminals of communication full deployment will begin at the end of 2019. It is supposed that for one missile launch will display up to 32 satellites, and a signal grouping will begin to provide a full-fledged covering of Earth in 2021[6].

€20.55 million investments from the space agency of Great Britain

As reported Advanced Television on February 18, 2019, the space agency of Great Britain through the European Space Agency selected OneWeb companies of £18 million (or €20.55 million) as "the help to development of satellite grouping of the next generation". As you know, start of the first OneWeb satellites is planned for February 26, 2019.

Investments of the space agency of Great Britain will also be directed to development of the new principles of automation and artificial intelligence for management of satellite grouping and its interactions with land networks for global covering 5G.

These investments into £18 million will go to the solution of serious technical problems within the project thanks to what Great Britain will appear in vanguard of the advanced research and development — the minister of affairs of science of Great Britain Chris Skidmore explained, having added that people already perceive the high-speed Internet as due, but this type of communication is still unavailable to many regions of the world.[7]


The Progress rocket and space center made six rockets "Union-2" for OneWeb

The Progress rocket and space center within implementation of the contract on start of spacecrafts of mobile satellite communication of OneWeb made six carrier rockets "Union-2". Three rockets of space appointment are already sent to Baikonur Cosmodrome and to the Guiana space center.

The protocol on 21 start-up of carrier rockets "Union-2" was signed in the summer of 2015 in France. Contract signature on providing conditions of the protocol began in 2016. Start-up are planned from three spaceports: Baikonur, East, GKTs.

Target loading - small devices up to 150 kg with the phased radiating grid Ku-diapazona. The contract provides removal of 672 KA of basic satellite grouping into a target near-polar orbit 1200 km high as a part of a complex head part weighing up to 5.5 tons on one start. The spacecraft for the demonstration start planned for the end of 2018 will be manufactured by head enterprise of Airbus Defence and Space corporation in Toulouse, and the others – JV OneWeb and Airbus Defence and Space.

Plan of reduction of the amount of satellite grouping for 300 devices

In December, 2018 it became known that OneWeb is going to reduce the amount of the satellite grouping by 300 spacecrafts. Thus, the operator returns to initially announced quantity to 600 satellites.


SoftBank receives 40% of the company for $1 billion

The startup of OneWeb which purpose liquidation of "digital inequality" and providing all population of the planet is declared including in hard-to-reach spots, the high-speed Internet, received at the end of 2016 investments into $1 billion, from SoftBank company. Thus, the Japanese telecommunication corporation became the largest shareholder of OneWeb, its share made 40%. Among other co-owners such companies as Airbus, Qualcomm, Coca-Cola, Virgin Group. The total cost of the space project is $2.5 billion[8].

In 2020 creation and start of 640 satellites is planned. The plant on production of spacecrafts constructed by OneWeb and Airbus in Florida will begin work 2018 and will release 15 satellites a week. The cost of one device will be about $1 million.

The system of space communication is going to be established using 21 carrier rockets of the Union family which deliveries will be performed by Russia. The agreement is already signed between OneWeb and the French Arianespace. It is planned that during 2017-2019 from the spaceports Baikonur (Kazakhstan), East (Russia) and the Kura (French Guiana) 672 small spacecrafts will be put to near-polar orbit 1.2 thousand km high (the weight of everyone — about 150 kg) which should provide services high-speed (to 10 Tb / c) Internet access worldwide. In 2018 the first 10 satellites will be launched. OneWeb will begin to distribute the high-speed Internet since 2019. The founder of OneWeb Greg Weiler said that by 2025 the company should have already 100 million subscribers, and at full capacity the project will appear by 2027.

The competitor of OneWeb – SpaceX company of Elon Musk declared similar plans in January, 2015. Musk then estimated the project on providing all inhabitants of the planet with the high-speed Internet at $10 billion. According to the concept of SpaceX, to Earth orbit it is going to put 4.5 thousand satellites, data transfer rate will make 1gb/page. In the middle of November of this year the Reuters agency read plans of the company of Musk, referring to the documents of SpaceX filed to the American Federal commission on communication (FCC).

OneWeb Satellites creation - The joint venture with Airbus Defence and Space

The companies Airbus Defence and Space and OneWeb in February, 2015 announced creation of joint venture, OneWeb Satellites which will have to develop and construct 900 satellites necessary for start of a global system of access to high-speed to the Internet. In more detail here.

2015: Contract for missile launch Union with the OneWeb satellites

In 2015 Russia signed the contract for missiles launches Union with the OneWeb satellites during the period from 2017 to 2019. Starts of satellites as a result were repeatedly transferred, including because of their unavailability.

2012: Foundation of WorldVu company. Plan of start of 648 satellites

The company is founded as WorldVu in 2012 by the being manager of Google Greg Wyler in Great Britain. Initially the network of 648 low earth orbit satellites which will cover all territory of the planet was going to create OneWeb and will allow to provide service of Internet access in places where it still was not, in particular, in some regions of Africa. Afterwards the number of satellites was several times adjusted.