Translated by
2020/03/04 16:03:25

Robots Robotics



Robotics (world market)

Robotics (market of Russia)


The android - it the word of the Greek origin designates the robot or other synthetic organism resembling the person superficially. "Android" usually call both men, and women, however more correct would be to call female robots of "ginoidama"[1].

Remote control - management of robots at distance: from several honeycombs meters or from the other end of the world.

Nanorobots are tiny robots who will be sometime used for construction, service and repair of systems at the molecular level.

Functional determination of robotics of Laboratory of robotics of Sberbank:
modern robotics (a robotic, robotics) represents rather whole family of the research directions, technologies, products and products. This family is integrated by three properties which are executed at the same time:

  • the device is capable to feel (SENSE) the world around or its elements (using sensors);
  • the device is capable to understand (THINK), to process the obtained information on the outside world, creating and adapting model of the world around and the behavior;
  • the device is capable to operate (ACT), changing the world around according to model of the behavior.

The Robotics directory on TAdviser

To this address the Robotics directory is available.

Three laws of robotics of Isaac Asimov

Having been tired to read how the invented robots kill the creators, the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov presented three laws of robotics in the small story "Round dance" (1942). Since then they are often mentioned in works of art, to the devoted robots. These three original laws[2]:

1. The robot cannot do harm to the person or the failure to act to assume that harm was done to the person
2. The robot should obey all orders which the person gives, except those cases when these orders contradict the first law
3. The robot should care for the security in that measure in which it does not contradict the first and second laws

  • In 1986 the Zero law of the roboequipment is published in the novel by Azimov "Academy and Earth": "The robot cannot do much harm to mankind or the failure to act to allow that harm was done to it". In 2016 the American professor-lawyer Mark Rotenberg put forward the Fourth and Fifth laws: "The robot should identify openly himself" and "The robot should be capable to prove publicly the actions".


the Robot for the first time studied walking without the aid of the person. Video

At the beginning of March, 2020 Google for the first time provided the robot who studied walking without participation of the person. The research conducted by the staff of the company allowed to take an important step forward in development of robotics. They successfully created the quadruped robot who independently learned to go forward and back and to turn to the left and to the right. Work is based on the previous researches during which scientists found out how to force the robot to study in the real world.

Training is usually executed in simulation: the virtual double of the robot exists in the virtual double of the environment until the algorithm becomes rather reliable. This approach prevents damage of the robot during training, but also requires easily modelled environment. This time researchers decided to refuse modeling and allowed the robot to study in the real world from the very beginning independently. As the physical medium provided natural fluctuations, the robot could also adapt quickly to other rather similar environments, such as slopes, steps and flat area with obstacles.

Google for the first time provided the robot who studied walking without participation of the person

But that the robot could study without intervention of the person, to it limited the area of a research and forced to train at the same time several maneuvers. Researchers also limited trial movements of the robot, having made him rather careful to minimize damage from repeated falling. Besides, the robot equipped with an algorithm which allowed it to get on feet after falling.

Thanks to these settings the robot learned to go independently on several surfaces, including a flat surface, a mattress from frothed material and a rug with cracks. These researches can form the basis of robots for navigation on the crossed and unknown area without presence of the person.[3]

The ethical code AI from Bosch

On February 19, 2020 the Bosch company drew ethical line in use of the artificial intelligence (AI) and issued operating instructions of AI in the smart products. The ethical code of Bosch for AI is based on the principle: the person should control solutions AI.

"The artificial intelligence serves people. Our ethical code AI gives to employees accurate instructions for development of smart products. We want that people trusted our products based on AI",

'Folkmar Denner, the chairman of the board of Bosch noted'

AI - the vital technology for Bosch. The company aims at that by 2025 all products of Bosch contained AI or was made and developed with its help. The company set a goal to make the products based on AI safe, reliable and clear.

"The trust will arise only in that case when people understand that AI is not a black box. Here what will become a key factor in the world of Internet technologies",

'Michael Ball, the Chief Digital Officer and the technical director of Bosch noted'

The Bosch company aims to make reliable products based on AI. The ethical code of the company is based on the principle "Is developed for life" and combines aspiration to innovations and social responsibility. Within the next two years, Bosch is going to train about 20.000 employees in work with artificial intelligence. The ethical code of Bosch for AI regulating responsible use of this technology will become a part of the educational program.

As noted in Bosch, the artificial intelligence is an engine of global progress. Consultants of management of PwC predict that till 2030 AI will increase GDP in China by 26%, in North America - for 14%, and in Europe - approximately for 10%. This technology can help to cope with calls, such as fight against climate change and to optimize results in such areas as transport, medicine and agriculture. AI estimates huge amounts of data on the basis of which algorithms draw conclusions and further make decisions. Therefore long before introduction of mandatory standards of the European Union Bosch began to deal actively with ethical issues which arise in connection with use of AI. Actions of the company are based on the same values which are enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

According to the ethical code of Bosch for AI, the artificial intelligence should not make the decisions influencing people without attraction of assessment of the person. Moreover, the artificial intelligence should serve people as the tool. In the code three possible approaches which are integrated by the following are described: in products of Bosch based on AI the person retains control over any decisions made by algorithms. The artificial intelligence plays a role of exclusively auxiliary tool in the first case (human-in-command) - systems helping people to classify objects or living beings are an example of that. At the second approach (human-in-the-loop), a smart system independently makes decisions which the person can cancel at any time. For example, partially autonomous driving where the person can interfere directly with an algorithm, say, of the system of the help at the parking. The third approach is used in such applications as the systems of abnormal braking. When developing these smart products specialists set certain parameters on the basis of which AI makes decisions. Here it is impossible to interfere with processes directly. Backdating engineers can check whether the machine fulfills the requirements set by the person. If necessary parameters can be changed (human-on-the-loop).

Bosch also hopes that the ethical code for AI will make a contribution to a public discussion about artificial intelligence. To set trust to the smart systems, it is not enough one technical know-how - it is necessary to adjust dialog between politicians, scientific community and the general public. For this reason Bosch was included into High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence - the body appointed by the European Commission for a research of ethical aspects of AI. Within a global network which for February, 2020 includes seven branches, and in cooperation with the University of Amsterdam and Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh the State of Pennsylvania, the company researches in the field of safe and reliable AI. Also, as one of founders of research alliance of the Cyber-valley in Baden-Württemberg, Bosch invests 100 million euros in construction of a campus for AI where 700 own experts of the company will work side by side with external researchers and a partner startup. And the last: created by Bosch company "Forum of digital trust" it is aimed at the development of close dialog between experts of the leading international associations and organizations.


Satya Nadella

1. The Artificial Intelligence (AI) should be created to help mankind
2. AI should be transparent: always there has to be an opportunity to find out how it works
3. AI should lead to growth of efficiency of solving of tasks, without breaking the dignity of people
4. AI should maintain reasonable confidentiality and be credible, protecting information entrusted to it
5. AI should be controlled algorithmically: the person has an opportunity "cancel" the harm which is unintentionally done to them
6. AI should be protected from noises and treat all people equally

  • At that time head of Microsoft; rules were listed in an interview to the Slate magazine.

Mark Tilden

1. The robot should protect the existence at any cost
2. The robot should find and support access to a power source
3. The robot should look for new, best power sources constantly

  • Large robotics, founder of WowWee company, author of the concept of BEAM. Its rules are created for BEAM robots who are constructed on the basis of simple analog chains — simple, but reliable and effective.

2011: EPSRC option

1. Robots should not be developed for the only purpose destructions or damnifications to people
2. As the responsible person the person, but not the robot acts. The robot — the tool for achievement of the human purposes
3. Robots should be developed taking into account safety of their use
4. Robots — artificial creations, they should not play on emotions of sensitive people. The robot cannot be indistinguishable from the person
5. Always there has to be an opportunity to recognize the person legally responsible for this robot

  • Committee on engineering and scientific research (Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) — the British state agency which is engaged in regulation of the scientific and technical sphere in [4]

23 principles of artificial intelligence

The Future of Life Institute (Future of Life Institute, FLI) created in 2014 — the research and educational organization functioning on a voluntary basis and studying risks to which the mankind, in particular those which are connected with progress in area of the artificial intelligence (AI) is exposed. Among founders of institute — the cosmologist Max Tegmark and one of the chief developers Skype Yaan Tallinn, are included into his advisory board the geneticist George Chyorch, the physicist Stephen Hawking, the entrepreneur Elon Musk and many other outstanding figures of modern science and technology. In January, 2017 FLI held a workshop and the Beneficial AI conference which major result were principles of AI called on national park Asilomar where there took place the conference, asilomarsky.

The short introduction is premised to the list of the principles: "The artificial intelligence already gave to people of the whole world a number of the useful tools used by them in everyday life. Its further development in next years and centuries directed by the following principles will offer improbable prospects of the help to people and expansions of their opportunities".

Scientific research

  • Purpose of researches: creation not of unaddressed mind, but useful mind should be the purpose of researches in the field of AI.
  • Financing of researches: investments into AI should be followed by financing of the researches aimed at providing its useful application including for the solution of sensitive burning issues of information science, economy, law, ethics, sociology, for example:
    • how to us to make future AI systems highly reliable that they did what is required to us, never broke and were not subject to cracking?
    • how to us using automation to increase the welfare, having saved resources and a possibility of reasonable activity for people?
    • as to change us our legislative systems towards bigger justice and efficiency that they went in step with development of AI and how to manage the risks connected with AI?
    • according to what values it is necessary to build AI, both what legal and ethical status it should have?

  • Communication of science and policy: between the AI developers and statesmen defining policy of the countries there has to be healthy constructive information exchange.
  • Culture of research activity: among researchers and AI developers the culture of cooperation, mutual trust and transparency should be maintained.
  • Failure from a race: the commands developing AI systems should cooperate actively with each other — it will help them not "cut off corners", sacrificing standards of security.

Ethics and values

  • Security: AI systems should be reliable and safe during all service life, and these their qualities should be verified everywhere where such verification is applicable and feasible.
  • Technology transparency: if an AI system does harm, there has to be an opportunity to set the reason.
  • Legal transparency: with the participation of autonomous system in adoption of judgments any its offer should be supplied with a satisfactory explanation which can be checked by the competent authorized person.
  • Responsibility: the moral responsibility for functioning of the advanced AI systems and an effect of use (and also abuses) them lies on their designers and creators who are obliged — and have an opportunity — to think over these effects.
  • Compliance of values: when developing AI systems with high degree of autonomy it is necessary to guarantee compliance of their tasks and also behavior in the course of functioning, to human values.
  • Human values: design and operation of AI systems should be compatible to ideals of human dignity, the rights, freedoms and cultural diversity.
  • Personal privacy: the person conferring to the AI system of power for the analysis and use generated by it given, should have access to these data, the right to dispose of them and them to control.
  • Freedom and inviolability: use of AI for personal data processing should not lead to illegal restriction of the real or perceived freedom of people.
  • General welfare: AI technologies should bring benefit and new opportunities to the maximum number of people.
  • General success: the economic prosperity created thanks to AI needs to share widely that all mankind benefited.
  • Human control: people possess the choice whether to delegate to an AI system decision-making for achievement of goals, selected by people and if yes, how exactly to delegate that.
  • Not suppression: the power controlling the most advanced AI systems should be respectful to social and civil activity on which health of society depends and not to suppress it, and to care for its improvement.
  • Race of AI arms: it is necessary to avoid a race in creation of autonomous systems of arms of deadly action.

Questions on further perspective

  • Care concerning opportunities: as into this account there is no consensus, it is necessary to abstain from categorical judgments concerning a ceiling of opportunities of future AI systems.
  • Value: the advanced AI systems, perhaps, will introduce fundamental change in a life story on Earth therefore it is necessary to pay the corresponding attention and to select sufficient resources for planning of such systems and management with them.
  • Risks: it is necessary to direct the efforts proportional to the expected effect, to forecasting and prevention of threats — especially catastrophic and existential — proceeding from AI systems.
  • Recursive self-improvement: it is necessary to deliver under strict control the development of the self-improving and self-replicating AI systems capable to lead to their fast qualitative or to proliferation.
  • General welfare: the superintelligence should be developed only on service of general ethical ideals and for the benefit of all mankind, but not the certain state or the organization.

The document is open for signing, and at the moment it was signed already by more than one thousand researchers who are directly dealing with issues AI and robotics, and more than two thousand other specialists. It, of course, is insignificant little in comparison with the number of those to whom Three laws of the roboequipment are familiar, but the initiative spreads.

The legislation and taxes for robots

Main article: The legislation and taxes for robots

Models of producers

As robots replace people

Main article: As robots replace people



Industrial robots

The largest consumer of industrial robots is Asia.

Annual deliveries of industrial robots (one thousand pieces), by regions. Data of the International Federation of robotics (International Federation of Robotics, IFR)

The leading industry on use of robots is the automotive industry.

In what industries industrial robots are used

Service robots

Robots in medicine

Robots at restaurants

Main article: Robots at restaurants

Fighting robots

The championships on robotics

2019: Russians won in the international championship of robotics Singapore

The joint command of Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) and Institute of problems of sea technologies of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IPMT FEB RAS) won a victory in the open Championship of Asia on underwater robotics — Singapore AUV Challenge-2019 which passed in the Singapore polytechnical university from March 8 to March 11, 2019.

As told TAdviser in DVFU on March 12, 2019, within the championship the device which is called Pandora was provided. He prepared especially for the championship. The robot is able to perform different functions under water, in particular, to distinguish separate objects by means of eyes video cameras, to transport loads, to lift and reset them in a certain place. Read more here.

Main events

2017: IOActive: The cracked robots can be deadly

Researchers from IOActive checked[5] security of a number of androids for the house and business and also industrial machines. Results caused serious concern of experts[6].

The set of vulnerabilities - problems with authentication / authorization, the unprotected data transmission, not documented functions, unchangeable passwords, lack of enciphering in data warehouses and easily turned off protection of human security was revealed. All this can be used by malefactors for shadowing users, stealing of the robot, its blocking, and that the most awful, damnifications to the person.

Experts conducted a research of safety of small-size humanoid robots from UBTech Alpha, interactive robots partners of the small and medium sizes from SoftBank Robotics 'Pepper', and industrial robots from Universal Robots. The last are the so-called "mechanical hands" working with people without any physical separation.

In the accompanying report they also described the vulnerabilities detected in the software for humanoid robotic sets from ROBOTIS company, management systems for the Asratec robots (working for V-Sido OS) and in industrial Baxter robots from Rethink Robotics.

"As robots are expected interaction mainly with end users, physical access is quite expected and accepted. Robots for the house and business usually interact with family members, guests, clients and employees, and industrial robots - with workers at the plants. The physical attacks are possible, only if malefactors have a direct access to the equipment", - researchers note.

Such robots, as a rule, have open ports of connection which allow users "be played" with their settings via special USB devices or Ethernet-connections. However there are methods using which malefactors can change security settings far off. For example, violation of mechanisms of detection and prevention of collision can become the potential reason of serious injuries. Researchers also managed to get full access to the Alpha 1S model from UBTech, having sent a counterfeit image of a firmware through Bluetooth.

2016: Administration of U.S. President: Report "Artificial intelligence, automation and economy"

In the end of the year the report of administration of U.S. President "Artificial intelligence, automation and economy"[7] was published[8], the main theses[9]:

  • replacement of the person with machines in a considerable part of workplaces is inevitable. The reason is elementary (and even more often [10] is called "the scenario of McDonald's"[11]: best of all one of the former heads of the known company formulated its): the cost of working hour of the person (which is rising in price continuously) eventually will exceed the cost of working hour of the robot (cheapening also continuously) — and then simple common sense will push employers to changes. At the same time in the White House believe that AI is potentially capable to become the main driver of economic growth and social progress — i.e., will not necessarily entail only negative effects at all. But also negative effects undoubtedly will be.
  • those entrepreneurs who will rely on robots will receive jump of performance (robots work without breaks and days off). However, in the course of changes emergence of difficult enrollment of distortions is inevitable. For example, decrease in demand for working hands in the areas which are easily giving in to automation (the simple actions assuming repetition) will "be compensated" by increase in demand for the specialists understanding robots and AI. But "is compensated" not for nothing it is delivered in quotes: the workers who are forced out by machines jobs will not be able to apply for formed thanks to machines at once, they will lack qualification. Other distortion is caused by the fact that in the market there will be less low-paid professions more highly paid. And this in itself conceals threat of social explosion. At last, there will be distortions on areas of placement of productions (where it will be more robots, specific labor market will be created) and on industries (somewhere robots will be simpler to be used, somewhere — it is impossible).
  • foretell where exactly automation will strike, it is impossible. So, it is necessary to work with anticipation and on all social and economic front at once. And it is necessary to work aggressively: negative effects of automation depend not only on technologies, but also on whether the state will undertake something that to compensate them. From here three strategic recommendations for the government and business.

  • The state needs to promote in every possible way research and development in the field of robotization and artificial intelligence. It, it seems, contradicts logic (robots harm as it is, so why to produce them?), but speaks very simply. The matter is that automation occurs "from bottoms": it first of all releases working hands from the places which are not requiring high qualification and are not connected with production of big added value and allows to redirect them on jobs of higher level. As a result, the more robots it is involved at the specific enterprise, the above there can be labor productivity of each employee on average. It, of course, requires retraining of the released employees, but on that and the following item.
  • Expenses for education need to be increased many times. At the same time means as retraining of the workers who became unnecessary because of automation of their professions and classical education, including a free average (with emphasis on computer sciences). It is supposed that the earlier and easier the person will get access to quality education, the it will be simpler to improve to it the skills afterwards. For this purpose in the USA several social programs of retraining sponsored by the state already work, but also they are required to be expanded. However, of course, it will be possible to save from automation effects not everything therefore:
  • It is necessary to strengthen social protection. Doles, medicine, the address help to persons in need, assistance to labor unions — all this is known long ago, but it is offered to deepen. But also innovative tools are mentioned: insurance of salaries (in case the worker will be transferred to a position with lowering of a salary), the emergency help to families during the crisis periods.
  • During active automation (even more often the called robotization) it is especially important to state to care for maintenance of fair competition. Business here that to the companies working at the Niva of information technologies (where robots and artificial intelligence quite get) as it is easy for nobody else to suppress the competition.

2013: NASA Valkyrie

The robot NASA Valkyrie is provided in 2013. Growth of the robot is 190 centimeters, and weight - 125 kilograms. Besides, it is extremely convenient in service. The sat-down battery can be replaced within several minutes, and also it is quickly enough possible to deliver new instead of the injured extremity. By the way, the left and right hands at Valkyrie are interchanged as they are identical on construction. And though in respect of motility these robots are inferior to works a little Boston Dynamics and Honda Asimo, they, most likely, will find the broad application earlier.

2010: DARwin-OP

The DARwin-OP robot was provided at the Humanoids 2010 conference, differs in open iron and software. It is equipped with the engine allowing to go on two legs, the system of sight and autonomous behavior models.

2008: I-SOBOT

There was I-SOBOT - the tiniest serial android, his growth was 16 cm, and weight — 300 g of I-SOBOT knew 200 phrases.


Robonova which can run, somersault back is announced and dance. Costs 39 830-.

There were many dear androids, including ZMP Nuvo. However his abilities did not justify high price in $6000.

2005: Seiko Epson Micro Flying Robot Helicopter

Seiko Epson Micro Flying Robot Helicopter - the tiniest in the world the flying robot weighs only 8.9 g, it has four actuators and two rotors balancing in flight.

2004: Robosapien

Robosapien — the robot biomorph managed by means of the infrared panel. There are 67 commands, including for a hvataniye and throwing.

2003: Sony QRIO

The Sony QRIO robot humanoid is provided. Alas, it did not go for sale, together with Aibo the project was closed in 2006. And we represent as they lie in the graves.

2001: Electrolux Trilobite

First-ever commercial Electrolux Trilobite robot vacuum cleaner. The Trilobite 2.0 model still on sale.

2000: Honda Asimo

The Honda Asimo robot (growth is him only 130 centimeters weighing 50 kilograms) the name not only is conformable with a surname of Isaac Asimov, but also, in general, opens the general mission of the project. Asimo is decrypted as - Advanced Step in Innovative MObility. The Honda corporation works on creation of androids since 1986, but this model became really disruptive. In addition to very advanced motility, Asimo not bad is guided in a situation, avoids collisions with moving objects and also is able to recognize the speech, gestures and persons.

1999: Sony Aibo

The doggie of Aibo (Artificial Intelligence RoBOt) from Sony became the sign robot of the end of the century. Before death of a line in 2006 five models were produced.

1998: Lego Mindstorms Robotics Invention System

Lego was provided by Mindstorms Robotics Invention System. In the original Mindstorms set there were only two sensors of touches and one sensor of light, but even then it was the incarnate dream.


In 1996 Honda created (but did not provide) P1, and here P2, despite its boring name, received close attention of the press. 182 cm and 210 kg — the weightiest of robots of Honda.


To replace the original Dante robot who did not manage to take in 1993 sample of gas from an active volcano this feat came to make Dante II which managed after all.


The tiniest Monsieur robot in the world from Seiko of Epson is less than 1 cm ³. Was able to move to a light source. As it is lovely!


In 1981 at Kawasaki factory during maintenance the hydraulic hand pushed off in the Kendzhi Urada crusher.


  • Twelve years left on teaching the Stanford Cart robot to move freely on the room filled chairs. It was succeeded to implement it thanks to the stereosight of the machine and the computer defining distance to an obstacle and adjusting a route.
  • The first known case of murder for the robot happened in 1979: at the Ford plant in Michigan twenty-five-year-old Robert Uilyamsa the robohand struck.

1969: Soviet robot Electron

Soviet robot Electron, 1969, Kaliningrad.


Demonstration of mechanical hands in National laboratory Oak Ridge in Tennessee, the USA, 1968

1967: The first all-Union tender of robots in the USSR

Boris Vasilenko, winner of the first All-Union tender of robots. Walk of "men of iron" on streets of Kaliningrad, 1967-1968.
Robots cross the road, Moscow, 1967.

1961: First-ever industrial robot

The first-ever industrial Ultimate robot began to work at the General Motors (GM) plant. Programs for his hand weighing 1200 kg were stored on a magnetic drum.

1939: The first robot humanoid

The first robot humanoid was created by Westinghouse company. Elektro reached 2.1 meters, could pronounce more than 700 words (by means of a plate). In the 1960th years the android played a key role in the classical movie of category B "Sex Kittens Go to College".

1921: Emergence of the term "robot"

The term "robot" is for the first time used in the play by the Czech writer Karel Capek "R.U.R." ("Rossumsky universal robots"). The term comes from the Czech word robota that "penal servitude", "hard work" means.

Applied robotics: Dangerous Toast Buttering Robot


  1. the Large-scale guide on robots
  2. Asimov, Isaac
  3. This robot taught itself to walk entirely on its own
  4. stranestatya "New laws of robotics" it is published in the Populyarnaya Mekhanika magazine (No. 8, August, 2017).
  5. Hacking Robots Before Skynet
  6. the Cracked robots can be deadly
  7. [ of White House Addresses Artificial Intelligence Challenges in New Report
  8. . With progress come challenges, the report says, calling for government regulation of products using AI to protect public safety, with full disclosure of risks the technology poses.]
  9. As the USA prepare for "robounemployment"
  10. [ the Revolt of machines
  11.  : scenario of McDonald's]