Quantum computer and quantum communication
Quantum computing systems are the devices using the phenomena of quantum superposition and quantum complexity for transfer and data processing. Such devices operate with qubits (quantum bits) which can accept at the same time value of both logical zero, and logical one. Therefore with growth of number of the used qubits the number of the values processed at the same time increases in geometrical progression.
The first quantum computers remind old bulky computing systems, they are delivered in big cabinets 10 feet high (about 3 m) and of 700 cubic feet (about 20 CBM). At the same time the sizes of the most quantum chip rather small are also comparable to the thumb nail sizes.The most part of other space of the computer is occupied the cooling system and shielding. They are intended for creation necessary operating conditions of the computer and elimination of external influences. Thanks to use of the cooling system based on liquid helium temperature of the quantum chip is at the level −273оС.
What is the quantum computer?
The quantum computer — means of ADP equipment where operation of the central processor is the cornerstone laws of a quantum mechanics. Such computer essentially differs from the traditional PCs working at a basis of silicon chips. Still quantum computer - the device about which many researchers of physics of calculations speak.
This device applies not classical algorithms to calculation, but processes of the quantum nature are the quantum algorithms using effects of a quantum mechanics such as quantum parallelism and quantum complexity.
The qubit - a system in which the number of particles is similar to an impulse, and a phase variable (energy state) – coordinate forms for calculations of this kind base. The phase qubit was for the first time implemented in laboratory of the Delft university and since then is actively studied.
Unlike the normal bit capable to have only values 1 and 0, the quantum bit (qubit) can be in superposition of these statuses, i.e. at the same time in value 1 and 0. In practice the qubit can exist in the most different combinations of these values that in the long term will allow to create ultrafast computers. Qubits will become construction elements of future quantum computers capable to solve the problems almost unavailable to classical digital computers. For accomplishment of calculations on the quantum computer it is necessary to bring several qubits into interaction and so that they formed a single quantum system. Then this system should allow to develop under laws of a quantum mechanics and later certain time to find out to what status it came.
With growth of number of the integrated qubits, the computing power of such quantum system exponential grows. Theoretically it allows the quantum computer to cope with tasks on which millions of years will be necessary for the normal digital computer. For example, the so-called algorithm of Shor allowing to decompose quickly large numbers on prime factors (the task necessary for cracking of modern ciphers) is known long ago. Normal computers solve this problem search of possible dividers therefore long numbers can process modern computers for years. The quantum computer would cope with such task in read minutes and even seconds, depending on performance.
Why quantum computers matter?
The volume of daily created data is simply huge, and modern computers already are not always in time behind such volumes. Modern supercomputers are still too slow for accomplishment of some most important scientific tasks, for example, testing of influence of new medicines at the molecular level.
Thanks to an opportunity to execute very difficult calculations much quicker, or even to model these drugs at the molecular level, quantum computers are capable to provide such necessary increase in productivity and speeds. Most of specialists agree that quantum computers are our chance to cope with calls of 21 centuries.
Problems in creation of the quantum computer
On the way of creation of the quantum computer there is a set of problems. First of all it is necessary to learn to bring qubits to a certain initial state, to integrate them in the tangled systems, to isolate these systems from influence of external noises, to read out results of quantum calculation.
Also developers of the quantum computer should select optimal element base for production of qubits. There are several competing approaches, and one of them — superconducting qubits with Josephson transitions, similar to the first carriers of computer information – ferrite ringlets. However, qubits are about one thousand times less than magnetic bits of the era preceding emergence of integrated microcircuits. Developments in the field occupy a set of foreign institutes and laboratories of the large companies. Possession of a working prototype of the multipurpose quantum computer opens huge opportunities in development of new materials, interpretation of the most difficult codes, modeling of complex systems, creation of universal artificial intelligence and a set of other areas. With the advent of technology of reading of statuses of qubits, Russia can also get into this promising gear at the advanced edge of science and the computer equipment.
Inherently, quantum computing systems are top of development of parallel computings. It systems are capable to solve the most difficult computing problems unavailable to traditional computers. In particular, quantum computers allow to perform modeling of natural processes for the benefit of specialists in chemistry, materials science and molecular physics. With the advent of quantum computers scientists, at last, will be able to create the catalyst for absorption of a carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere, the superconductors capable to work at the room temperature, and new drugs for diseases incurable so far.
However despite significant progress in researches and active discussions about progress of scientists, there is relevant a problem of overcoming natural obstacles in a way of creation of the viable large-scale quantum systems capable to show the required accuracy of calculations. One of such obstacles is the problem of production of homogeneous and stable qubits (basic elements of quantum computing systems).
Qubits require extremely gentle address. The random noise and even accidental observation of qubit is capable to be led to data loss. Extremely low ambient temperature - at the level of 20 millikelvin is necessary for steady work of qubits that is 250 times colder than temperature of an outer space. Similar temperature condition imposes the most strict requirements to construction of the body of the quantum systems which part qubits are. Aiming to implement all potential of quantum computing systems, specialists of Intel from Group of a research of components (CR) in Oregon and Experimental industrial complex (ATTD) in Arizona tensely work on creation of the innovation architecture and the body for accomplishment of unique requirements and tasks of quantum computing systems.
Progress in development
Quantum technologies in the Russian Railway
Main article: Quantum technologies in the Russian Railway
Quantum computer Rosatom
Main article: Quantum computer of Rosatom
National quantum initiative in the USA (National Quantum Initiative)
Beginning of use of the most powerful quantum computer of Honeywell
In June, 2020 Honeywell announced start as the company claims, the most powerful quantum computer in the history. Several clients among whom — JP Morgan Chase bank already began to use a system. Read more here.
In China the session of quantum communication at distance in 1120 kilometers took place
On June 16, 2020 it became known that the Chinese group of physicists which showed quantum distribution of a key between the satellite and observatory earlier held a session of a quantum cryptography using complexity between two ground stations at distance of 1120 kilometers. Work is presented in the Nature magazine.
Quantum distribution of a key is theoretically absolutely safe method of exchange of secret keys between remote users. The method is based on fundamental laws of quantum physics: process of measurement of a quantum system changes its status. The malefactor who will try to steal a key should measure somehow it, but measurement enters anomalies which are seen also by legitimate participants of the protocol. Thus, users can open and check a part of the received key and be convinced that nobody, except them, measured it.
Experimental distribution of a key was shown in vitro using optical fiber 421 kilometer long. Earlier outside laboratory the Chinese scientist under the leadership of professor Jian-Wei of Pang (Jian-Wei Pan) was succeeded to transfer a key from the satellite to a ground station at distance of 1200 kilometers that for June, 2020 is a record.
However the real cryptography on the basis of quantum distribution of a key is aimed at the users who are on Earth. When using quantum repeaters it is possible to create network of nodes which are at distance up to 100 kilometers from each other. Unfortunately, each repeater bears risk of security and can be attacked by the malefactor. Other method of distribution of a key to long distances involves satellite communication using quantum complexity.
The same group of the Chinese scientists under the leadership of professor Pang held a session of quantum distribution of a key on the basis of complexity between two ground stations between which it made distance in 1120 kilometers. Tangled couples of photons were separated and sent on communication channels from the Micius satellite to two land observatories to Delingha and Nanshan.
Important engineering achievement without which the experiment would not take place, is creation of the highly effective telescope and the processing optics. Scientists managed to increase efficiency of data collection of each communication channel sputnik-Zemlya approximately twice in comparison with the previous experiment. The best data were obtained in clear night and without fog when the atmosphere had the highest transmission coefficient.
To check the constructed cryptographic system, to start physics verified complexities by test of Klauzera-Horna-Shimoni-Holta (CHSH) which was carried out over the photons received from the satellite. The test confirmed existence of quantum correlations with an accuracy of eight standard deviations.
For carrying out directly distribution of a key scientists used BBM92 protocol in which two users receive on one photon from a flow of tangled couples of photons. Then they in a random way select basis for measurement of each photon, receive result of measurement, and select only those outcomes where they took measurements in identical basis. Approval of bases is performed on a classical communication channel. Further they use a part of a key for assessment of frequency of emergence of errors which speaks about existence of interception.
Physicists were convinced that the received keys are safe — land receivers are unreceptive to errors from noise, i.e. emergence of anomalies obviously demonstrates interception. Authors note that the received results — an important step on the way to absolutely reliable cryptography for mezhkontinentalno remote users.
Earlier the same group of scientists created complexity at distance Bol of 50 kilometers using optical fiber between two laboratories in Hefei. While China ahead of the planet of everything, we gradually join in a quantum race of communications: in 2016 in Russia the bank line of quantum communication was created, and in 2017 scientists from MSU presented quantum phone. For June, 2020 the Russian Quantum Center, Sberbank and Skolkovo Foundation build in the territory of the innovation center in Russia the line of quantum secure communication with a total extent about 250 kilometers.
The USA increases by 20% state expenditure on quantum technologies
On April 27, 2020 it became known that the Administration of U.S. President of Donald Trump when planning the state budget for 2021 decided to increase by 20% expenses on quantum information science to $237 million. At the same time in general it reduces costs for scientific activity in 2021 by 10%.
From the specified $237 million the U.S. Department of Energy is going $25 million to spend in 2021 for development of the quantum Internet.
|Such level of financing will allow us to begin to develop bases for complex, practical and highly effective quantum networks — David Aushalom, the quantum engineer from the Chicago university said.|
Existing along with the traditional Internet for public, the quantum Internet can offer new unique opportunities. For example, scientists could develop absolutely new medicines and materials, modeling behavior of atoms on networked quantum computers, and financial institutions and the governments could receive more reliable data transmission channels. Many countries invest in a research of quantum technologies, and with the offer of the budget for 2021 the Trump's administration aims to increase these efforts.
The quantum Internet is a perspective area therefore in the USA decided to increase investments into it. As of April, 2020 in the country there are prototypes of quantum networks in Chicago and New York. In 2020 scientists made a successful experiment in the Chicago network.
|We created tangled statuses of light — told Aushal — and tried to use them as the vehicle to check how the complexity works in the real world.|
Similar experiments are made also on East coast of the USA where researchers send tangled photons on the optical fiber cables connecting Brukheyvensky national laboratory in New York to the University of the State of New York in Stouni-Bruk at distance about 18 kilometers.
RVC provided 300 million rubles on development of the quantum Internet in Russia
At the end of April, 2020 it became known that RVC provided to the ITMO University a grant in the amount of 300 million rubles on development of the platform for the quantum Internet. It is about hardware and software solution under the name "Quantum Communication Framework of Digital Economy" which develops with assistance of the Russian Railway. It is going to start a pilot zone on infrastructure of the Russian Railway for implementation of the platform in 2021. Read more here.
The Russian scientists developed the platform for a nanoelectronics and quantum processors
On March 26, 2020 DVFU reported to TAdviser that scientific Schools of natural sciences of the university (ShEN DVFU) together with colleagues from the Chinese academy of Sciences developed a crosswise microstructure from platinum, cobalt and oxide of magnesium which can work in the mode of ternary logic ("yes" — "no" — "I do not know"). On its basis it will be possible to build miniature devices of electronics and spintronics, the quantum processors operating with kutrita (three statuses unlike qubits) and the neyromorfny systems imitating functionality of a human brain. Read more here.
Honeywell develops the most powerful quantum computer
At the beginning of March, 2020 Honeywell International announced that it joins a race on creation of the quantum computer. The company prepares for release of the most powerful system in the world. Read more here.
The new head of IBM doubted a possibility of Russia to create the quantum computer
On February 20 Arvind Krishna who since April 6 will head IBM dropped a hint of doubt in capability of Russia to create the quantum computer. According to him, IBM for a decade is ahead of all in the world regarding development of such technologies.
|I very much respect Russia. When I studied in a postgraduate study, I read many textbooks and materials which were written by the Russian mathematicians and physics. But as far as it can be used? Whether the quantum computer at the affordable price can be created is a big question — he said in an interview to RIA Novosti.|
Future head of IBM reminded that Russia announced plans to invest several billion dollars in creation of quantum computers. The same was made by the USA, Britain and Canada, China has a program for $10 billion.
|Each country announced the programs for creation of quantum computers … I think, it does not mean that they have an opportunity to make it — the top manager of IBM reported.|
According to him, innovations in the field of modern experimental materials science and the corresponding scientific competences are necessary for significant progress in the field of quantum technologies.
In the development area of quantum technologies Krishna carried Google, Honeywell and the Chinese companies which already tested quantum communication to number of main competitors of IBM.
At the same time he did not exclude a possibility of cooperation of IBM with Russia on quantum technologies and made a reservation that creation of partner communications depends on a geopolitical situation.
|I think that everything is possible, but I steer clear of geopolitics. The science, unfortunately, depends on geopolitics and export control. As corporation, we want to work with anyone if technologies are used for the good, but not military — he told.|
India selected $1.12 billion for development of quantum computers
At the beginning of February, 2020 the government of India approved the budget for 2020, having selected about $1.12 billion for development of quantum computers. These means will go for development of the National program in quantum technologies and applications. Read more here.
The Russian scientists taught "see" artificial intelligence quantum advantages
The Russian scientists from MIPT, FTIAN and ITMO created a neuronet which learned to predict behavior of a quantum system, "having looked" at the scheme of this system. On January 16, 2020 MIPT reported about it to TAdviser. Such neuronet independently finds those solutions which well are suitable for demonstration of quantum advantages. It will help researchers to develop effective quantum computers. Read more here.
Quantum computers began to protect cars from cyber attacks
At the beginning of January, 2020 the Canadian company ISARA, the leading supplier of the quantum systems of cyber security, provided the updated Karma Revero GT car which, according to developers, is capable to send and receive electronic voice messages, without being afraid that information will be intercepted and decrypted — even using the quantum computer. ISARA created the communication solution using quantum communication. Read more here.
The first quantum teleportation is performed
According to specialists, technologies of information processing using laws of quantum physics will have a huge impact on modern society. For example, quantum computers will be able to solve problems with which even the most powerful modern supercomputers are not capable to cope, and the quantum Internet will protect the data transferred in it from cyber attacks. However these technologies are based on the so-called "quantum information" ciphered in quantum particles which are extremely difficult for measuring and controlling.
As it was reported, scientists of University of Bristol (Great Britain) together with colleagues from Technical University of Denmark created the chip capable to generate and manipulate separate particles of light in programmable nanocircuits. The chip can cipher information in the light particles generated in nanocircuits and process "quantum information" with a high performance and very low noise.
The experiment during which specialists of Laboratory of quantum engineering of University of Bristol for the first time in the world successfully performed quantum teleportation of information from one chip on another became this break. Quantum teleportation is a cornerstone of quantum communications and calculations, scientists note.
Quantum teleportation provides transfer of a quantum status of a particle from one place in another using quantum complexity (the phenomena at which quantum statuses of several objects are interdependent). Teleportation is necessary not only for quantum communications, but also is a basis for optical quantum computings.
Installation of communication between two chips by creation of quantum complexity was a difficult task for scientists. Nevertheless, they managed to achieve that photons on both chips came to an identical quantum status. The main thing was the experiment on teleportation during which the individual quantum status of a particle after quantum measurement was transferred from one chip to another.
Development of the quantum computer by Rosatom for 24 billion rubles
At the beginning of November, 2019 it became known of the beginning of development of the quantum computer by Rosatom. Its creation will cost 24 billion rubles from which 13.3 billion rubles are budgetary funds, Ekaterina Solntseva told Vedomosti of the director of digitalization of state corporation. Read more here.
In NITU "MISIS" earned a prototype of the quantum computer
On October 2, 2019 it became known that in NITU "MISIS" the Russia's first prototype of the quantum computer earned. The device on two qubits executed the set algorithm, having exceeded earlier known limit of accuracy for 3%. As a basis for qubits superconducting materials were taken. Read more here.
Who wins a quantum race: leaders in patents
Joint survey of 2019 of Rostelecom, Innopraktiki and FIPS of a patent landscape in quantum technologies helps to clarify some moments.
- The world leader in the number of the submitted applications for quantum patents is Intel. It says about productivity of their research center, one of authors of a research, the deputy director of the center of strategic innovations of Rostelecom Pavel Krasovsky explained to "Non-numerical economy".
- However already taken out patents most of all at the Japanese Toshiba. It — one of the main companies in the field of quantum enciphering.
- The most quoted patents in other requests — at the Canadian D-Wave and the American military-industrial company Northropp Grumman. At these companies the biggest "force of patents", Krasovsky explains, i.e. they invented technologies which are of great importance for researchers.
- Google and Alibaba Group — world leaders in the number of the countries where their quantum technologies are patented (on 12 countries at everyone). On the third place the Swiss company Quantique (11 countries).
The number of the countries, according to Krasovsky, shows as far as the companies are close to commercialization of the technologies. Submission of patent requests — very expensive procedure, and the companies begin to spend for it money only if see commercial perspectives in this or that market.
Interesting sitation now with the Chinese companies. According to Krasovsky, the Chinese patents usually are considered as "garbage" as at the Chinese research centers KPI are strictly tied to the number of patents at the level of state policy. Therefore they patent within the country much, but if they try to patent the same technology abroad, then as a rule are refused due to the lack of novelty.
However, a number of the Chinese companies, such as Ruban Quantum Technology, began to submit applications actively recently. While they have no patents, so this process takes not less than half a year, but if to conduct the same research in a year, i.e. probability that Ruban Quantum Technology will appear among leaders.
Positions of Russia
Russia takes the 9th place in the world by the number of patents in the field of quantum technologies, Innopraktiki and FIPS follows from joint survey of Rostelecom. The first five includes the USA, China, Japan Korea and Germany.
- Most of all patent families in Russia at the Russian Academy of Sciences (including Kurchatov Institute) – 6 families. On the second place — the Fund of perspective researches, at it is three patent families connected with quantum technologies. On two patent families at NIK "Cascade", and "Laboratory of fiber-optic devices". At other six organizations for one family. Among them - Russian Quantum Center, Infotecs, Photon nano-meta technologies and also two Nizhny Novgorod universities and one Irkutsk.
- Authors of a research also note a large number of requests for patents in Russia from the foreign companies. For example, British Element Six Technologies, Fisk Software and University of Cophengagen.
- Most actively the Russian companies were engaged in patenting in the field of quantum technologies in 2012-2015. Authors of the report connect this splash with increase in financing.
- If to take the international patent classification, then most often in Russia quantum technologies patent in the field of devices for the confidential or hidden communication, automatic control of frequency or a phase and synchronization, quantum communication and in devices or methods of data processing.
Google created the most powerful quantum computer in the world
In the middle of September, 2019 the Google company announced that it could create the most powerful in the world the quantum computer. Information about devices was published in the report of NASA which was deleted afterwards from the website of the organization. Read more here.
Germany invests 650 million euros in quantum computings
In the middle of September, 2019 it became known that the government of Germany invests 650 million euros within the next two years to support transition of quantum technologies from basic researches in applications, ready to application. Read more here.
Russia needs 51 billion on the second quantum revolution
The draft of the road map of development of quantum technologies prepared by the Moscow institute of steel and alloys (MISIS) within implementation of the federal draft "Digital Technologies" of the national program "Digital Economy" was at disposal of CNews .
As authors of the document note, the first quantum revolution took place in the second half of the 20th century and led to emergence of lasers, transistors, nuclear weapon, and afterwards – mobile telephone communication and the Internet. Technologies of the first quantum revolution are applied in computers, mobile phones, tablets, digital cameras, communication systems, LED lamps, MRT-scanners, the scanning tunnel microscopes, etc.
The size of the market of the corresponding products in the world is $3 trillion a year. At the same time "the Moore's law", it agrees to one of statements of which, the capacity of processors should double each 18 months, does not work any more.
Since the end of the 20th century the world is on a threshold of the second quantum revolution. In the first quantum revolution technologists and devices were under construction on management of the collective quantum phenomena.
In the second quantum revolution of technology will be under construction on capability to manage the complex quantum systems at the level of separate particles, for example, of atoms and photons. The technologies based on such high level of control over individual quantum objects it is accepted to integrate the term quantum technologies.
The protocol of the quantum Internet first in the history is drafted
The Netherlands scientists drafted the first-ever protocol for the so-called quantum Internet working without noises and which is most protected from cracking. The idea belongs to specialists of the research center QuTech.
The protocol working at the data link layer is drafted by group of scientists under the leadership of professor Stephanie Wehner. Also they worked the general concept of quantum networks which in the future, according to them, can replace with themselves the traditional Internet and local networks.
The principle of very fast processing of qubits as they cannot be in memory a progressive tense is the cornerstone of the idea of specialists of QuTech. It will provide high information transmission rate, and the phenomenon of quantum complexity, one more principles of the protocol, will give the chance as much as possible to protect transmitted data.
The phenomenon of quantum complexity means interdependence of two and more objects, in this case qubits, and their continuous communication with each other. The attempt of interception of data will lead to change of a quantum status of one or several qubits and, as a result, to loss of the transmitted data. In other words, exclusively target device can obtain information – unauthorized access to it is excluded.
Left technical details about work of the first protocol of quantum network of Stefanie Veyner in secret. She specified only that for work of the quantum Internet physical infrastructure of the normal Internet will quite fit.
20 years of development of quantum computings. Infographics
For August, 2019 it is expected that Rigetti, a startup on quantum computings, will release a 128-kubitovy system in 2019. It can become important achievement on the quantum arena.
The fundamental difference between modern computers and computing systems with which we interact consists in the huge speed and a method of information processing on the server. Creation of similar machines threatens modern data encryption standards.
The bank for the first time began to use quantum computings for protection against cyber attacks
At the end of June, 2019 it became known that ABN Amro the first among banks began to use quantum computings for fight against cyber attacks. For this purpose the Dutch company began cooperation with QuTech research institute which is created by the Delft University of Technology together with the Dutch organization of application scientific research (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research). Read more here.
The budget on development of quantum technologies in Russia was estimated at 44 billion rubles
On May 23, 2019 it became known of the development plan for quantum technologies which was developed by the Russian Quantum Center (RQC) and NITU MISIS together with experts. According to this plan, by 2024 Russia should reduce backlog in quantum area, and on it 43.85 billion rubles will be required.
Nearly a half of the specified amount (21.41 billion rubles) is necessary on grants on projects on development and use of technologies, 6.8 billion rubles — on projects on implementation, 5.4 billion rubles — on support of the research centers, 4.42 billion rubles — on support of the leading companies, said in the plan presentation which was at the disposal of the Kommersant newspaper.
In it it is specified that by 2024 Russia will become the significant player in the market of quantum technologies. So, in some directions it will be possible not only to reduce backlog, but also "reach world level", for example, having occupied 8% of global market of quantum communications.
Experts suggest to create separate structure for development of technologies. The Russian venture capital company, Rostec, Rosatom, Rostelecom, Gazprombank, Sberbank and Skolkovo can become her founders ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika. Among possible project participants as contractors and customers — "Yandex", Mail.ru Group and mobile operators.
Rostelecom will be engaged in quantum communications, sees business potential in this technology and already the beginnings "a large-scale series of testing of solutions of the Russian vendors providing quantum enciphering", reported Kommersant in the company and noted that the beginning of commercial use of technology depends on certification of the equipment and solutions, it is slow process.
Infotecs told the edition that are ready to participate in development and pilot implementation of the systems of quantum distribution of keys and means of cryptographic information protection on their basis.
Start of the first-ever commercial quantum network
At the end of March, 2019 in Britain the first-ever commercial quantum network was started. The safe network will apply quantum distribution of keys (QKD): for protection of the encoded messages the principles of a quantum mechanics, but not difficult mathematical calculations are used. Read more here.
The road map of development of technologies of quantum information processing is approved
In Fund of perspective researches in March, 2019 the meeting of the interdepartmental working group on technologies of quantum information processing at Council for the priority direction of Strategy of scientific technology development of the Russian Federation "Transition to the advanced digital, intellectual production technologies, the robotic systems, new materials and methods of designing, creation of processing systems of large volumes of data, machine learning and artificial intelligence" took place.
Representatives of federal executive authorities, state corporations, and scientific organizations participated in a meeting. Participants of a meeting approved the draft of the road map of development of technologies of quantum information processing in the Russian Federation. The document is developed for the purpose of receiving in the medium and long term of almost significant scientific and technical results of the world and advancing level in areas of quantum computings, quantum modeling, quantum communications and a quantum cryptography.
According to the head of information researches of Fund of perspective researches Maxim Vakstein, mutual coordination of the planned and already performed works within the uniform road map will provide increase in efficiency of the conducted researches due to coordination of works conducted by separate domestic research teams, consolidations of resources of the main state customers and standardization of requirements imposed to technologies of quantum information processing. Also road map will promote formation of the favorable environment for development of professional community and system training.
Among the key projects implemented today in Russia in the field of technologies of quantum information processing – the joint project of Fund of perspective researches and Lomonosov Moscow State University on creation of demonstrators of 50-kubitny quantum computers on the basis of neutral atoms and integrated optical circuits. The project started in October, 2018, at the moment based on laboratory of quantum optical technologies of physical faculty MSU the first control experiment on creation of traps for arrays of neutral cold atoms is successfully made. The project on creation of the quantum computer is calculated for a period of up to 2021.
IBM provided the "personal" Q System One quantum computer
On January 8, 2019 the IBM corporation provided Q System One – the compact modular quantum computer which representatives of the company christened "the integrated universal quantum computing system developed for scientific and commercial application". Read more here.
Experiment of MSU on creation of traps for arrays of neutral cold atoms
On January 18, 2019 it became known that in Lomonosov Moscow State University the experiment on creation of traps for arrays of neutral cold atoms was successfully performed. The experiment is a part of works on creation of the 50-kubitny quantum computer.
Earlier the project on creation of demonstrators of 50-kubitny quantum computers was let into MSU. Neutral atoms and integrated optical circuits will form a basis for them. The project is calculated for a period of up to 2021.
Control experiment on creation of traps for arrays of neutral cold atoms was made based on laboratory of quantum optical technologies of physical faculty MSU. In future quantum computer in these traps the atoms which are in a status of the chaotic movement will be fixed. In quantum computers such atoms are information media.
As you know, quantum computers unlike classical computers operate not with bits, but qubits which can there are not only in statuses "1" and "0", but also their superpositions. When developing quantum computing devices scientists try to enter qubits into a status of quantum complexity. The essence of the phenomenon is that change of one qubit always influences a status of the related neighbors. Thanks to it quantum computers are potentially capable to show high performance in calculations.
Important milestone achievement of so-called quantum superiority (Quantum supremacy) is considered — to make capabilities for quantum technologies of calculation quicker than the classical systems. The main problem of quantum technologies at the current stage of development is emergence in the course of work big quantity of the errors needing correction.
Development of a complex of standards in the field of quantum communications, AI and the smart city
Technical committee "Cyber-physical Systems" based on RVC together with the Regional engineering center "Seyfnet" on December 6, 2018 began development of a complex of standards for the markets of the National Technology Initiative (NTI) and digital economy. By March, 2019 it is going to develop documents of technical standardization in the field of quantum communications, artificial intelligence and "the smart city", reported in RVC. Read more here.
Ford will use the quantum computer of NASA for the solution of transport problems
On December 5, 2018 Ford within the next project will develop complex routemaps which will help to support normal operation of black filters for cargo diesel cars. In 2019 the company will get access to NASA Laboratory on studying of quantum artificial intelligence of Quantum Artificial Intelligence Lab in the Research center of Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley.
Specialists of Ford together with representatives of NASA will work with the computer functioning by the principle of a quantum relaxation (quantum annealing) which will help to solve the most difficult problems. Possibilities of quantum computings will be applied to development of solutions in the field of control of big fleet of vehicles. Read more here.
Quantum computer of Microsoft
In March, 2018 it became known of that, researchers of the Dutch center Microsoft located at the Technical university in Delft (Delft University of Technology) work on creation of the quantum computer with much lower frequency of errors, than in projects which are tested by the competing companies, such as IBM and Google.
According to the research published in the Nature magazine in Microsoft received the authentic evidence of creation of mayoranovsky fermions — the elementary particle which is own antiparticle — in the wire consisting of semi-conductor and superconducting materials. Unique properties of these fermions mean that they can be used for creation of quantum computers.
They are tried to be received in the Dutch division of Microsoft in Delft where several refrigeration units worth more than $500 thousand everyone work. They cool special circuits up to the ultralow temperatures at which there is an opportunity to receive mayoranovsky fermions. Near several refrigerators huge 68-pound magnetic rings which the command of Microsoft uses to reduce the frequency of calculation errors hang. Magnets, however, as the physicist Leo Kouvenkhoven recognizes, are a two-edged sword as their big size and weight complicate experiments.
According to Kouvenkhoven, Microsoft believes that calculations of its quantum computer — if it manage to be created — there will be in 1000 also 10,000 times more precisely, than at the existing models. In the same premises near refrigerators the young researchers analyzing colourful diagrams work, however meanwhile signs of emergence of fermions are not noted. It is more difficult to receive precise measurements in dense magnetic field and though the theory on the party of researchers, at them can just not be enough time for creation of the quantum computer of a dream. The purpose of group of Kouvenkhoven — to receive stable mayoranovsky fermions by the end of 2018.
Other tested versions of quantum computers make too many mistakes in calculations to be used in practice, for example, for creation of new chemical catalysts or breaking up of cryptographic codes what creators initially hoped for. Therefore despite high costs of Microsoft tries to receive fermions for creation of qubits — quantum discharge or the smallest element for information storage in the quantum computer.
Still Microsoft conceded to competitors: Google and IBM already have machines which as it is considered, are close to achievement of "quantum superiority" — capabilities to solve the problems too difficult for standard computers — whereas Microsoft still did not even receive working qubit. However qubits on the basis of mayoranovsky fermions can become a basis for potentially more effective quantum computer. Therefore Microsoft brought together group of scientists who turned to work in laboratories in USA Netherlands, Denmark and Australia. One of the most experienced heads of Microsoft, Todd Holdkhel who worked on video game consoles Xbox and game points earlier was appointed responsible for the project augmented reality HoloLens.
The CEO of Microsoft Satya Nadella explained that quantum developments along with artificial intelligence and augmented reality will be crucial for the future of the company, and in November, 2017 Holdkhel said in an interview to Bloomberg that Microsoft will bring to the market own quantum computer within the next five years.
Australians created quantum "processor" based on phosphorus atom
In March, 2018 it became known that the group of scientists of UNSW Sydney (University of New South Wales) from Australia under the leadership of professor Michele Simmons for the first time in the world created quantum "processor" based on phosphorus atom, in practice having shown that qubits (monatomic quantum physical bits) can interact with each other already at distance of 16 nanometers from each other, showing the so-called phenomenon of "quantum complexity". However the principle of operation of the provided device and modern computer processors differ cardinally.
As you know, in modern mass ADP equipment of bit can accept only two values: "1" or "0" while quantum bits, or qubits, can be in intermediate statuses also. At the same time change of one qubit always influences a status of related "neighbors". This phenomenon carries the name of quantum complexity and allows to construct logical qubit — group of the physical qubits connected with each other. The "processor" received by connection of several logical qubits can provide the highest performance characteristic of quantum computers and also will allow to find and correct the errors arising in physical qubits under the influence of external factors.
Earlier was considered that interaction between physical qubits is possible at distance of 20 nanometers. However the Australian scientists could achieve formation of logical qubit at distance between atoms of phosphorus of 16 nanometers. According to Michele Simmons, the quantum computer consisting of 30 such qubits will exceed any existing traditional computers, and the 300-kubitny copy will overtake all computers existing in the world combined.
It is expected that data retrieveds will allow to improve the existing model and to accelerate emergence of prototypes of devices on the basis of monatomic qubits from phosphorus. In particular, the group of the Australian scientists within the next 5 years expects to receive the working model from 10 connected qubits.
Russia will create the 50-kubitny quantum computer
On February 15, 2018 Vnesheconombank, WEB Innovations, Fund of perspective researches, Lomonosov Moscow State University and ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika signed the agreement on implementation of the complex scientific and technical project on creation in Russia mnogokubitny (not less than fifty qubits) the optical quantum simulator on the basis of photon chips and neutral atoms.
Ensuring resource support of project implementation, coordinating of scientific and technical tasks and assistance to implementation of the created results will become the main directions of cooperation within the agreement. Besides, within project implementation development of necessary research and technology infrastructure and also carrying out consultations, working meetings and other actions for setting and accomplishment of applied tasks in the field of quantum technologies will be provided.
According to modern representations, creation of the quantum computer on 50 qubits will allow to reach quantum superiority: it means that such computer will show the computing power which cannot be reached when using the most modern computers operating with bits.
|Experiments with quantum computers are already made, however their calculation capacities concede opportunities usual to us ADP equipment so far — Andrey Grigoriev, the CEO Fonda of perspective researches noted. — For achievement of disruptive results it is necessary to develop all existing technologies of physical sale of quantum calculators. In Russia several scientific groups having a strong scientific and technical backlog and experience of implementation of practical projects in the field of quantum technologies work. Consolidation of their efforts with opportunities of institutes of development and public foundations will allow to receive applied results already in the nearest future.|
According to Kirill Bulatov, the CEO of VEB of the Innovation company, within the agreement scientific collaborations and formats of interaction between the Russian organizations working in the field of quantum technologies will be created.
|The signed agreement on creation of the quantum computer will become that call which will give an impulse for consolidation of the strongest participants in the field of quantum technologies. Documentary fixed bases of cooperation will allow to concentrate the best minds and forces of different scientific institutions and companies for technology breakthrough of Russia in digital economy — the CEO of ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika Evgeny Kovnir said.|
In Russia the quantum ViPNet phone is presented
The product is developed in laboratory of quantum optical technologies of physics department of MSU, and VPN ViPNet (on the example of two products – ViPNet Client and ViPNet Connector). The quantum ViPNet phone allows to connect workstations to the set software of ViPNet and to cipher traffic between them using quantum distribution of keys. Quantum distribution of keys allows to provide the high level of security at data transmission on not entrusted (public) communication channels, helps to eliminate threat of calculation of security keys on quantum computers.
In the USA the 53-kubitny quantum computer is created
At the beginning of December, 2017 it became known that scientists from the Maryland university in College Park (UMD) and National Institute of standards and technologies (NIST) of the USA created model of the quantum system consisting of 53 qubits which are applied to simulation of quantum matter.
According to authors of the project, the UMD-NIST simulator was created by deployment of 53 separate itterbiyevy ions withheld on site by the electrodes gilded "britvenno sharp". At the same time the amount of atoms, on assurance of scientists, can be increased still that, in turn, will lead to growth of number of qubits.
UMD-NIST can work at the room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure — such property is characteristic of all systems of the qubits which are based on ions. In the provided model qubits are reliably isolated from influence of the environment.
|Each ionic qubit is a stable atomic clock which can be reproduced completely — professor of physics Christopher Monroe, the head of the UMD command said. — They are effectively connected together with external laser beams. It means that the same device can be reprogrammed and recustomized outside to adapt to any type of quantum modeling or future quantum computer application which will appear.|
Modern transistor computers experience difficulties, dealing more than with twenty interacting quantum objects in connection with the phenomenon of quantum magnetism — because of it interaction can lead to magnetic alignment or mixing of the competing interests. In particular, 53 quantum magnets interacting with each other create about quadrillion possible magnetic configurations, and this quantity doubles with adding of a new magnet, scientists claim.
According to the leading author of a research Jiehang Zhang, soon there will be an opportunity to control 100 and more qubits. Zhang with colleagues published results of the researches in the Nature magazine.
Intel Quantum 17-kubitny processor
In October, 2017 it was announced delivery experimental 17-kubitny processor Intel, created based on technologies of superconductivity, in the Netherlands research center QuTech researching together with Intel in the field of quantum physics. Processor, Intel made on production capacities, differs in the unique structure of a crystal allowing to raise an exit of suitable crystals on a plate and to achieve an essential gain of performance.
Scientists from Australia developed a basis for the quantum Internet
As it became known on September 12, 2017, the group of researchers of the Australian national university (ANU) developed the crystal alloyed by erbium ions which as it is supposed, can become optimal material for creation of a global telecommunication network. According to researchers, the crystal having "strange quantum properties" can be applied including to creation of network of the next generation — the quantum Internet. The experiment with crystals of erbium was made under the leadership of the associate professor of ANU Mathew Sellars, ZDNet writes.
According to him, researchers managed to improve considerably the vital component for practical application of the quantum Internet — storage time of quantum memory. Theoretically the information unit of quantum computers (qubit) can be saved using photons which change the energy levels of atoms. Statuses "0" and "1" are provided with the low and high levels of energy, however to read out similar information rather difficult — atoms can just disperse or "re-emit" the photon containing qubit in the accidental direction.
The Australian researchers offered a different way of storage of a quantum status. Erbium — an ion of a rare-earth element which quantum properties allow it to transfer - to accept data by means of waves 1550 nanometers long is its cornerstone. The same waves are used in modern fiber optical systems. During the experiment it was established that use of erbium by transfer of quantum statuses eliminates need for conversion process, moreover, their transfer is feasible in the existing telecommunication networks. Researchers managed to prove that erbium ions can store quantum information for a second in a crystal — in 10 thousand times longer, than already known methodologies of storage allow. However scientists still should "disperse" ions of a rare-earth element for ensuring circulation of quantum information on all global network.
As Dr. Rose Akhlefeldt, the employee of the Center of quantum computing and communication technologies of ANU noted, quantum memory with life expectancy in 1 second will allow to buffer and synchronize information that it is necessary for quantum communication at long distances. The technology can also work as a quantum light source or to be applied to optic communication between the solid-state quantum computing devices connected to the quantum Internet.
According to researchers of ANU, the developed crystal is compatible to the existing fiber optics and with the superconducting qubits developed by Google and IBM at the same time will be able to work with many types of quantum computers, including CQC2T.
It is expected that in the near future the quantum Internet can become a separate branch of the normal Internet. Research groups develop worldwide chips which will allow the normal computer to be connected to quantum network, but at the initial stage of development of technology it will be possible to enter it only for certain tasks. For example, for the purpose of sending the message using a quantum cryptography (at interception of a quantum key the message will be instantly destroyed). The quantum Internet can be also useful to potential schemes of quantum computings.
China the first tested quantum enciphering for data transmission from the satellite
On August 10 it became known that the Chinese scientists first-ever could transfer successfully data using technology of quantum enciphering. The packet of information was sent from the Mozi satellite to the lookout stations Xinglong (Province of Hebei) and Nan Shan (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region). The distance between the satellite and ground stations made from 645 to 1200 km at the different moments of transfer of a data packet, the academician of the Chinese academy of Sciences Sir Jiangwei (pan Jianwei) told in an interview to the Xinhua agency.
According to him, the technology of quantum enciphering allowed to reach data transfer rate on "20 orders above" than if the optical fiber laid from space was applied to this purpose. At the same time Sir Jiangwei emphasized that for generation and transfer to Earth of 300 Kb of the ciphered information the Chinese scientists had only one 10-minute window within which the satellite flew by over the territory of the country.
|The technology of quantum enciphering resolves several security issues. For example, absolutely safe telephone conversation to which nobody will be able to listen, or transfers of banking data which nobody will be able to intercept. In attempt of cracking of a quantum communication channel, all data transferred on it will be simply destroyed — Sir Jiangwei said.|
The satellite of quantum communication of Mozi was launched in August, 2016. Period of revolution of the satellite around the earth makes 90 minutes, weight — 631 kg. The device is intended for carrying out a number of scientific experiments, including testing of quantum distribution of a key between the device put to orbit and land complexes, a research of the mechanism of quantum complexity and also testing of quantum teleportation between the satellite and the station in Tibet. It was supposed that researches will take about two years.
Earlier experiments with quantum enciphering were made only on Earth: in Europe, the USA and China. For transfer of keys optical fiber was used, but in process of promotion the signal weakened. Placement of a signal source in space solved this problem as photons pass the main part of a way in a vacuum.
According to scientists, quantum enciphering will allow China by 2030 to create not hacked network which will be able to provide complete confidentiality and will differ in resistance to any attacks. The principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg, one of the fundamental principles of a quantum mechanics according to which its irreversible change will be a consequence of any external intervention in a quantum system will prevent to read out information from similar channels of data to malefactors.
Scientists from the USA and Russia created the 51-kubitny quantum computer
In July, 2017 it became known that the group of scientists of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology under the leadership of Mikhail Lukin, professors of physics from Harvard and the co-founder of Russian Quantum Center, created and checked the programmable quantum computer based on 51 qubits, having become, thus, the leader among participants of "a quantum race".
According to Mikhail Lukin, he and his colleagues used qubits on the basis of "cold atoms" which were kept by optical "tweezers" — in a special way organized laser beams. The majority of modern quantum computers are based on use of superconducting qubits based on Josephson's contacts.
Lukin and his colleagues managed to solve with the help of the quantum calculator a problem of behavior modeling of the quantum systems from a set of particles which was almost not solvable using classical computers. Moreover, as a result they managed to predict several earlier unknown effects which then were checked using normal computers. As a result scientists managed to find a method of approximate calculations which helped to receive similar result on the classical computer.
In the nearest future scientists intend to continue experiments with the quantum computer, perhaps, they will try to use this system for check of algorithms of quantum optimization which allow to exceed the existing computers.
Between the earth and airplane for the first time established quantum relation
Physics from the University of Waterloo (Canada) for the first time implemented a quantum communication channel for distribution of secret keys of enciphering between the going plane as the receiver and a ground station as the sender. Within the experiment scientists managed in 6 attempts from 14 to generate secret key. In the future a system can find application for quantum communication between airplanes and satellites. The research is published in the Quantum Science and Technology magazine, briefly announces it.
The existing systems of cryptography are based on existence of secret key using which there is an enciphering of information. Without knowledge of this key interpretation in fact is impossible. For example, and the receiver and the sender store in a method of cryptographic notepads at themselves absolutely identical sets of accidental data which are summed up with the text of the message. Without notepad search of all possible keys will give all possible messages of this length.
However the key needs to be transferred somehow between participants of communication. Interception of a key at this stage will allow the malefactor to decrypt all correspondence completely. That such interception was impossible at the level of laws of physics, scientists the algorithm of quantum distribution of a key is developed. It is based on transfer of the single photons prepared in an accidental status ("zero" or "unit") and in accidental basis (in vertical/horizontal or diagonal polarization). In attempt of the malefactor to measure polarization of a photon, there will be a state change of the last. The sender and the receiver will manage to trace it easily and to discard a skompromentirovanny key.
For implementation of similar protocols of communication it is necessary to adjust quantum communication between the sender and the receiver. In case of city networks, it can be done using fiber optic lines. Also distribution of a key between motionless objects can be organized "by air", using the laser and the detector. These approaches were already implemented — limit distances make about several hundred kilometers in both cases. The equipment is limited by fiber losses and dispersion on turbulent flows in air.
Authors of new work showed a basic possibility of quantum distribution of a key between the going plane and a ground station. For acceptance and transfer of signal photons physicists used pair of motorized telescopes. The receiver was installed by the Twin Wiped airplane flying a ground station on an arc or in a straight line at the height of 1.6 kilometers. Nominal distances between a source and the receiver fluctuated from 3 to 10 kilometers. In installation methods of protection against the simplest attacks, including, Trojan horses were undertaken.
In total the airplane executed 14 flights near a ground station with a speed about 200-250 kilometers per hour. Exactly in half of cases researchers managed to set a quantum communication channel and in six of them — to generate secret key. Time of quantum communication fluctuated from 30 seconds to four and a half minutes, the maximum size of secret key was 867 kilobits.
On preparation of an experiment at scientists nearly eight years left. Earlier similar experiment was delivered in Germany, however by the airplane there was a source of photons, but not the receiver. According to physicists, in new setting of an experiment the key can be generated successfully for communication between the satellite and airplane. Advantage of use of the satellite in lack of natural noises between the sender and the receiver, for example, much more rarefied environment.
Microsoft works on creation of the quantum computer
Microsoft announced in June, 2017 carrying out developments in the field of creation of the quantum computer. Similar machines are capable to invert all industry as will allow to process amounts of data on which analysis years would leave now in seconds. The technology which is used in them is based on qubits (quantum bits) which can be at the same time in two statuses – 0 and 1 while normal bits are only in one of them. In the future this technology will affect such areas as cryptography and supersecure communication and also modeling of climate and search of dark matter.
The project on creation of the quantum computer of Microsoft is headed by Todd Holmdahl who was earlier among heads of development teams of Kinect, HoloLens and Xbox. Now he speaks about quantum computings, as about the new direction in business, but not theoretical or research projects. And he is sure that Microsoft will become the pioneer in this area, having implemented quantum technologies in the cloud platforms.
The command under the leadership of Todd Holmdal which is a part recently created by Microsoft AI and Research Group, will work as on hardware and program parts of the quantum computer. "Like classical high-performance computing, we need not only the equipment, but also the optimized software", - Matthias Troyer, professor of computing physics of ETH Zurich who is specially invited for participation in the project of the Microsoft research group comments.
Microsoft is sure that knowledge accumulated by Microsoft Research reached that level which will allow to create this break in creation of the quantum computer. On a question of when Microsoft is able to construct the first topological qubit, Holmdal to whom now 52 years, do not give the exact answer. However noted that he retires soon and the event will take place up to this point.
In Kazan tested "quantum phone"
Staff of the Kazan Aviation Institute (KAI) and St. Petersburg NIU of information technologies, mechanics and optics (ITMO) provided at the beginning of 2017 in Kazan the quantum network consisting of four nodes and carried out its tests, in particular, using it as phone which cannot be wiretapped.
Such networks began to appear in Russia in 2014: the first projects were performed by the capital universities. Pilot testings of the Kazan network were held in August, 2016. Now scientists finished network, and it completely functions. Two nodes are in KAI, two more – on river banks Cauldrons. Within tests on channels of network files and different commands were transferred, then for testing of audio communication used network as phone.
According to the director of the Kazan quantum center Sergey Moiseyev, scientific KAI study 15 years quantum memory, and their colleagues from ITMO became interested in their developments for creation of network of communications at long distances. Now scientists are going to improve the speed and range of quantum channels and also to look for new practical applications of technology.
The Chinese quantum calculator "overtook" the first computer of mankind
Physics from the Chinese scientific and technology university (Shanghai), the University of the Würzburg and the University of St Andrews improved work of one of types of quantum calculators — a bosonic sampler. According to authors, now the device exceeds ENIAC (the first multipurpose classical computer) approximately by 220 times in a certain class of tasks. Scientists believe that bosonic samplers will be able to show superiority of the quantum systems over modern classical computers in the nearest future. The research is published in the Nature Photonics magazine, briefly announces it.
It is considered that normal, classical calculators are capable to exceed quantum computers considerably — it will allow to solve the problems earlier unavailable to scientists. For example, very difficult for computers are calculations of properties of different molecules — they are based on laws of a quantum mechanics. However superiority of quantum calculators over the traditional systems was shown only partially. So, at the end of 2015 the Google company showed that the systems of quantum annealing D-Wave can repeatedly overtake computers at the solution of specially created problems of optimization.
For quantum computers performance and acceleration, in comparison with the classical systems directly depends on number of qubits — the quantum bits existing in superposition of statuses of "zero" and "unit". Scientists expect that quantum computers will need about 50 qubits to reach superiority — now in laboratory devices the number of qubits does not exceed 10-15. However in some special quantum calculators it is possible to manage smaller quantity of controlled quantum particles — for example, for bosonic samplers 20-30 photons there are enough.
Bosonic samplers are calculators using whom it is possible to build distribution of random variables quickly. Several photons move to them on the branching and crossed optical ways, interfering among themselves. In more detail about them it is possible to read in news about the previous result of this scientific group — complication 10 photons for a sampler at once. Among use of the device there is a calculation of oscillatory ranges of molecules necessary, for example, for the analysis of chemical composition of materials
In addition to quantity of the photons participating in work of a sampler the speed of its work is influenced also by the frequency of reading of statuses of photons. In new work scientists could increase considerably it — approximately in 24 thousand times in comparison with the previous experiments. According to authors, for achievement of result development of high-quality one-photon sources on the basis of nanocrystals of semiconductors became key. These modules are initiated using the picosecond impulses of the laser (lasting a trillionth fraction of a second) and generate 25.6 million polarized single photons per second that is the best indicator on brightness in the world.
As an optical table with different optical ways for photons authors used the programmable integrated optical circuit — it defined distribution which was generated by a sampler. 36 beam splitters — translucent mirrors were introduced into it. Scientists checked operation of the device with three, four and five photons creating distribution. For three-photon devices the frequency of generation was about five thousand hertz (in the previous works this value did not exceed two tenth hertz). According to authors if to use in installation one-photon detectors on superconducting nanothreads, then this value can be increased in addition by 26 times.
With growth of reading speed and generation of distributions physicists have an opportunity to use bigger quantity of photons in a bosonic sampler. So, if in last work with a 10-photon sampler the frequency of generation was 11 pieces per hour, then in new installation of frequency of the same order it will be possible to reach already with 14 photons. According to authors if to improve the scheme of generation of single photons, having accelerated their generation honor for 75 percent, then it will be possible to expect the reading speed of 20-photon events in 130 pieces per hour.
Physics compares performance of a new system to the first computer, created by the person — ENIAC. By estimates of scientists, the created scheme of three-photon sampling exceeds the speed of the solution of the same task using ENIAC by 220 times. Authors claim that they created the first calculator on single photons who could overtake the classical computer.
IBM started the first-ever service of quantum computings
In March, 2017 IBM announced as the company approves, the first-ever commercial service of quantum computings. The program under the name of IBM Q 50-kubitny quantum processor will be started in cloud infrastructure of IBM Cloud. Read more here.
Scientists could transmit information through one photon
Scientists of Princeton University developed the device allowing one electron to transfer quantum information to a photon. The research was published at the end of 2016 in the Science magazine and can become this break in the field of quantum computer technologies.
"Now we have an opportunity to directly transfer a quantum status to a photon. Earlier it could not be made using semiconductor devices as the quantum status was lost before managed to transfer information", - the scientist of Princeton University Xiao Mi explained.
You look in more detail - the Photon Integrated Circuit (PIC)
Research project of Microsoft
In November, 2016 it became known that Microsoft develops the quantum computer. For this purpose the company created the separate research project which was headed by the veteran of Microsoft Todd Holmdahl who was among heads of development teams of Kinect, HoloLens, and Xbox.
Quantum computings assume that the computer systems using them can be in two statuses at the same time. If traditional PCs write information bits consistently (in statuses zero or unit), then quantum can execute several calculations in parallel, coding two values at once.
Microsoft intends to create the "topological" quantum computer with the two-dimensional particles called by the eniona forming three-dimensional interlacings with two space measurements of enion and time. The company is going to use such systems in projects of artificial intelligence, clinical trials, modeling of climatic conditions, etc.
In addition to Todd Holmdal, the team of researchers of quantum computings of Microsoft also included the famous specialists in this area — professors Leo Kouwenhoven from the Delft technology university, Charles Marcus from the University of Copenhagen, David Reilly from the University of Sydney and Matthias Troyer from the Swiss federal Institute of Technology.
Microsoft became interested in the concept of quantum computings in 2005, having created then research laboratory Station Q under the leadership of the mathematician Michael Freedman. In 2015 Microsoft provided the LIQUi simulator |> (Language-Integrated Quantum Operations) allowing any person to study possibilities of quantum computings.
China will construct a new quantum line of communication
China is going to construct a new quantum line of communication more than 300 kilometers long by the end of 2017, the China Daily newspaper with reference to the Chinese space company (CASIC) writes.
Construction of the line which will connect among themselves the city of Wuhan and Hefei will begin in the nearest future. As the representative of CASIC U Xiaofeng noted, the line will be used by government structures, and then will become available to local business. Investment volume is estimated at 29 million dollars. Later this line will be connected to the line between Beijing and Shanghai which opening is planned for the end of 2016.
In China in November, 2016 the most extended opened in the world a quantum line of communication, its length is 712 kilometers. It connects among themselves the city of Hefei to the Provinces of Anhui and Shanghai. It is a part of the project of a quantum line of communication 2 thousand kilometers long which creation began in 2013. On the line 11 ground stations are located.
China began development of the satellite of quantum communication in 2011. In the middle of August start of the first-ever satellite of quantum communication of Micius was successfully performed.
According to earlier the academician of the Chinese academy of Sciences Pan Jianwei, all systems of the satellite work regularly. It was noted that Mo-tszy after three-months testing in an orbit, will be put in operation in the second half of November. Before Pan Jianwei also said that China can create a global network of quantum communication by 2030.
Since the beginning of the 20th century scientists develop techniques of enciphering and safe information transfer. They have two key shortcomings — they can be cracked at the application of sufficient computing powers (for example, the quantum computer), or information can be taken, "having overheard" its transfer on the channel of data.
So-called quantum networks solve both of these problems because fundamental provision of quantum physics — the principle of uncertainty of Heisenberg — does not allow "third wheel" to read out information from the channel of data and to try to it a key.
Quantum communication was experienced between two cities
On October 5, 2016 the press service of Fund of perspective researches announced tests of a system of quantum communication between two cities of the Moscow region. Project participants: MSU, Rostelecom and Fund of perspective researches.
Three-week tests of automatic system of quantum distribution of cryptographic keys on the basis of standard communication lines of PJSC ROSTELECOM are carried out in the Moscow region: between the cities adjusted message exchange, ciphered by means of quantum technologies. Quantum communication worked between Noginsk and Pavlovsky Posad at the fiber optic line 32 km long.
Main objective of tests - demonstration of opportunities of long-term and steady system operation of quantum distribution of cryptographic keys on the basis of standard infrastructure. Tests showed stability of system operation on fiber optic lines of PJSC Rostelecom between the cities of the Moscow region, Noginsk and Pavlovsky Posad, in the automatic mode.
|Tested have basic value for development of all industry of quantum technologies. During tests "three whales" of modern quantum communication were shown. First, distribution of symmetric cryptographic keys according to GOST is performed. Distribution of keys happened in the mode of quantum network when identical keys were generated at couples of subscribers on their request. Secondly, quantum communication was performed between two specific localities – the cities of the Moscow region. Thirdly, a system works in completely automatic mode, without participation of the operator.|
Sergey Kulik, the head of laboratory of quantum optical technologies of MSU, professor, the member of the commission on carrying out tests
Participation of the operator was required at the first start of a system and setup of its key parameters, in dependence, for example, on distance between subscriber stations. All parameter values of system operation are tested and supported automatically: a system arranges them depending on fluctuations of indicators of the fiber optic line. During tests used the client-server option of a system allowing to achieve its long-run and stable job and to minimize the cost of a client node.
Keys were distributed between the central server and several client nodes: consistently received on different nodes, keys were in a special way synchronized that allowed subscribers to communicate directly, ciphered according to the Russian national standard. A system provides the cryptographic properties meeting requirements of GOST 28147-89.
|A system as a part of which there is a server station with a possibility of switching between 32 client nodes uses the original domestic data transfer protocol. His cryptographic firmness allows to generate the keys suitable for use in the modern and perspective hardware and software of cryptographic information protection of limited access.|
Andrey Korolkov, the deputy head of department of the FSB of Russia Center, the corresponding member of Academy of cryptography of the Russian Federation, the member of the commission on carrying out tests
|Demonstration of the long-run job of network option of the system of quantum distribution of keys working at infrastructure of standard fiber lines of communication and conforming to all requirements for cryptographic firmness shows that in Russia conditions for implementation of this technology are created.|
Quantum data network
On August 8, 2016 scientists in Tatarstan started a pilot project of a multinodal quantum data network. It is the first project in Russia. As envisioned by creators, the network will integrate the cities of the republic with the increased data protection, first of all – the enterprises of a public sector, financial and scientific structures.
Authors of the project are scientists of the quantum center of the Kazan national research technical university (KNITU-KAI) and St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Optics Mechanics (ITMO).
As the platform for network the equipment of the telecom operator of PJSC Tattelecom served. The quantum cryptography differs from normal data protection in use of physical methods instead of mathematical. The attempt of cracking changes parameters of electrons or photons that provides a possibility of detection of unauthorized access.
The quantum network will integrate four nodes at distance of 30-40 km from each other. The first section of network is started in Kazan, it connected two body of university.
In a pilot segment generation rate of the sifted quantum sequences of 117 kbps on the line 2.5 km long – much quicker, than in the European network projects in the field of quantum communication is reached. During the experiments transfer of quantum bits in optical link with losses 20 dB is successfully shown that it is equivalent to distance of 100 km.
Earlier in Russia only the lines of quantum communication operating by the principle "point-to-point" were created. For example, a fiber optic cable the high school body in St. Petersburg and bank offices in Moscow connected. In a case with bank offices the total length of the line of 30.6 km, and the percent of errors by transfer of a key did not exceed 5%.
|We want to lay network between Kazan and Naberezhnye Chelny. Now we work on the equipment, for example, on data transmission acceleration. The distance for transfer of quanta makes about 100 km. And further new nodes "extend" network.|
Sergey Moiseyev, director of the KNITU-KAI Kazan quantum center
|Start of the pilot sections connecting among themselves the universities will lead to the explosive growth of technologies and formation of the new markets based on which the domestic communications infrastructure of new generation will grow.|
Artur Gleym, head of Laboratory of quantum information science of the International institute of photonics and optoinformation science of ITMO and laboratory of a practical quantum cryptography of the Kazan quantum center
The compact quantum computer is created
The edition reports that qubits are taken by means of the ion trap and they can be managed the laser. Besides that qubits are computing elements, at the same time they also - storage cells.
Scientists showed that the created computer is capable to execute different quantum algorithms. And, upon transition from one algorithm to another it is not necessary to make changes to construction of a system.
Creators claim that the accuracy of calculations of the quantum computer is 98 percent that is very high rate. According to specialists, in the future it can be scaled by means of connection of similar construction that will allow to carry out more difficult tasks.
Several elements of the quantum computer in one found the method "stamp" in Russia
Physicists from MIPT and Russian Quantum Center developed a method which will allow to simplify a problem of creation of the multipurpose quantum computer – they found a method to use for this purpose multi-layer quantum systems (kudita), each of which is capable to work as several "normal" quantum elements, qubits. Professor Vladimir Manko, the research supervisor of Laboratory of quantum information of MIPT and the employee of FIAN, the employee of Russian Quantum Center Alexey Fedorov and his colleague Evgeny Kiktenko published results of the researches of the multi-layer quantum systems in a series of articles in the magazines Physical Review A, Physics Letters A and also 
"In our works we showed that the correlations similar to used for quantum information technologies in the composite quantum systems take place and in not composite systems with which as we assume, it is sometimes easier to work. In particular, in the latest work we offered a method of use of complexity between internal degrees of freedom of a single eight-level system for protocol implementation of quantum teleportation, earlier experimental implemented for a system from three two-level systems", - Vladimir Manko says.
Quantum computers which promise to lead in the future to revolution in the computer equipment are supposed to be built of elementary computing elements, quantum bits – qubits. While elements of classical computers (bit) can be only in two statuses (logical zero, and logical one), qubits are created on the basis of quantum objects which can be in coherent superposition of two statuses, so can code intermediate statuses between logical zero and unit.
At measurement of qubit we with the certain probability (determined by laws of a quantum mechanics) receive either zero, or unit. Operation of the quantum computer is based that initial condition of some task registers in start state of a system of qubits, then these qubits enter the special interaction (determined by a specific objective), and at last, the user reads out the answer to a task, performing measurement of end states of quantum bits.
Quantum computers will be able to solve some problems which are absolutely unavailable even to the most powerful classical supercomputers now. For example, for "cracking" of the cryptographic algorithm RSA based on search of prime factorization of large numbers, the normal computer for search of options will need time comparable to lifetime of the Universe, and quantum can solve it in minutes. However the serious obstacle – instability of quantum statuses gets in the way of quantum revolution.
Quantum objects which are used for creation of qubits – ions, electrons, Josephson contacts can save a certain quantum status very not for long. But it is necessary for calculations that qubits not only saved a status, but also also provzaimodeystvovat with each other. Physicists tries to prolong the term of life of qubits worldwide.
Earlier superconducting qubits "survived" nanoseconds, and now they manage to be kept from a dekogerention already of millisecond – already close by then which is necessary for calculations. But in a case with a system from tens and hundreds of qubits the task becomes essentially more difficult. Manko, Fedorov and Kiktenko began to solve a problem "since other end" – not to try to save stability of a big system of qubits, and to reduce the sizes of a system, necessary for calculations. They investigate possibilities of use for calculations not of qubits, and kudit – quantum objects in which number of possible statuses (levels) more than two (their number is designated by letter D). There are kutrita with three statuses, kukvarta (four statuses), etc. Now algorithms in which use of kudit can show advantages in comparison with use of qubits are actively studied.
"Kudit can already work with three-four levels as a system from two "normal" qubits, and eight levels are enough to imitate a trekhkubitny system. First we perceived this equivalence as mathematical which allows to receive new entropy ratios. For example, we received the value of a mutual information (a correlation measure) between the virtual qubits selected in the state space of a single four-level system", – Fedorov says.
It and his colleagues showed that on the only thing you booze with five levels, implemented using artificial atom, it is already possible to perform full quantum computings, in particular, to start an algorithm Doycha. This algorithm is intended for check of values of a large number of binary variables. It is possible to call it "the search algorithm of the rejected coin": imagine that you have a set of coins some of which rejected – at them are the image on an obverse and a reverse matches. To find such coins "classical method", you need to look at each party. The algorithm Doycha assumes that you "confuse" an obverse and a reverse of a coin, and after that you can see the rejected coin only once having looked at it.
The idea of use of multi-layer system for emulation of mnogokubitny processors was offered in works of the Russian physicists from the Kazan physics and technology institute earlier. So, for example, for implementation of a dvukhkubitny algorithm Doycha it was offered to use nuclear backs 3/2, having four different statuses. However experimental progress of the last years in creation of kudit on superconducting chains shows a number of their advantages. In superconducting schemes, however, five levels are required already: the last level executes a supporting role for implementation of sales opportunity of a full range of all possible quantum transactions.
"We receive a significant gain as it is simpler to control multilevel kudita in certain physical implementations, than a system from the corresponding number of qubits, so we on a step approach creation of the full-fledged quantum computer. Multilevel elements provide advantages and in other quantum technologies, for example, in a quantum cryptography", - Fedorov says.
In Russia the project on creation of the multipurpose quantum computer is approved
On April 28, 2016 in the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation there took place the meeting on the organization in 2016 of the joint scientific and technical project "Creation of Technology of Information Processing on the basis of Superconducting Qubits".
This project will become pilot in the solution of an ultimate goal – creation of the quantum computer. It is expected three and a half years, the total amount of financing will be more than 750 million rubles. More than 210 million rubles will be directed Ministry of Education and Science Russia to creation of infrastructure, necessary for project implementation, in subordinated universities contractors (NITU "MISIS" Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU)). Fund of perspective researches will select about 340 million rubles for carrying out scientific research within the project. Joint financing of the project from State corporation on atomic energy "Rosatom" (the consumer of results) will be more than 200 million rubles and will be used on retrofitting of VNIIA laboratory of N.L. Dukhov (parent organization of the project).
The meeting came to the end with signing of the tripartite agreement about creation and support of joint laboratories. From the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation it was signed by the Deputy Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation Alexander Povalko, ROSATOM State Corporation - the associate director of directorate on a nuclear weapon complex Oleg Choubin, Fonda of perspective researches – the CEO Andrey Grigoriev.
By April, 2016 project participants created the following scientific base:
- in NITU "MISIS" the Laboratory of superconducting metamaterials under the leadership of the prof. A.V. Ustinov is created (within implementation of works on megagrants (The order of the Government of the Russian Federation of April 9, 2010 No. 220);
- in MIPT the Laboratory of the artificial quantum systems under the leadership of the prof. O.V. Astafyev is created (within Project 5-100 (The order of the Government of the Russian Federation of March 16, 2013 No. 211);
- The center of collective use (within the FTP "Development of infrastructure of nanotech industry in the Russian Federation");
- in IFTT RAS laboratory of the Russian Quantum Center (RQC) of IFTT RAS (group of the prof. V.V. Ryazanov); * laboratory in NGTU (group of the prof. E.V. Ilyichyov);
- the head technology center is created at the initiative of VNIIA of N.L. Dukhov together with MSTU of N.E. Bauman.
The head technology center will be engaged in production of the mnogokubitny systems. On other participants of the consortium representing a complete technology chain of production of the superconducting quantum systems – the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Russian Quantum Center (payment processing center, Russian Quantum Center, RQC), IFTT RAS, the Moscow institute became also splavov the Novosibirsk State Technical University (NSTU) – solving of tasks on production of superconducting qubits, measurement of parameters of the quantum systems in open lines, algorithm elaboration of quantum computings is assigned.
The project is aimed at formation of a perspective scientific and technical and technology backlog on creation of the quantum computers intended including, for modeling of properties of different materials.
|In the project practically all scientific organizations and the universities which are engaged in quantum computings and technologies cooperate. Tasks of development of manufacturing techniques of different superconductor qubits, development of methods, the equipment and technologies of initialization, control and reading of qubits are set for them|
head of All-Russian Research Institute laboratory of automatic equipment of N.L. Dukhov Valery Ryazanov
2015: Google declared the probability of creation of quantum computers
Quantum computers will never be won against modern classical computers if they do not find capability of independent error correction, their quantum bits destroying "fragile" quantum statuses, qubits. The Google group conducting researches in the field of quantum computings showed the first-ever system capable to independently make correction of the arising errors - the step which is bringing closer area of quantum computings to its implementation.
The remembered achievement became possible as a result of transition to Google company of group of scientists of the University of California in Santa Barbara, fall of 2014. In due time she developed and made the system of the quantum superconducting schemes working with the level of accuracy and reliability sufficient for implementation of technology of elimination of errors.
"It is the first case in the history of information technologies when the "natural" errors resulting from impact on qubits of different factors of the environment can be corrected, - Rami Barends, the engineer of Rami Barends company told. - We created the first quantum device capable to independently correct the errors arising during its work".
Interested in the sphere of quantum computings it is well known - the main problem which creators of quantum computing systems - need of preserving of a quantum status of qubits face for a long time. The fragile quantum status can be broken by intervention of any, from rather big set of external factors from which it is impossible to be fenced off completely essentially. The solution of this problem is the quantum error correction code which basis - the classical method of elimination of errors which is rather widely used in modern ADP equipment.
But the main problem which researchers had to face, that the developed code of correction has no opportunities of detection of the arisen error by a direct method, without breaking a quantum status of qubits.
Researchers bypassed this problem, using the phenomenon of quantum complexity by means of which one qubit can share information with other qubits by means of "illusive" quantum communication. The adjusting code included in structure of a quantum system measures value of a quantum status of the qubit confused with several next qubits that helps to hold its initial status invariable.
The created error correction code works due to use of a certain space arrangement of qubits which something reminds a chessboard. In white squares of this board the information qubits involved in accomplishment of quantum computing transactions are located, and in black boxes there are "measuring" qubits used for error correction, arising in adjacent information qubits.
For demonstration of technology researchers manufactured the simple device consisting of nine qubits arranged in the form of a matrix 3 on 3 elements. And work of this system, more precisely, work of the adjusting code was checked by means of 90 thousand specialized computing transactions that allowed to collect necessary quantity of statistical data.
"It served as the proof to the fact that the years spent for theoretical researches did not pass for nothing and implementation of technologies of error correction is possible" - Julian Kelly, the engineer of Google company noted.
One more achievement: researchers showed that indicators of successful elimination of errors in a quantum system increased with increase in number of qubits. For example, the level of errors at system operation with five qubits was 2.7 times less than the level of errors in a system with the only qubit. And the difference in these levels between systems with one and nine qubits made a little more than 8.5 times.
"It is fascinating news to the sphere of quantum computings. Everything indicates that systems with a large number of quantum bits can be stable and will not fail under the pressure of an avalanche of the arising errors, - Julian Kelly emphasized. - And it, in turn, means that the quantum computers operating with a large number of qubits nevertheless can be created".
The operating quantum systems
For July, 2013 even modern, still not really perfect, quantum computing systems use the huge interest of the leading world campaigns. So, the Canadian quantum D-Wave computer is used by defense company Lockheed Martin, and at the beginning of 2013 D-Wave strengthened computing powers of Google. D-Wave is not the multipurpose quantum computer, though can be used as a basis for its development. D-Wave is a 512-kubitny computer on superconducting rings Google intended for the solution of so-called problems of combinatory optimization, for example the analysis of a genome, options of turning of proteins, etc. will use D-Wave for design of the systems of the artificial intelligence capable to self-training.
Russia measured a qubit status
In June, 2013 it became known that specialists of university laboratory MISIS the first in Russia measured a qubit status in cooperation with the Russian Quantum Center (RQC). The team of researchers under the leadership of the member of scientific council of payment processing center professor Alexey Ustinov made an experiment on measurement of a status of superconducting qubit. Scientists managed to observe periodically changing qubit signal and also to measure its resonance frequency.
Superconducting qubits represent superconductor ringlets diameter several micron. In some places of ringlets there are ruptures of the nanometer sizes - they are called Josephson transitions. Superconducting ringlets cool up to very low temperature using mix of liquid helium-3 and helium-4 and place in sverkhtochno the configured weak magnetic field. As a result they purchase the quantum properties similar to properties of atomic spin.
The Russian scientists could create the experimental chip with 7 superconducting qubits placed in microwave cavities. Interaction with superconducting qubit influences a microwave radiation range that allows to judge a current status of qubit, without breaking this status, i.e. to bypass a dekogerention problem. The stablest of 7 qubits was exposed to measurements in MISIS.
In the current successful experiment specialists of payment processing center and MISIS showed a possibility of reading of a status of separate superconducting qubit in symmetric superposition 0 and 1. In the next plans the next stage: reduction of superconducting qubit in randomly the selected desirable status. For this purpose the new pulse equipment which will be installed in the payment processing center new laboratory is required.
Achievements of IBM Research
On February 28, 2012 the team of scientists of division IBM Research said achievement of progress in the direction of quantum computings that it will give to engineers the chance to get to direct work on creation of the quantum computer.
This break will allow scientists to reduce values of increase of errors of data in the course of elementary calculations, saving at the same time integrity of quantum-mechanical properties of the quantum data bits known as qubits.
According to Mark Ketchen (Mark Ketchen), the head of group of researches of physics of information of the TJ Watson center of IBM company, creation of quantum computers will exponential increase power of calculations in comparison with that that it is available to normal modern processors.
The qubit as well as normal bit can have two values: 0 or 1. The difference is that the bit should matter either 0, or 1, and the qubit can be 0, 1 or combine these data. It is said in the statement of IBM that still quantum computer is far from reality - on its creation, perhaps, from 10 to 15 years will leave. Nevertheless, progress in decrease in level of errors and preserving of integrity of quantum-mechanical properties of qubit opens ample opportunities for experiments. "We reached, at last, the fact that devices work steadily and data validation and error correction is possible. As soon as you cross this threshold, the passion increases very strongly", - Ketchen told.
On a photo: the silicon chip containing three qubits. Chip unites to input-output by coaxial conductors (scale: 8х4 mm). Source: computerworld.com
The command of IBM provided the achievements in the field of quantum computings at an annual meeting of the American Physical Community (American Physical Society) on February 28, 2012.
IBM is not lonely in the researches of quantum computings. The solution of similar tasks occupies the Californian and Yale universities. However Ketchen claims that only IBM has resources for production of chips for quantum computings.
Unlike present silicon semiconductors of IBM applies the superconducting qubits using the techniques of micron technologies developed for silicon technologies, but made on sapphire chips that allows to increase at one stroke production of qubits to thousands or millions of units.
According to Ketchen, so far IBM is possible to reach 95% of accuracy of transaction on the prototypes. Scientists want to reach accuracy over 99% so that reduction of errors in data reached a point where they can be used in calculations with an acceptable precision rate. "After the level of errors in data becomes rather small, you can integrate several locks and receive ideal qubit, - Ketchen told. – Now everything becomes clear as on the platform where it is possible to create something and to receive the correct answer. Means that now we should think more seriously of more difficult questions of calculations, their interaction".
The quantum computer based on diamond
Diamonds or diamonds – an integral part of many movies – can become now the main component of quantum computers. On April 5, 2012 the world famous magazine Nature published article of group of scientists of the different countries who managed to construct the operable quantum computer in diamond. Unlike samples of predecessors in it for the first time it was succeeded to solve a problem of unstable coherence.
As stated in article, in the form of quantum bits or qubits scientists used natural defects of a crystal grid of diamond for data coding. Unlike usual bits in modern computers qubits are capable to be not only in statuses 0 or 1, but also in superposition (in other words, at the same time in statuses 0 and 1). The last option was considered as unstable until recently, and computing elements of earlier existing prototypes of quantum computers tended to return quickly from superposition to classical statuses. Noise and errors which lead to sharp decrease in reliability of operation of such devices are a consequence of so-called unstable coherence.
In other words, the negative effect designated above needs to aim to be minimized at any cost. Use of a firm crystal (in this case diamond) as a working body of the quantum computer allowed to achieve stabler statuses of superposition. The reason lies on a surface – backs of a core is stabler, than backs of an electron by which were guided earlier. According to professor Daniel Lidar who is at the same time holding positions in USC Viterbi School of Engineering and USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, characteristic switching time of statuses is measured in cores by milliseconds, and it is a lot of. Electrons are far quicker, however it is much easier to destroy a superposition status in computing systems on their basis.
You See Also
- Quantum communication framework of digital economy
- Quantum cryptography
- Russian Quantum Center (payment processing center, Russian Quantum Center, RQC)
- Photon Integrated Circuit (PIC)
- ↑ In China the session of quantum communication at distance in 1120 kilometers took place
- ↑ Trump betting millions to lay the groundwork for quantum internet in the US
- ↑ IBM doubts a possibility of Rosatom to create the quantum computer
- ↑ the first-ever quantum teleportation Is performed
- ↑ [http://www.cnews.ru/news/top/2019-08-25_rossii_nuzhen_51_milliard_na of Russia
- ↑ 51 billion on the second quantum revolution are necessary]
- ↑ the protocol of the quantum Internet first in the history Is drafted
- ↑ Kvantoiskateli
- ↑ the road map of development of technologies of quantum information processing Is approved
- ↑ In Russia the break in creation of the 50-kubitny quantum computer is made
- ↑ Microsoft Edges Closer to Quantum Computer Based on Elusive Particle
- ↑ "Processor" for quantum computers by the size in one atom is for the first time created
- ↑ The biggest quantum computer in the history is created
- ↑ The Australian scientists are on a threshold of the quantum Internet
- ↑ There began work the first-ever not cracked satellite with quantum enciphering
- ↑ The People's Republic of China launched the first-ever satellite of quantum communication
- ↑ by Airborne demonstration of a quantum key distribution receiver payload
- ↑ to Flash Physics: Quantum cryptography for aircraft, AI boosts X-ray probe, cold nebula born in stellar collision Physics World
- ↑ Between the earth and airplane for the first time established quantum relation
- ↑ of Microsoft works on creation of the quantum computer
- ↑ In Kazan tested "quantum phone"
- ↑ [https://nplus1.ru/news/2017/05/03/eniac-domination the quantum calculator
- ↑ the Xinhua Kitaysky agency
- ↑ "overtook" the first computer of mankind]
- ↑ Scientists could transmit information through one photon
- ↑ Microsoft doubles down on quantum computing bet
- ↑ In Russia "the quantum Internet" is started
- ↑ [http://korrespondent.net/tech/science/3727001-sozdan-kompaktnyi-kvantovyi-kompuiter Nature#1
- ↑ the compact quantum computer Is created]
- ↑ Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrologyssylki: E.O. Kiktenko, A.K. Fedorov, O.V. Man’ko, and V.I. Man’ko. Multilevel superconducting circuits as two-qubit systems: Operations, state preparation, and entropic inequalities // Physical Review A 91, 042312 (2015), arXiv:1411.0157. E.O. Kiktenko, A.K. Fedorov, A.A. Strakhov, and V.I. Man’ko. Single qudit realization of the Deutsch algorithm using superconducting many-level quantum circuits // Physics Letters A 379, 1409–1413 (2015), arXiv:1503.01583. E.O. Kiktenko, A.K. Fedorov, and V.I. Man’ko. Teleportation in an indivisible quantum system // Quantum Measurements and Quantum Metrology 3, 13–19 (2016), arXiv:1512.05168..
- ↑ the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Rosatom and Fund of perspective researches signed the tripartite agreement on creation and support of joint laboratories on development and practical use of technologies of quantum computings
- ↑ Google Company begins to implement the first technologies of error correction to the area of quantum computings