Translated by
2019/06/14 19:51:43

Development of 5G networks in Russia

5G – the next stage of development of mobile technologies assuming essentially new level of service and opportunities for clients. Among the main features of the developed standard it is possible to select the highest data transfer rates (much more 1 Gbps), midget transfer lags of information (~ 1 millisecond). These advantages will allow to solve a set of the new problems imposing high requirements to reliability of connection in real time. Such technologies as the complemented and virtual realities, thanks to a 5G will be able to provide complete effect of presence and feedback coupling for the user.

Content

What is a 5G

Main article: 5G (fifth generation of mobile communication)

5G networks in the world

Main article: Development of 5G networks in the world

5G network of telecom operators of Russia

2019

In a regulatory and spectral question Russia lags behind South Korea, the USA and China

Russia in a regulatory and spectral question lags behind such countries as South Korea, the USA, China where already actively develop a 5G. On June 14, 2019 said it in MegaFon.

«
They ahead because the state beforehand cleared away the ranges, necessary for the standard. And world experience says: range of 3.4-3.8 GHz — optimal for industrial development of a 5G. At the same time it should be taken into account that the minimum size of a free band under each of operators should be not less than 100 MHz — if is less, then the product value which the technology gives falls: speeds will not be high, delays will increase. Nevertheless, we start the beginning of new testing of opportunities in the range of 25, 5-27.5 GHz for what submitted the corresponding application. However this range is not suitable for mass use of a 5G. For implementation of problems of development of digital economy and implementation of technologies 5G it is worth turning the range of 3.4-3.8 Hz into the shortest possible time in a net range — specified in MegaFon.
»

According to representatives of MegaFon, the number of devices, commercially attractive to operators, with support of a 5G will appear in the market only by 2023-2025. There are no subscriber devices supporting a 5G yet, and need of the population for a large-scale covering for the cities is still not enough, consider in the company.

«
Needs of the normal user, for example, information search on the Internet, watching video, downloading of music and the others, so far completely satisfy speeds 4G and a wide covering of network. the 5G will find bigger application in business, of course. the 5G will have significant effect on development of key spheres of city life: educations, health care, housing and public utilities. Therefore in B2B segment the standard will appear earlier, than for mass market" — added in MegaFon.
»

«
5G network, along with analitikoybolshy data and IT developments, is a basic "infrastructure innovation" for convergence and start of new products and formation of a full-fledged ecosystem of services. The forecast for growth of traffic in Moscow - increase seven times on a 5G and four times according to LTE by 2025 - says that the full-scale network of fifth generation is required in order that all innovation services were available, and branches of the economy received a power pulse to further digitalization — consider in MTS. — With respect thereto most topical issue of the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz which provides an optimal combination of the maximum covering and high access rates. It will be global as it is already distributed in a number of countries of Western Europe, in Australia and South Korea. Under it the equipment will be issued, therefore, mastering of this range in Russia will accelerate starts of 5G networks, making them available for a wide range of users. Conversion of this range is necessary.
»

MTS also noted that the company actively tests networks of fifth generation on different platforms and in cooperation with vendors. In particular, agreements regarding testing and development of a 5G are signed with Ericsson and Huawei.

In VimpelCom the issue of development of a 5G in Russia was designated as "very difficult", having added at the same time the following:

«
"There is a "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" program within which starts of a 5G should happen in the main million-plus cities in 2021. And pilot zones are implemented this year. But without the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz it will turn into "window-dressing". In the millimetric range the due level of a covering will not turn out to provide, plus medical authorities have questions on this range which require additional researches. For the range of 4.8-4.99 GHz the ecosystem will not be created to this term as the status of this range even in the countries where it was selected under networks of fifth generation is up to the end unclear (Japan, China). 3.4-3.8 GHz are a range for which the ecosystem is created internationally. Devices with support of this range are already announced by the main smartphone manufacturers and will be available to users this year.
»

At the same time In VimpelCom also agreed that IoT and a 5G are new (for June, 2019) growth points for media, retail, the financial sphere, education, medicine extracting the industries, agriculture, power and housing and public utilities and also security.

«
The reason for that — the smart cities. According to a number of forecasts, by 2025 the volume of the world market using digital opportunities on the following industries will be: ICT — $5 trillion, retail — $1.5 trillion, transport — $0.9 trillion, production — $6.4 trillion" — specified in VimpelCom.
»

In return in Tele2 (T2 Mobile LLC) noticed what until recently mobile operators and equipment manufacturers predicted that the first commercial implementations of a 5G will appear not earlier than 2020-2022.

«
Progress in standardization of technology accelerated this process. Point starts of networks already happen in the world, and analysts designate 2019 sign in development of a 5G. Global starts of a 5G, by estimates of analysts, will take place in 2020. In Russia the unresolved issue of frequency range remains the main obstacle for development of the standard, but technology Tele2 network is ready to implementation of a 5G — said in Tele2.
»

Also added to the companies that from the start in the capital of Tele2 was built by network on the equipment with support of a 5G, and at the beginning of 2019 signed the contract with Ericsson for installation of 50 thousand base stations ready to implementation of technology. According to representatives of the company, the technology 5G will become a basis for transition to the next stage of digital economy, emergence of new services, will change the principles of work of government institutions and organizations and will become an important element of the systems of security of citizens.

As for the sphere of use of a 5G in Russia, according to representatives of Tele2, they are various, and in process of development of technology there will be new scenarios, especially those that require very high speeds and low transfer lag of a signal. First of all, it is industrial automation, pilotless control of transport, remote medicine, virtual and augmented reality.[1]

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications lowers to operators a payment for a 5G frequency by 112 billion rubles

At the beginning of June, 2019 provided to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications a technique according to which operators will be able to pay for a 5G frequency much less, than it was expected.

Department supported the offer of Federal Antimonopoly Service to enter decreasing coefficients using which the cost of a range will be reduced from 112.4 to 1.3 billion rubles a year. For comparison, frequencies of LTE cost approximately 25 billion rubles, estimate at Tele2.

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications suggests to lower an annual payment for a frequency spectrum for communication of fifth generation
The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications suggests to lower an annual payment for a frequency spectrum for communication of fifth generation

The representative of the Union of LTE (integrates the largest telecom operators) pointed to Vedomosti that if not to change a calculation procedure, then the payment for a 5G range for each operator will be twice higher, than all market pays now.

The cost of a range depends on width frequency range. For 4G of its width is equal, about, 20 MHz, a 5G — from 40 to 100 MHz in range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, and in 25–29 GHz – 400 MHz and above.

5G networks need more broad bands, than to networks of the previous generation, the CEO "A management spectrum" Igor Guryanov explains: "It is physics – the channel is wider, the speed of the certain subscriber and the general capacity of all network is more". An essence of communication of fifth generation that the equipment is capable to transfer at the same time information unit on wider "bunch" of frequencies to a large number of subscribers at once, Guryanov says

As the head of VimpelCom Vasyl Latsanich in an interview of TASS on the sidelines of the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) reported, the cost of construction of 5G networks in Russia will be transcendental for operators if for these purposes perspective frequencies are not selected

Suitable for networks of fifth generation of frequency in the world 3.4-3.8 GHz, however to select them in Russia still difficult because of disagreements reckon as only with security officers.[2]

SCRF made the decision on range extension of frequencies for testing of 5G networks

On June 5, 2019 it became known that the State Radio Frequency Commission (SCRF) made the decision on range extension of frequencies for testing of communication networks of a 5G. Reported about it in TASS with reference to the information provided to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation. As it is specified, SCRF increased upper range for tests of a 5G from 25.25-27.5 GHz to 25.25-29.5 GHz. At the same time the lower range of 4.8-4.99 GHz which is also intended for tests was left without changes.

Also SCRF defined two more zones for carrying out researches of opportunities of a 5G — sport center Luzhniki and the Moscow City business center. Earlier, according to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, already entered into number of such bases: the innovation center "Skolkovo", VDNH, Tverskaya Street, Sparrow Hills, Gorky Park and Zaryadye park.

«
At a meeting of SCRF the decision on broad banding of frequencies, the communication of fifth generation (5G) which is earlier selected under testing of technologies is made, and two additional pilot zones in Moscow are defined. Members of the commission voted for these solutions unanimously — reported in the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications according to the results of commission session.[3]
»

Moscow will start four experimental platforms 5G

On May 31, 2019 it became known of the statement of the Mayor Moscow Sergey Sobyanin that until the end of 2019 in the city four experimental platforms on implementation will be started mobile communication fifth generation. Also capital city's mayor suggested to give To Moscow additional legal opportunities for creation of disruptive solutions in information technology field and artificial intelligence.

For deployment of the Russian 5G networks it is going to select the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz. Operators who work in this range are supposed to offset loss of a frequency resource. But neither the mechanism, nor the amount of compensation is even defined approximately[4] yet[5].

The main statyamoskva - the Smart city. Information technologies in Moscow

Withdrawal of FAS on the draft of the concept of development in Russia communications of a 5G developed the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications

On May 23, 2019 it became known that Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS) prepared a response on the draft of the concept of development in Russia communications 5G developed Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications. FAS criticized the basic scenario of the project assuming creation of the uniform infrastructure operator in the form of the consortium controlling all frequency resource selected with the state under a 5G.

According to Kommersant, FULL FACE considered that creation of uniform operator 5G who, according to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, is the least expensive option of development of a 5G creates risks for the state, business and consumers. Antimonopoly department does not arrange that the uniform operator will turn into the actual monopolist and will be able to overstate the prices of admission to networks of the third-party companies. Also there will be problems with use for a 5G of the existing 4G networks of operators which will not be included into consortium, and it can lead to stagnation of the industry. Besides, during creation of the uniform operator the state will not be able to earn from distribution of frequencies in the range of 3.5 GHz through auctions.

Suggested to change FAS the concept of creation of consortium: frequencies should be selected not to joint legal entity, but each operator separately.

The joint venture for development of a 5G was already created by Rostelecom and MegaFon. It is planned that this joint venture will be able to test a 5G in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz again after tests of 2018 which were not prolonged without the consent of the Ministry of Defence.

FAS supports operators in their aspiration to receive the frequency of 3.4-3.8 GHz: this band is already defined for development of a 5G "practically in the world scale". At the same time with a band of 4.8 GHz which the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications considers one of priority FAS expects difficulties: because of restrictions from the countries work of a 5G on border of Russia and on 200–300 km deep into from it can become NATO impossible.

Rostelecom considers that in a response FAS is a contradiction. In Tele2 supported the concept of the infrastructure operator.

«
The position of FAS is logical, important and this time as with 3G and 4G to be convinced of a case that none of federal[6] will be left[7] in the basket[8].

Konstantin Ankilov, head of TMT Consulting
»

Organization of a pilot zone of a communication network of fifth generation

On May 20, 2019 it became known that at the end of 2019 in Russia the pilot zone of network communications of fifth generation can be organized, for this purpose the State commission on radio frequencies (SCRF) will have to permit to use priority frequency band of 3.4-3.8 GHz. It follows from the draft of the concept of creation and development 5G Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications.

Applications for the organization of pilot zones 5G were submitted by MegaFon, VimpelCom, MTS, Rostelecom and Tele2.

Evgeny Novikov reported:

«
If before in pilot zones it was checked, the equipment works or not, then now operators will study integration of a 5G with the operating networks, applicability of new services, to estimate economy of projects.
Evgeny Novikov, representative of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications
»

For pilot zones the ranges of 4.8-4.99 GHz and 25.25-27.5 GHz on which there is already permission of SCRF will be used; besides, operators want to use and 3.4-3.8 GHz.

In the 4th quarter 2019 of SCRF can also determine frequencies for a 5G which will be submitted afterwards for auctions, and the decision on their carrying out is expected in the first quarter 2020.

The joint venture of Rostelecom and MegaFon — "New digital solutions" will be ready to be engaged in creation of pilot zones, it is important to continue testing in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, the representative of Rostelecom considers. MegaFon confirmed interest in development of a 5G in Russia and to participation in other projects. MTS is also interested in the organization of pilot zones, including in a band of 3.4-3.8 GHz. VimpelCom calls this range "basic for development of a 5G in Russia", prepare start of several pilot zones 5G until the end of 2019 and "certainly, are interested in a frequency resource". In Tele2 wait for the decision on selection of frequency bands, at the same time technology the network of the company is ready to testing.

At the end of March, 2019 it was announced unwillingness of the Ministry of Defence to transfer to mobile operators to use of frequency in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz. The ministry gave the corresponding response on the draft of the concept of development and creation of networks of fifth generation in Russia[9].

The authorities will direct 28 billion rubles to creation in Russia of the equipment and software for a 5G networks and IoT

On April 26, 2019 it became known that Ministry of Industry and Trade developed the draft of the target networks of fifth generation Internet of Things RUSSIAN FEDERATION program "Development of Production of Industrial Output and in for 2019-2024". Within this program it is going to direct about 28 billion rubles, 16 billion rubles from the federal budget and about 12 billion rubles from non-budgetary sources, to creation in Russia the equipment and SOFTWARE for networks 5G and Internet of Things (IoT).

Among project participants Rostec, the Skolkovo institute of science and technologies and the companies, whose products appear it is included in the register domestic an equipment telecom (the newspaper specifies, in the list their several tens, but sources were called the main beneficiaries of the program "РДП.РУ", "Eltex", NPP Poligon, NPF Mikran and "T8").

At the first stage, in 2019-2021, the companies should perform a complex of research and development, and on the second, in 2022-2024, - to arrange production of these products and its use on networks of the Russian and foreign mobile operators.

It is supposed to adjust release and implementation micro and macrobasic, switches for different types of networks, the systems of investigation and search operations (SISO) and other network equipment, but also, modules 5G for smartphones and other user devices, SIM cards of standards USIM/SIM, the digital IoT platforms and the software for monitoring of 5G networks and management of them.

As one of the priority directions of research works in the draft of the program appears "development of the Russian algorithms of security on 5G networks". This work assumes a research of characteristics of algorithms of security, development of offers on their implementation in network functions, base stations and a transport network of a 5G, including in sim cards and mobile devices of subscribers. It is separately emphasized that domestic algorithms of formation of keys, authentications, cryptography and control of integrity of messages will have to provide the necessary level of firmness, i.e. to resist to cryptoanalysis.

The project, in addition, provides subsidizing of equipment manufacturing for mobile operators from Russia and the countries of EEU and selection of subsidies for its purchase to the foreign companies. Minpromtorg calculates that by 2022 the share of the domestic equipment in the Russian 5G networks and IoT will make 16.1%, to the 2024th-18.7%. The same year deliveries to export will begin, and for 2024 from volume should make more than 2 billion rubles (the corresponding amount is provided in quality of subsidies to foreign buyers). Priority foreign markets are called Yerevan, Tashkent and Astana.

Authors of the project write that deployment of 5G networks in Russia will begin in 2022 and will take not less than ten years. The general estimated market capacity of the equipment and the software for 5G networks and IoT till 2030 is estimated more than at 300 billion rubles.

Let's remind, at the beginning of April the concept of development of IoT in Russia was approved by the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications. She assumes creation of the Register of identifiers of Internet of Things which will provide uniform identification of users of data of networks and, in fact, will create the closed IoT network in the territory of the country. Also the four-level model of work of networks of Internet of Things is stated in the concept. As for deployment of 5G networks, the Deputy Prime Minister Maxim Akimov said to the president Vladimir Putin that about 650 billion rubles will be spent for these purposes. He added that he would not like that the most part of this amount left "to foreign vendors - equipment suppliers, it is the so-called big three of an oligopoly: Cisco, Huawei and Nokia"[10].

The Deputy Prime Minister Akimov suggested Putin to complicate the admission of Cisco, Huawei and Nokia to construction of a 5G in Russia

On April 19, 2019 the president Russia Vladimir Putin discussed Maxim Akimov the course of implementation of a number of national projects with the Deputy Prime Minister. Among other it was talked of creation in the country of modern infrastructure for development of mobile communication of fifth generation (5G).

The Deputy Prime Minister Akimov suggested Putin to complicate Cisco, Huawei and Nokia admission to construction of a 5G in Russia
The Deputy Prime Minister Akimov suggested Putin to complicate Cisco, Huawei and Nokia admission to construction of a 5G in Russia

According to the Deputy Prime Minister, in Russia the good high-speed Internet and good positions in the world on this indicator, but it would not be if work on clearing of a frequency range was not carried out.

«
Difficult situation. We have a range which we, of course, can provide, but it will lead, so to say, to the market monopolization. And upper range is 3.4-3.8 gigahertzes – is in the basic in use for special tasks. The relevant decisions are necessary, of course, for activation of this work, we on the party of the Government will coordinate. But also would ask your corresponding instructions and an opportunity to report periodically on this matter within the report on the national project on the Council for implementation of national projects headed by you. It would be strong support to this project, - Akimov told.
»

According to him, the 5G is a huge market. About 650 billion rubles will be spent for creation of a communication network of the next generation by the companies.

«
We would not want that all this money (or their considerable part) was given to foreign vendors – equipment suppliers, it is the so-called big three of an oligopoly: Cisco, Huawei and Nokia. We have good backlogs. And I in Novosibirsk held a meeting. This question was brought up also at your meetings with Business Russia. We have good backlogs on telecommunication equipment on fifth generation. It is important to note that there a considerable part of costs are not actually the equipment, and a program code, and we are very strong here, - the official explained.
»

He considers that there will be strong pressure since the foreign companies have good positions in Russia. Competitive struggle therefore rules of localization during creation of communication networks of fifth generation should be happy with tough is necessary, Akimov believes.

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications develops requirements to mobile devices with support of a 5G

The Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation announced the beginning of preparation of "rules of use of exchange service stations of networks of mobile radio telephone communication of standard 5G of NR technology". The document is published on April 12, 2019 on the Federal portal of projects of regulatory legal acts.

In the description of a problem it is specified that in case of use on a single network of telecommunication of the Russian Federation "exchange service stations of networks of mobile radio telephone communication of standard 5G of NR technology there are significant risks of violation of steady functioning connected with mismatch of parameters of this equipment to necessary mandatory requirements". At the same time the formalized requirements for such equipment — i.e., for devices with support of a 5G — the Russian legislation does not contain. As it is offered to correct.

IMT2020/5G is the fifth generation of mobile communication acting on the basis of standards of the telecommunications following the existing standards 4G/IMT-Advanced.

Technologies 5G are designed to provide higher capacity in comparison with technologies 4G that will allow to provide big availability of broadband mobile communication, use of the device-to-device modes (it is about direct connection between devices) and also a smaller delay time.

Standard 5G also assumes the speed of the Internet of 1-2 Gbps and smaller power consumption of batteries, than at the 4G-equipment.

Implementation of a 5G in the territory of the Russian Federation is complicated by that circumstance that those frequencies in which it is going to develop networks of fifth generation (3.4-3.8 GHz) are engaged in Russia by military. At the end of March it became known that the Ministry of Defence considers premature to transfer to mobile operators these frequencies.[11] One of the reasons consists that in this range satellite communication of the Defense Ministry works.

It became known is later, however, that the Russian President Vladimir Putin charged to the Security council to handle an issue of use of above-mentioned frequencies for networks of fifth generation to find option which will suit all parties.

«
Deployment of communication networks of fifth generation in the territory of Russia is inevitable — Dmitry Gvozdev, the CEO of Information Technologies of the Future company considers. — And actually, it already began — start of test zones and also creation of consortium which will act as the uniform infrastructure operator for networks of fifth generation is planned for the end of 2019. In the last decade the Russian Federation appeared among leaders in development of communication networks. Now, considering rapid deployment of a 5G in other countries, preserving of competitiveness will demand the fastest implementation of communication of fifth generation in all territory of the Russian Federation.
»

It is possible to study the draft of the regulatory legal act "Rules of Use of Exchange Service Stations of Networks of Mobile Radio Telephone Communication of Standard 5G of NR Technology" here.

What ranges in Russia will be used for a 5G

On April 15, 2019 it became known that the group consisting of representatives of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, Roskomnadzor, the Ministry of Defence, the FSO (Federal Guard Service), Roskosmos state corporations and public industries "Research Institute of Radio" (RIR) determined the frequency ranges available to use by cellular networks of the future, fifth generation of cellular communication (5G).

870-880 MHz, 4.4-4.435 GHz, 4.79-4.8 GHz, 4.99-5 GHz, 5.57-5.65 GHz, 5.65-5.67 GHz, 6.425-7.025 GHz, 7.075-7.1 GHz, 10.4-10.6 GHz and 14.5-15.35 GHz were recognized such ranges. Materials of the working group were transferred to State Radio Frequency Commission (GRKCh) which is going to make the decision on use of frequencies for 5G networks.

SCRF concerning the ranges of 4.79-5 GHz and 27.1-27.5 GHz recognized existence of restriction of possible number using and telecom operators. It means that frequencies in these ranges will be distributed at biddings (tender or an auction).

Concerning other above-mentioned frequency ranges and also the ranges of 24.25-27.1 GHz and 27.5-29.5 GHz, SCRF charged to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications to handle an issue of possible selection of frequencies in them for 5G networks.

5G networks, first of all, will be under construction in the large cities. In terms of the capacity of network and a covering the most perspective frequency ranges for work in the large cities are ranges from 1 GHz to 5 GHz.

Follows from the designated solutions of the working group "Express Audit of RChS 5G" and SCRF that in Russia 5G networks will be under construction, first of all, in specific sites of the range of 4.4-5 GHz.

Meanwhile, the most perspective for a 5G other range-3.4-3.8 GHz are considered. As the head of frequency department of GSM International Association Brett Tarnuttser explained, the range of 4.4-5 GHz is considered for use in China and Japan, but it has no such support, as at the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz.

Distribution of frequencies in the range of 3.4-4.2 GHz between different services. Photo source: CNews.ru
Distribution of frequencies in the range of 3.4-4.2 GHz between different services. Photo source: CNews.ru
«
It is important to note that the equipment for broadband access in a 5G will work in wide service band of 3.3-3.8 GHz. It will promote development of an ecosystem of the equipment for this range, increasing economy at a scale for equipment manufacturers and creating favorable conditions for a fast output of available devices to the market. Russia will not be able to take this advantage if does not consider the possibility of use at least of a part of this range for a 5G.
Brett Tarnuttser, head of frequency department of GSM International Association
»

It was expected, as in Russia 5G networks will be under construction in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz. In 2017 SCRF selected to MegaFon of frequency in this range in the territory of 11 cities hosting the FIFA World Cup in 2018 (MegaFon was subcontractor of superiority).

Frequencies in the range of 3.4-3.6 GHz also the Freshtel group rendering WiMAX standard data services owns. Since 2015 Freshtel is under control of Rostelecom. At the end of 2017 SCRF also selected to the companies of the Freshtel group of frequency in this range in a number of the cities for testing of a 5G.

However, now SCRF is only going to take into consideration the report of NIIR on use of the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz for construction of 5G networks. In the report it is said that, unlike the previous generations of cellular communication, the problem of clearing of the range of 3.4 - 3.8 GHz under a 5G will not manage to be solved only by imposition of restrictions on electromagnetic compatibility (EMS) for different categories of radio-electronic means (distribution zone).


For April, 2019 in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz the radio-electronic means of communication relating to networks of the fixed wireless access (FWA), radio-link communication (RRS), radar-location (radar station) and the fixed satellite communication (FSC) work.

FBD networks work in the range of 3.4-3.6 GHz. The systems of the fixed wireless telephony created since the end of the 1990th years (Wirelles Local Loop, WLL) and more modern systems of broadband wireless access in the Internet (FBWA, Fixed Broadband Wireless Access) belong to them. The mobile networks of the WiMAX standard started at the end of the 2000th years belong to their number (formally they are carried in Russia to the fixed service).


For radio relay stations in Russia the range of 3.4-3.9 GHz was originally selected. But in 2009 SCRF recognized inexpedient further development of RRS in this range, having permitted only support of the existing networks. At the same time the commission permitted to use RRS in the shifted range - 3.6-4.2 GHz - in the simplified mode without execution of separate decisions of SCRF.


The means of air defense (air defense) using the range of 3.2 - 3.8 GHz belong to networks of a radar-location, in particular. Military space forces of Russia (VIDEOCONFERENCING) have about 1 thousand distribution zone of air defense from which 600 are land, and 400 onboard.

The Russian Satellite Communications Company uses frequencies in the range of 3.4-3.45 GHz only for transfer of control signals to satellite devices. At the same time, the range of 3.45-3.8 GHz are used by 61 trunks on eight satellites of the Russian Satellite Communications Company, including for distribution of federal television channels. Other part of S-range which is not going to be applied in a 5G - 3.8-4.2 GHz - is almost completely used by separate satellites of the Russian Satellite Communications Company.

Among special consumers there are satellite communication systems in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz — the Ministry of Defence and the FSO. The Defense Ministry has three own Lightning satellites and also uses civil satellite groupings (Rainbow, Yamal, Express) working in this range.

Besides, in the range of 3.4-3.45 GHz the command measurement stations (CMS) intended for control of satellite devices and being a part of the separate command and measuring complex (SCMC) work for the Ministry of Defence. In turn, such complex is a part of the main parts of control of spacecrafts (NAC) Glavnogo of the test center of tests and managements of space means of G.S. Titov.


In addition to the designated satellite systems, in the range of 3.4-3.9 GHz the Single System of Satellite Communication (SSSC) also works. It is used by the Ministry of Defence and the FSO for accomplishment of different tasks in conditions when use of other means of communication becomes inefficient or impossible. Including it is about providing to the highest figures of the state of access to different special information resources, obtaining confidential information and the organization of telecommunication communication. In the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz of the FSO uses the different types of the distribution zone of satellite communication placed both on stationary objects and as a part of transport complexes[12].

The Ministry of Defence is not ready to transfer the frequencies, necessary for a 5G

The Ministry of Defence considers that early to transfer to use to mobile operators of frequency for deployment of communication of a 5G (range of 3.4-3.8 GHz), it became known on March 29, 2019.

The Ministry of Defence asks not to hurry to use the ranges which are not mentioned in the previous decision of State commission on radio frequencies: 4.8-4.99 and 27.1-27.5 GHz.

At the same time specialists of telecom industry specify that if the 5G network is not received by frequencies of the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, the 5G in Russia will be a 5G only by the name, but not on real characteristics of networks.

The president's press secretary Rfdmitry Peskov refused to comment on a withdrawal of the Ministry of Defence about the concept of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications on a 5G, having said that the final decision on this subject will be made, "of course, at the level of the government" as it is not a prerogative of the head of state.

The concept which the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications sent to the Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Defence, Minpromtorg, FSB and the FSO, assumes creation of the uniform infrastructure operator for development of a 5G in Russia in the form of consortium which will integrate operators of mobile and fixed connection and also equipment suppliers. He will be a holder of a radio frequency spectrum and will not be able to assign the rights to use frequencies to other legal person.

In the concept the cost of a scope of a 5G of million-plus cities in the presence of the uniform operator is estimated at 56 billion rubles, Moscow - in 16 billion.

Market participants noted that creation of the uniform infrastructure operator can be reasonable and attractive only if it facilitates negotiations on release of the frequencies, necessary for a 5G.

At the same time, according to the passport of the national project "Digital Economy" published on the website of the government, RF spectrums for creation of 5G networks in Russia should be defined till September 30, 2019, and the concept of creation and development of 5G networks is approved till March 31, 2019. The plan for release of radio frequencies for implementation of a 5G is supposed to be approved until the end of 2020. In 2022 networks of fifth generation should be started at least in 10 million-plus cities[13].

Losses of economy from creation of uniform operator 5G can be up to 250 billion rubles.

On February 18, 2019 it became known that operators can invest in development of a 5G in Russia 360–480 billion rubles in five years – when preserving the competition with each other. During creation of the uniform operator of infrastructure of a 5G according to the scenario of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, investment can decrease by 161–214 billion rubles, experts of Institute of the analysis of the enterprises and the markets of NIU "Higher School of Economics" (HSE) estimated.

Professor of the HSE Svetlana Avdasheva explained that calculations in a research are based on the world forecasts of economic effect of implementation of a 5G extrapolated to Russia and also growth of traffic on networks of the previous generations (3G and LTE). The uniform operator as the monopolist, most likely, will begin to implement a 5G for 1-2 years later, than it would be made by rival operators, at the same time growth rates of traffic at the uniform operator will be 1.5-2 times lower. Other losses of economy in five years can be from 20 billion to 250 billion rubles, the HSE warns: it is the half-received service fee which operators and their partners (for example, telemedicine services, services on control of smart cars and so forth) will not be able to render.

Avdasheva considers that the Russian operators can avoid losses and reduce costs on development of infrastructure of a 5G due to sharing of independent infrastructure facilities.

Before the deputy minister of digital development, communication and mass communications Oleg Ivanov explained need of creation of the uniform operator, in particular, with deficit of the frequencies, necessary for a 5G: can not be enough for their all operators.

Creation of the uniform operator is opposed by the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS). According to the head of department of regulation of communication and information technologies of FAS Elena Zayeva, "it is the worst option from offered".

According to Mtsaleksey Merkutov's representative, loss for consumers, the industries and economies exceed benefits from creation of the uniform infrastructure operator. VimpelCom considers that the uniform operator – not the most optimal variant of deployment of 5G networks as does not meet market demands as regarding security. More justified scenario - creation of consortium for sharing of frequencies.

At the same time Tele2 supports creation of the uniform infrastructure operator. Cooperation of several players is considered the most profitable option and in MegaFon. The operator created the joint venture with Rostelecom for development of 5G networks[14]

The state will foot the bill on clearing of frequencies for a 5G networks

At the end of January, 2019 it became known that the state will foot the bill on clearing (conversion) of frequencies for deployment of networks of fifth generation (5G). Journalists were reported about it by the Deputy Prime Minister on digital economikemaksy Akimov after a round table "About perspectives of creation and development of communication networks of a 5G in Russia".

«
In the budget means are already planned. We specify exact assessment now, but it is about tens of billions of rubles on clearing of a frequency range. It is that task which we will finance. And development of a 5G — of course, a problem which will be solved by operators — the Vedomosti newspaper quotes Akimov.
»

The state will pay clearing of frequencies for a 5G
The state will pay clearing of frequencies for a 5G

The most attractive to a 5G is the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, however it is occupied by other users, including military and space, and its release is necessary.[15]

The "LTE union" integrating MTS, VimpelCom, MegaFon and Tele2 estimated expenses on clearing of frequencies for a 5G at 11.8-16 billion rubles by 2022. By the beginning of the 2019th this assessment became outdated, and clearing can be several times more expensive, the Deputy Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications Oleg Ivanov told journalists, having added what the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications already began negotiations with owners of frequencies.

According to Maxim Akimov, the first projects of commercial operation of 5G network can appear in Russia by 2021.

The Minister of Communications Konstantin Noskov says that by the end of January, 2019 only small frequency range — 190 MHz whereas normal work requires about 200 MHz for each operator is free.

MegaFon considers the most profitable scenario of deployment of a 5G networks cooperation of several players. The representative of VimpelCom Anna Aybasheva says that joint deployment of a 5G by operators in this or that form of business will be perspective only in the conditions of preserving of the competition and reliable network functioning.

2018

Operators of "Big Four" agreed about creation in Russia of uniform operator 5G

On December 25, 2018 it became known that the Russian cellular operators VimpelCom, MTS, MegaFon and Tele2 after a series of negotiations came to the preliminary arrangement on joint development in the country of cellular networks of fifth generation (5G). The agreement provides delicious of efforts of all four companies including creation of the new uniform telecom operator.

Achievement of the arrangement between telecom operators was announced by the deputy head Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications Oleg Ivanov after the meeting with representatives of the companies. On last action, according to the agency RIA Novosti, the concept of development of cellular networks 5G developed by specialists FEDERAL STATE UNITARY ENTERPRISE OF NIIR (Radio research institute) was considered. It means creation of the uniform telecom operator too as an optimal variant of development as if each of representatives of Big Four wants to build own 5G network, then selected on Russia frequencies with all can not be enough.

The State Radio Frequency Commission (GRKCh) takes active part in development of cellular networks of the next generation. On the commission session which took place on December 24, 2018 the decision on selection of separate radio frequency bands for implementation of so-called "pilot" zones of 5G networks was made. Frequencies were selected in the ranges of 4800-4990 MHz and 27.1-27.5 GHz to the unlimited group of people. According to Oleg Ivanov, the solution GRKCh to select frequencies to unlimited group of people is important. It is some kind of reserve option in case operators of Big Four will not manage to come to the final agreement, and everyone as a result will decide to build the 5G network.

Oleg Ivanov does not exclude that in the future the number of ranges for the Russian 5G networks will increase, but does not call exact terms. In the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications the separate working group which main objective will be a search of the frequency ranges potentially possible to release will be created.

Representatives of Big Four in general accepted the offer on creation of the uniform cellular operator. The representative of MTS reported about it, having added that all parties came to the decision on consideration of a possibility of release of frequencies in the range of 3400-3800 MHz.

The concept of NIIR includes not only the idea on creation of the uniform operator, but also, including, estimation of cost of investments in a 5G infrastructure in country scales. In the document both options of succession of events – both foundation of uniform operator 5G, and construction of own networks of the next generation by each of representatives of Big Four separately are considered.

The second option provides total capital and operating expenses in the amount of 163 billion rubles and 39 billion rubles respectively, besides for each of four operators. At the same time, if operators finally decide to combine efforts, then their total costs will make already 73 billion rubles and 17 billion rubles (capital and operational respectively).[16]

SCRF will consider a question of selection of frequencies for testing of 5G networks

On December 24, 2018 it became known that the State Radio Frequency Commission (SCRF) intends to consider at the next meeting a question of selection of frequencies for testing of networks of fifth generation of cellular communication (5G). It follows from materials of the commission, available to CNews.

SCRF was going to consider a question of selection of frequencies for testing of a 5G on the meeting at the beginning of December, 2018. Then it was going to select to state enterprise "Research Institute of Radio" (RIR) of frequency in the ranges of 3.4 - 4.2 GHz, 4.4 - 4, 99 GHz and 24.25 - 29.5 GHz for testing of a 5G, joint with telecom operators.

Then it was supposed that frequencies in the same ranges will be selected to mobile operators which already have frequencies in the ranges of 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 450 MHz. It is VimpelCom, MTS, MegaFon, Tele2 and a number of regional operators.

The decision at last meeting was not made. This time the commission is going to select frequencies in the same ranges – 3.4 - 4.2 GHz, 4.4 - 4.99 GHz and 25.25 - 29.5 GHz - to the indefinite group of people for testing of a 5G. Testings will be held in certain territories.

Follows from materials of the commission that testing will be held in total in the territory of 17 regions. Including in Moscow and the Moscow region, St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region for testing it is going to select the range of 27.1 - 27.5 GHz.

Also in Moscow in the range of 3.4 - 3.6 GHz "Moscow City" and office Comcity park is going to select frequencies in territories of Expocentre (there are offices of Rostelecom and Tele2).

All other expected selections concern three ranges at once: 3.4 - 4.2 GHz, 4.4 - 4.99 GHz and 25.25 - 29.5 GHz. Including in Moscow it is going to select frequencies in subway and in the following territories: VDNH office MGTS in Petrovsky Boulevard, the building MTUCI around the Aviamotornaya subway, Zelenograd the plant "Mikron", the district Troitsk, the park Zaryadye Skolkovo, The park of M. Gorky and park of arts Muzeon.

In the Moscow region frequencies are going to be selected in territories of the airports "Sheremetyevo" and "Domodedovo", Dmitrovsky district (the auto testing ground US for testing pilotless transport) and along route M11 (from 315 km on 330 km is located here).

In St. Petersburg frequencies are going to be selected in the subway, in territories of the Container terminal and office MTS on Petrogradskaya Embankment and also in Kalininsky district. In Krasnodar Krai frequencies are going to be selected for territories of Sochi Airport, Tuapse seaport and Gimnazicheskaya Street in Krasnodar.

In the Republic Tatarstan of frequency it is going to select in the cities Innopolis, Arsk and Almetyevsk. Also it is offered to select frequencies on Yamashev Street in Kazan and in the territory of the plant KAMAZ in the city Naberezhnye Chelny. In Yekaterinburg frequencies it is going to select on Mamin-Sibiryak Street.

Also frequencies are going to be selected in territories of the following cities: Kaluga, Ulyanovsk, Kaliningrad, Polyarnye Zori (Murmansk region), Tomsk (separate selection is offered to be made on the building of the Tomsk state university on Lenin Avenue), Derbent (Republic of Dagestan), Kemerovo and Mezhdurechensk (Kemerovo region).

One more place where it is going to select frequencies for testing of a 5G, the Murmansk seaport is. Besides, frequencies are going to be selected for territories of route M4 in the Voronezh and Lipetsk regions.

SCRF follows from materials that applications for selection of frequencies for testing of a 5G for December, 2018 were already submitted MegaFon, MTS and Tele2. Including MegaFon asks frequencies in the range of 27.1 - 27.5 GHz in the territory of Moscow and area, St. Petersburg and the Leningrad Region.

MTS asks frequencies in a number of territories in the ranges of 3.4 - 4," GHz, 4.4 - 4.99 GHz and 25.25 - 29.5% of GHz. On some other territories the company asks frequencies in the ranges of 4.8 - 4.99 GHz and 27.1 - 27.5 GHz. Tele2 asks frequencies in the range of 3.43 - 3.6 GHz in Moscow in territories of office center Comcity, "Moscow City" and Expocentre.

From the Russian mobile operators "MegaFon" became the first who received frequencies for testing of a 5G. In 2017 SCRF selected the companies of frequency in the ranges of 3.4 - 3.8 GHz and 25.25 - 29.5 GHz.

At the end of 2017 Rostelecom received frequencies in the range of 3.4 - 3.8 GHz in the territory of eight regions, including Moscow and area, St. Petersburg, the Leningrad Region, Tatarstan and Kaliningrad. For December, 2018 these frequencies are occupied to belonging Rostelecom WiMAX- operator Freshtel.

Then SCRF considered requests of MTS and VimpelCom for selection of frequencies for testing of a 5G, but made refusal. In the fall SCRF considered a question to issue of frequencies to VimpelCom for testing of a 5G in the ranges of 3.4 - 3.8 GHz, 4.4 - 4.5 GHz and 25.25 - 29.5 GHz in the territory of a number of regions, including Moscow and St. Petersburg. The minutes of the commission are not published. According to CNews, the request of VimpelCom was satisfied.[17]

MegaFon, Rostelecom and Rostec can create the infrastructure operator of a 5G networks

On November 20, 2018 it became known of creation in Russia of the uniform infrastructure operator for development of 5G network. The joint project of Rostelecom, MegaFon and Rostec should reduce costs on deployment of network of fifth generation, however there is a risk of restriction of the competition. Read more here.

The concept of development of 5G networks in Russia is approved

On November 7, 2018 there was information that the working group "Information Infrastructure" at the autonomous nonprofit organization (ANO) "Digital Economy" approved the concept of creation and development of networks 5G/IMT-2020 in Russia. The document submitted by the Russian Union of LTE mobile operators (LTE Union), was prepared by Spektrum Management LLC.

Earlier participants of the world market agreed that radio frequency bands in three different ranges are necessary for networks of fifth generation: it is lower than 3 GHz (for providing a wide covering), 3-6 GHz (for a covering and the capacity of network, first of all in the large cities) and it is higher than 24 GHz (in the so-called millimetric range, for high-capacity of network and a point covering). According to this scheme in Europe and many other countries for development of a 5G select frequencies in the ranges of 700 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz and 26-28 GHz. However in Russia different restrictions because of the radio-electronic means of different departments operating in them are imposed on the majority of these ranges.

As a result the concept offers up to 3 GHz in a band to select to operators channels 5-20 MHz wide, in a band of 3-6 GHz — channels 40-100 MHz, and in bands higher than 24.25 GHz — channels 200-800 MHz. For investment of 5G networks with frequencies in all three ranges authors of the concept recommend to exempt a band 694-790 MHz from networks of digital on-air television broadcasting of DVB-T2 standard (having re-planned them lower than 694 MHz, taking into account shutdown of analog TV broadcasting in 2019), and in a band of 3.4-3.8 GHz in 19 largest cities to transfer terrestrial stations of the fixed satellite communication (S-range) to the range of Ku or to display out of borders of these cities, since December 15, 2019 to stop use of radio relay stations there and also to decide on an output from this range of the distribution zone of the fixed wireless access.

In addition to separate radio frequency bands in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, the concept assumes use of RF spectrum of 4.4-4.99 GHz as Japan, China and Vietnam are going to make it. Authors of the document specify that on sections of a range of 4.4-4.5 GHz and 4.8-4.99 GHz in Russia radio relay stations, but work in districts of the large cities their use not so intensively. Section of 4.5-4.8 GHz is used for the fixed satellite communication (in the "space-Earth" direction), but too not intensively.

As for high frequencies (24.25-27.5 GHz) which have the smallest problems with employment, the concept suggests to bring in 19 largest cities of the country out of this range terrestrial stations of satellite service of a research of Earth (with creation of DPC for dissemination of data of this service in such cities), radio relay lines and networks of the fixed wireless access (also in 19 cities with the biggest population).

Now should approve the approved concept the Government commission on digital development, use of IT for improvement of quality of life and conditions of conducting business activity. It is supposed that the document to the commission will be entered the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications and ANO Tsifrovaya economika. The approval of the concept is planned for the first quarter 2019.[18]

Implementation of a 5G networks in Russia was postponed until 2021

At the beginning of September, 2018 it became known of postponement of implementation of a 5G networks in Russia. The government explained it with need of maturing of commercial demand for technology in economy.

That the authorities decided to postpone an implementation time in Russia of a 5G since 2019 until the end of the 2021st, reported the RBC edition with reference to the materials prepared for a meeting of the supervisory board of ANO Tsifrovaya economika.

The government postponed implementation of a 5G in the large cities of the Russian Federation for the end of 2021
The government postponed implementation of a 5G in the large cities of the Russian Federation for the end of 2021

Follows from documents that in the first quarter 2019 of the power are going to approve the concept of creation and development of 5G networks, and by the end of the 2019th year — to determine frequency ranges. By the end of 2020, as expected, pilot projects on implementation of networks of fifth generation in five "key industries" and also in one million-plus city will be complete.

«
My personal point of view consists that the 5G is story in which the commercial request for it should ripen. The technology already appeared, and the request for it in economy should be born — the Deputy Prime Minister Maxim Akimov said.
»

According to him, by the end 2021 the government expects commercial operation of "some significant number" of base stations which would ensure stable network functioning in the large cities. 

The head Mintsifrazvitiya Konstantin Noskov specified that for implementation of a 5G it is necessary to exempt radio frequencies from the military systems.

According to the representative of "T2 PTK of Holding" (Tele2 brand) of Olga Galushina, postponement it will allow operators to be prepared for implementation of new technology better.

«
Today the standard for development of a 5G is not finalized yet, it will happen only in 2019. An attractive consumer ecosystem — devices and services — on our representation, will appear not earlier than in three-four years — she noted in a conversation with RBC.[19]
»

The authorities of the Russian Federation can aim about 180 billion rubles at the development of 5G networks

The working group on information infrastructure at the autonomous nonprofit organization (ANO) "Digital Economy" approved the plan of stimulation of investments into development of communication networks of fifth generation (5G) at the beginning of 2018, the volume of state support of this direction in the next five years can exceed 180 billion rubles, Kommersant writes [20].

In March the developed plan should be approved at first the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation, and then a government subcommittee on digital economy.

As the operating officer of MegaFon company of Serebryanikov Anna who is the head of the working group reported, it is supposed that within the next five years expenses of operators on implementation of a 5G will make about 300 billion rubles. The volume provided in the plan state supports can be from 87.1 to 181.1 billion rubles.

Authors of the document suggest to impose the moratorium on increase in a payment of operators for use of frequencies for the state. It is supposed that in 2019-2024 it will help operators to save 6.7-9.5 billion rubles. At the same time payments of operators are offered to be accumulated in special fund and to spend only for conversion — transfer of frequencies from state structures to operators. Developers estimated effect of it at 19-24 billion rubles in all five years.

2017

As the authorities will help to build 5G networks in Russia

The draft of the actions plan of the section "Information infrastructure" of the program "Digital economy" pays considerable attention to construction of networks of fifth generation of cellular communication (5G). The program was written Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications at the request of Russia Vladimir Putin[21].

According to the plan of actions of the section "Information infrastructure" until the end of 2017 the concept of construction of data of networks should be developed and it is carried out corresponding Researches and Development (research and development), CNews writes in November, 2017.

In these documents services of 5G networks, technological solutions and requirements of the high level to creation of networks, financial and economic justification of construction of networks, the needs of economy for them and a radio-frequency resource, necessary for them, will be defined.

At the same time in the document it is already specified that 5G networks will be under construction in the ranges of 694-790 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz, 4.4-4.99 GHz, 5.9 GHz, 24.25-29.5 GHz, 30-55 GHz, 66-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz.

Further the noise stability of the selected ranges will be analyzed and the principles of creation of 5G networks with reflection of necessary density of installation of the distribution zone (radio-electronic means), emissive powers, heights of suspension, using CFL (communication fiber lines), a packet network, the existing infrastructure and other are developed.

To summer of 2018 the list will be defined and the assessment of opportunities of the domestic industry for production of telecommunication equipment for 5G networks is carried out. Requirements to network equipment and architecture of 5G network and criteria of assignment to the equipment of the status of the Russian origin will be defined. Also development of measures for production incentive of a 5G equipment in Russia is planned.

Also in the summer of 2018 it is going to select territories for the organization of pilot zones 5G. In a year job evaluation of these zones with formation of the relevant proposals will be carried out.

For deployment of 5G networks the State Radio Frequency Commission (SCRF) will have to accept changes in allocation tables of a radio frequency spectrum and the plan of perspective use of radio frequencies. Besides, the regulatory base should be changed for the purpose of removal of barriers on sharing of a frequency range, the equipment and access to objects of federal infrastructure and also virtualization of resources and structures of network.


As the authorities will help operators to build 5G networks

Among other the possibility of placement of infrastructure facilities of 5G networks on the objects other than objects of communication should be provided and also the procedure of obtaining permissions for construction of infrastructure facilities is simplified and and the procedure of obtaining permission to commissioning of base stations is simplified.

Due to the start of 5G networks practice of licensing of services which will be rendered in such networks will be changed. Changes will affect also practice of payment of a radio frequency spectrum - it will consider need of compensation of the expected growth of operating costs of operators in connection with start of 5G networks.

Regulatory changes will lead also to simplification of the procedure of examination of electromagnetic compatibility (EMS) taking into account technology features of SDN networks (software-defined network, software-defined network) and flexible radio interfaces of new generation (New Radio) and also to review of the corresponding allowing procedures on spectrum use.

Besides, allowing procedures for installation of infrastructure (siting) of a radio subsystem (smallcells and the distributed antenna systems) and a wireless transport network of a 5G/IMT-2020 (wireless backhaul) will be simplified. Nedisikriminatsionny access to sewer will be provided to infrastructure for creation of optical networks and sharing of network infrastructure of a 5G is simplified.

At the level of regulations requirements of the high level for creation of network infrastructure of a 5G taking into account virtualization of network elements and functionality SDNNFV (/), implementations of cloud computing of a radio access (Cloud RAN) and virtualization of a transport network (Virtualized Backhaul) will be implemented. Also requirements of the high level for protection of personal privacy and personal data protection in networks of mobile communication of a 5G will be defined.

When in million-plus cities 5G networks appear

In 2020 the analysis of loading of a radio frequency spectrum in above-mentioned frequency ranges will be carried out and by its results conversion is carried out. Including a transfer of certain frequencies from category "PR" (primary use by government services) in category "SI" (sharing by civil and government services), and from category "SI" in category "GR" (primary use by civil services) will be made.

Conversion will be performed at the expense of the funds allocated by operators for payment of a radio frequency spectrum. Also perspective technologies of ensuring compatibility of 5G networks with the acting users of radio frequencies will be implemented and the refarming (exchange of frequencies) is performed. Proceeding from employment of a radio frequency spectrum, the financial and economic assessment of capital costs of deployment of 5G networks will be carried out.

According to the Digital Economy program, until the end of 2022 5G networks will appear in five Russian million-plus cities. And until the end of 2024 all cities with number of inhabitants from 1 million people will be covered by 5G networks.

Operators suggest to test a 5G in the companies

In October, 2017 the Russian operators suggested to test at first networks of fifth generation (5G) in the corporate sector. The technology will become demanded among the population not earlier than 2023, consider in MegaFon.

According to Kommersant with reference to the operating officer of MegaFon Anna Serebryanikova, the number of devices, commercially attractive to operators, with support of a 5G will appear in the market only by 2023-2025. Only by the end of the first quarter 2019 in the market the first commercial 5G chipsets will be available, she considers.

Though current plans assume that 5G networks should earn in five million-plus cities by 2022, need of the population for such covering will not be by this time yet, warn in MegaFon
Though current plans assume that 5G networks should earn in five million-plus cities by 2022, need of the population for such covering will not be by this time yet, warn in MegaFon

The Digital Economy program assumes commercial start of 5G networks in "the pilot industries" by March, 2019. To the 2022nd the technology should earn in five million-plus cities.

«
We came to a conclusion that by this moment penetration in the market of the subscriber b2c devices supporting a 5G will be insufficiently, as well as needs of the population for such covering for the cities. At the same time large business can be interested in piloting of technology on the different directions. In a b2b segment of necessary devices for a 5G now is also not present, but as corporations can selectively buy them on specific programs, devices can be available to pilot projects by 2020 — Anna Serebryanikova reported.
»

VimpelCom agrees that testing of a 5G at first needs to be held in the b2b-sector, including in the market of Internet of Things.

In Tele2 among the most probable industry applications of a 5G call remote medicine, logistics and show business on the basis of augmented reality.

«
It is clear, that in addition to the mass user this network is necessary in such projects as the smart cities, smart transport, Internet of Things, smart services. But to speak about the final decisions it is still premature — told the edition in the press service of Rostelecom.[22]
»

The first tests of 5G networks on pilotless transport can be passed in Moscow in 2018

In 2018 in To Moscow the first tests of communication networks of fifth generation (5G) can take place on pilotless transport. The possibility of it was discussed within the meeting held by the Chairman Governments of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev reported on July 21 century Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

According to the Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Nikolai Nikiforov, Moscow well is suitable as one of the key cities for testing of UAVs. However the high density of placement of base stations for this purpose will be required. In particular, each 400-500 meters the new base station connected on a communication fiber line should be set, the head of department specified.

Nikolai Nikiforov also paid attention to that fact, use of standard communication networks in pilotless transport is impossible because of the low speed of passing of a signal from the base station to the car. In particular, in networks of fourth generation (4G) transfer lag of information makes about 20 milliseconds. According to him, it is necessary to use technologies of communication networks of fifth generation which have essentially other characteristics: only one millisecond of a delay of passing of information.

"In 5G networks of information it is transferred at a huge speed — to 10 Gbit per second. Can work at one square kilometer at the same time to one million devices. 5G networks also support high speed by moving objects — to 500 km/h. All this gives not only convenience of use of modern technologies, but, the most important, security for all participants of traffic" — the minister emphasized.

On July 4, 2017 the State Radio Frequency Commission issued radio frequencies for testing in communication networks of fifth generation. In particular, as Nikolai Nikiforov reminded, on bands 3400–3800 MHz and 2520–29500 MHz will be unrolled the fixed and mobile segments 5G on the FIFA World Cup of 2018.

UBS: Costs of operators for implementation of a 5G will be unreasonably high

Costs of operators for implementation of technology of fifth generation of the cellular communication using frequency over 24 GHz will be unreasonably high, Vedomosti with reference to outputs of UBS Evidence Lab and UBS bank[23] reports [24]. Analysts modelled use of networks of fifth generation in agglomeration of New York – taking into account a circuit of houses and a relief.

Now in New York 1251 base stations, for a sure covering network of fifth generation it will be necessary to add 635,639 more stations to them, i.e. to increase their quantity more than by 500 times, showed calculations of UBS. Creation of such infrastructure will not make economic sense for operators, analysts of UBS draw a conclusion and assume that operators will be limited to construction of networks of fifth generation in separate hot zones – by analogy with the zones WiFi: in densely populated and rich urban areas.

In five Russian million-plus cities the technology of fifth generation of communication should appear in 2022 – is so told in the draft of the program of digital economy of Russia which of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications introduced to the government. The question at what frequencies the new standard in Russia will develop, is not solved yet. Range of 700 MHz because of a problem of interaction of broadcasters and mobile operators is not introduced into circulation and is not used for provision of services. And the International Telecommunication Union (the ITU, approves standards of communication) offered high frequencies which were investigated by UBS for fifth generation.

Capital costs of operators of fifth generation of orders will be higher, than on the previous standards, speaks to the deputy administrator Roskomnadzor Oleg Ivanov, but does not comment on calculations of UBS. For this reason of rapid growth of infrastructure of fifth generation you should not be coming, he considers.

Also it will be required to Moscow or St. Petersburg in hundreds times more of base stations, the CEO of Telecom Dailydenis Kuskov, but without big research that he made UBS says, it is impossible to give more exact number: it is necessary to consider many factors – from number of storeys of buildings to a land relief, Kuskov says.

Density of building of Moscow and New York cannot be compared: agglomerations have porous and fragmentary structure, existence of densely built up center in New York all is compensated, for example, by the huge water area, in Moscow absolutely not so, professor of the Higher school of urbanistics of A.A. Vysokovsky Alexey Krasheninnikov argues though population density is quite comparable.

The leading expert on fifth generation of communication of Ericsson in Russia Georgy Muratov shares some concerns of analysts of UBS, but in general treats their outputs watchfully. For the analysis, he pays attention, only frequency ranges over 24 GHz where the widest are located and free from use other systems of frequency band undertake. But, as also authors of a research recognize, there is an alternative in the form of bands of lower frequencies in the ranges of 3,4-3,6, 3,6-3,8 and 5 GHz and also lower frequency ranges occupied today with analog TV and radio broadcasting and the previous generations of mobile communication which will be taken out of service.

Moving to the lower ranges will mitigate some engineering and financial problems, but there will obviously not be enough range at low frequencies for a full-fledged work of fifth generation, analysts of UBS say, and then fifth generation will not give essentially new opportunities of communication, so, will not become large technology break. Capacity of network and information transmission rate depend on width of a range and the range is lower, the it is less than opportunities of application of a broadband signal, Ivanov agrees.

Speak about specific costs early, but without low-frequency range of costs of operators will increase, the representative of MegaFon says. It should be added that fifth generation will be available as addition to the existing networks of fourth generation, and it will significantly reduce costs, he notes.

Still early to consider investments, fifth generation should appear as the standard is closer by 2019-2020, the representative says MTS Dmitry Solodovnikov. The operator does not dramatize a subject of the forthcoming investments, he continues, for example, along with a covering by means of usual base stations high data transfer rates will be provided with small cells which are easier for mounting, connecting and adapting for needs of subscribers.

Tele2 (Tele2 brand) does not expect that at the first stage of development fifth generation will become mass technology, the representative of operator Olga Galushina says: its application will be not carpet, and focused on certain scenarios and user groups – for example, accumulations of the devices of Internet of Things interacting among themselves, a management system for city transport, intelligent security systems.

5G in the Digital Economy program of Russia

In June, 2017 within the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) Nikolai Nikiforov reported that the Digital Economy of Russia program was prepared and submitted to the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. The minister noted that in the program there is an indicator which concerns directly development of communication networks of a 5G in Russia: it is supposed that by 2024 5G networks in this or that type will be developed in all cities with the population from 300 thousand inhabitants. The Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications separately noted that the state should not interfere with process of creation of infrastructure for digitalization: "We want that it were strong, independent private companies which surely feel in the Russian market which have global ambitions and which created these potential disruptive digital platforms for the work. Too most, we consider, we will happen also to the telecommunication sector. The role of the state should come down only to the general regulyatorika, training, stimulation of research and development".

The minister told about what advantages give 5G communication networks: "In conditions when on one square kilometer we have millions of attached devices, and we to it will come very quickly, and in conditions when many crucial tasks are assigned to these devices, including, for life, health and safety of our citizens — in these conditions no networks created on old technologies will cope. The feature of technology 5G consists that the network can service much more the bigger number of devices per acre and considerably reduce the number of milliseconds which pass at signal transmission from the base station to the device. In these conditions we will receive essentially new data transmission medium which will urge on further digitalization".

Nikolai Nikiforov reminded of the prompt speed of development of modern technologies, having noted that in 2012 in Russia there was no base station working in the standard of communication of fourth generation 4G/LTE yet. At the same time today in this modern standard about a quarter of all civil cellular infrastructure or about 120 thousand base stations works already. "If there were no 4G networks, then it would be difficult to imagine such consumption of video content. Or it would be difficult to provide 66 million users of smartphones and tablets which are in the Russian Federation today. All this became a basis. Without users of smartphones we hardly could imagine such accelerated transformation which happens, for example, in the market of taxi services or in the online banking market when today there are already more and more transactions, financial services it appears through mobile application of bank. There are examples of banks which have no office, but there are only 500 programmers and is already unclear, whether it is bank, whether the IT company" — the minister told.

The Voronezh scientists created antenna 5G

Scientists of the Voronezh Technical University (VTU) invented the antenna which will allow to carry out the Internet of a 5G, television and cellular communication not only to the cities and villages, but also to any place in the world: to the Polar region, a taiga, the high sea, etc.

According to Vladimir Pendyurin, the CEO of Avtomatizirovannye svyazi Ltd (the Voronezh company cooperating with VTU), mobile communication of fifth generation which will accelerate data transmission from 300 Mbit to 2-7 Gbit per second is around the world developed. The Voronezh scientists managed to create the compact device worth about 5 thousand dollars — 10 times less, than at foreign competitors — due to application of inexpensive modern techniques.

Pilot tests of a device in city conditions are now carried out, and necessary design documentation then serial production of antennas will begin is developed. To innovation the Moscow Russian Satellite Communications Company and two Asian telecommunication firms which made the decision to equip with the Russian devices cars already showed interest: devices are capable to work uninterruptedly during the movement of the machine. Mass use of technology is expected in 2020.

Let's note that in Voronezh the first-ever mobile communication appeared: developments began in 1958, and in the mid-sixties in the USSR implemented stations of Special Communications and Information Service which could be transferred from place to place[25].

Perspectives of use of different frequency ranges for 5G networks - the report J&P

Presence of required frequencies is one of the pacing necessary factors for development of such networks, along with readiness of a network architecture and infrastructure, business models and subscriber devices [26].

One of the major premises for development of 5G networks is deficit of a frequency resource necessary for ensuring acceptable quality of the services connected with mobile data transmission in the conditions of the continuing exponential growth of traffic and the future era of Internet of Things (IoT). The problem of shortage of frequencies in the lower sections of a range, including the range of 5 GHz for Wi-Fi is particularly acute. In this regard there are offers to use for 5G networks not only low frequencies (up to 6 GHz), but also high (tens of gigahertzes) which characteristics strongly differ from traditional ranges for mobile communication. Therefore for 5G networks, most likely, new network solutions, including new architectural concepts will be used.

When developing technologies of fifth generation there is a certain set of "entrance" characteristics which serve as a reference point for the new standard. For example, in comparison with the best of the existing LTE networks data transfer rate in 5G networks should be 10-100 times higher, response time – is 5 times less, networks should support in 100 times more of devices, etc.

It is supposed that consecutive transition from networks of fourth generation to the fifth will occupy more progressive tense in comparison with transition from 3G to LTE. The first 5G networks will use achievements of LTE Advanced, for example – aggregation of the licensed and not licensed ranges.

The first meeting of 3GPP on development of a 5G at which the development plan for this standard was defined took place in 2015. In particular, it is provided in this plan that the standard will develop in 2 phases, first of which, as expected the second will come to the end in 2018 (not all requirements to 5G networks will be implemented), and – in 2019.

Large-scale deployment of infrastructures of a 5G can be expected by 2020. By 2021 1.5% of cumulative mobile traffic of data will fall on services 5G, on average one connection 5G will generate 4.7 times more traffic, than connection 4G, and in 10.7 times more, than connection 3G.

According to forecasts of Ericsson, all urban areas and the largest thoroughfares in Europe will be provided to a continuous 5G coverings by 2025.

In June, 2016 consortium 3GPP announced the plan for standardization of a 5G. As expected, by the time of an exit of Release 15 in the middle of 2018 technology recommendations and standards which will form the basis of further technology developments and industrial production of infrastructure solutions and subscriber devices should be ready. The approval of standard 5G is expected in 2020 after the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) draws the positive conclusion and also after the World conference of a radio communication (WRC-19) which will take place in the fall of 2019, approves frequency ranges for a 5G.

Mass emergence of a solutions 5G will hardly take place before 2020-2022 as vendors need to optimize cost value of deliverable solutions and to provide availability of the equipment, and to operators – to decide on first-priority business challenges in area, new to them.

According to experts of Radio Spectrum Policy Group (RSPG), successful implementation of systems 5G for a number of applications will require at the same time systems 5G in a low-frequency part of a range (lower than 6 GHz) which are already approved at last World conferences of a radio communication, and in high-frequency (tens of gigahertzes), a part of which are already selected for rendering mobile services and will be considered at the forthcoming WRC-19 conference in 2019.

For development of 5G networks in Europe at the initial stage it is going to use the frequency ranges of 700 MHz, 3400-3800 MHz and 24.25-27.5 GHz. They provide a complete covering of the territory, providing provision of services of a mobile podklyuchennost, effective at the price; frequency bands (hundreds of MHz), wider in comparison with systems 3G/LTE, can be used - it will allow to receive at the same time the capacity and a covering; systems 5G will require new frequency bands in the range up to 6 GHz.

It is expected that low frequencies (for example, 3.4-3.6 GHz) and broad bands will provide a possibility of mass availability of speeds to 100 Mbit / c. This option can be applied, for example, to implementation of eMBB technology.

Low frequencies and good covering will give the extensive and well getting into premises covering that is important to achieve mass market of IoT. It concerns, first of all, the range of 700 MHz and, in less degree, 3.4-3.8 GHz. Such option 5G is intended for the solutions mMTC (massive M2M communication systems, the systems "smart city" and for smart homes / "smart buildings"). Low frequencies will also be used for providing a reliable podklyuchennost of different devices to 5G networks, for example, of cars (ranges of 700 MHz and 3.4-3.8 GHz). This option 5G can be used for industry automation, for the applications sensitive to delays, for connection of autonomous cars.

The pacing restraining factor of use of range of C-band (3.4-3.8 GHz) in the European macroregion is its rather strong fragmentirovannost. Besides, there is a set of regional (local) assignments of frequencies, in some cases a date of completion of these licenses expires not earlier than 2021.

This range is engaged in Russia with the systems of the fixed broadband access (including WiMAX technology which is almost contracted) and with rather narrow-band satellite communication systems. As experts consider, with the last "some joint coexistence can be found".

In the majority of the countries, as expected, under systems 5G continuous bands 300-400 MHz wide will be selected. It is possible to calculate what on one operator will be issued up to 100 MHz of a continuous band in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz.

Frequencies are lower than 1 GHz which provide a good covering at small costs, can be used for implementation of a number of the applications based on a 5G which are not requiring high speeds, for example, for implementation of some services in IoT segment.

High frequencies and very broad bands can be used for connection of users with high peak speeds up to 20 Gbps (in the ranges of 24.25-27.5 GHz and 37-43.5 GHz). Such speeds, for example, will be required for 3D - video with permission of UHD, work and games in a cloud, augmented reality, holographic calls, the tactile Internet and other applications.

Ranges of 24.25-29.5 and 37-43.5 GHz are the most probable ranges for global commercialization of a 5G in the field of high frequencies.

2016: Owners of failed 4G-operator "Osnova-telecom" are going to invest in projects 5G

The Aykominvest company owning Osnova Telecom 4G-operator is going to invest in the projects connected with technology 5G. The director of child structure of the enterprise – "National research institute of technologies and communication" reported about it at a conference in the middle of December, 2016 (NIITS) Alexander of Minnovas. In more detail - in the separate article.

2015: The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications orders from Scientific Research Institute Radio the draft of the concept of development of 5G networks in Russia for 6.9 million rub

Main article: The concept of development of 5G networks in Russia

At the end of June, 2015 the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation selected at tender of the contractor who will be engaged in the analysis of perspectives of development[27].

The only participant of tender - Scientific Research Institute Radio became the winner. Working costs in the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications were estimated at 6.9 million rubles. As a result of tender it did not fall. Execution of works should be complete in 90 days from the date of signing of the contract. Read more here.

2014

5G networks will be "the device - focused"

According to a number of experts which in 2014 were given[28], 5G networks will be "the device - focused", but not "a cell - focused". In other words, the concept of "cellular communication" will not be applicable any more. Cellular communication means that the network of the operator consists of cells — the base stations providing communication in a certain range. The device which is in this range creates the proceeding and descending communication channels, controlling both connection, and volume of the transferred traffic while the base station manages all cell in which there is a set of subscriber devices.

In 5G networks of the device exchange multiple information streams along with nodes of different types which problem in specific timepoint will be a service of this device.

"We consider that the architecture consisting of cells will be replaced by the architecture consisting of devices" — the engineer of Bell Laboratories (research division of Alcatel-Lucent) Federico Boccardi, one of authors of the joint work devoted to the new principles of work of networks of fifth generation explains.

Ericsson says that 5G networks represent a combination of the technologies of a radio access existing before, in that their form which they will have by 2020, with new data transmission technologies:

"Arguing on a 5G, we mean not replacement of present standards, but their addition with the new technologies satisfying the new needs for different spheres".
«
Now radio access networks consist of big (macro-) cells which provide continuity covering/mobility of subscribers, and small (micro) cells which are established in places with the greatest density of subscribers (spot jotas) and provide necessary additional capacity there — Alexey Potryakhayev, the top manager on development of an access network of VimpelCom explained to the CNews magazine.
»

The size of macrocells, generally according to Potryakhayev, is defined by the used frequency range (for low frequencies — it is more, for high — it is less). For radio networks of standards 2G/3G/4G now in Russia frequency from 800 to 2600 MHz are used. If higher frequencies, density of installation of the base stations creating macrocells are not used for 5G networks it will not be required to increase, the expert considers.

As for microcells, their quantity (installation density) is proportional to required capacity.

"As requirements to capacity grow on orders from generation to generation of mobile communication, it is possible to predict significant increase in required quantity of microcells at implementation of a 5G" — the representative of VimpelCom said.

According to the forecast of Ericsson, in the future such devices there will be around the world from 50 to 500 billion — in 10–100 times more in comparison with present number of active subscriber Internet devices. An important task of developers of standards is providing with reliable wireless connection each of them. For each device the policy of interaction with network considering the volume of transmitted data, value of an admissible delay and other parameters will be defined.

Besides, if now one base station services several hundred at the same time attached devices, then in the next years in connection with distribution of the intercomputer communications (M2M) the number of devices will repeatedly grow. And in certain cases the base station should process up to 10 thousand devices at the same time. It requires as development of new nodes which will be capable to manage networks, and upgrades of reference infrastructure.

Thus, the 5G is not the solution which will come to replacement 4G in that type as 4G replaced 3G, and 3G forced out 2G. the 5G will represent heterogeneous network. In it different technologies for service of traffic and users of different types will be used.

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications monitors development of development of a 5G

«
For today the subject of technologies of fifth generation  is a range of questions which should be investigated to create the corresponding standard"  — Alexander Ponkin, the associate director of department of infrastructure projects of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications told in 2014 to the CNews edition (since April, 2015 - the director of the same department). The Russian ministry,  according to Ponkin, watches closely  research activities in  this area ( in particular,  the METIS2020 project, initiatives of the Chinese and  European producers).
»

All activities at that time, according to Ponkin, mentioned the main requirements and  technologies for standards of the very high speed systems higher than 10 GHz up to  80 GHz. In addition, works on  new protocols for minimization of a delay in  communication networks and  ensuring the mass M2M connections were conducted.

«
The purposes of developments of technologies 5G are significant increase in data transfer rate, number  of the subscribers connected in network, repeated reduction of transfer lags of a signal"  — the representative of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications noted.
»

Several international organizations are engaged in studying of technologies of fifth generation of communication. Among them  — Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN)  which includes about 20 operators,  including Russian VimpelCom, and  about 30 equipment suppliers of communication.

«
Development of new architecture and  the new principles of signaling  — among key tasks of developers of the standard  — Alexey Potryakhayev from  VimpelCom considers.  — At  this stage  there is no reality on this subject. Among the considered innovations  — a straight line (without participation of other network elements) exchange of both  traffic, and  the service information between subscriber devices.
»

The European organization METIS2020 founded with the assistance of European Commission is engaged in determination of the basic principles of 5G networks.  About 30 partners among whom  — the largest equipment manufacturer of communication of Ericsson enter it. Also it is worth mentioning the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), one of  the oldest organizations which are taking part in  formation of standards of communication  around the world. Founded in   1865  to a vparizha, the union represents UN specialized agency and  contains in  the structure 193 states and  over 700 private organizations and  academic institutions.

The deputy CEO of Huawei,  the second in total revenue equipment supplier of communication after Ericsson, Ken Hu in   August, 2013 said that Huawei is going to start the first commercial networks of fifth generation in   2020, on condition of selection by regulators of a necessary frequency spectrum.

Questions of selection of radio frequency bands for perspective radio technologies are considered,  including,  within study groups, the International Telecommunication Union, Alexander Ponkin from  the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications reminds. So far frequency bands under technologies 5G are not defined by ITU, and terms of commercial start of networks will depend on  these solutions.  The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications waits for the first networks  about 2020, but  note that they will appear only in  the large cities.

At the same time  operators can start test operation of the first-ever 5G networks in   2018-2019, as soon as the required equipment is provided. "We hope that there will be also  Russian developers"  — Ponkin in 2014 in the comment for CNews said[28].

See Also

Notes

  1. 5G quicker than forecasts
  2. The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications will lower a payment for frequencies for a 5G by 110 billion rubles
  3. The decision on expansion of test range for a 5G is made
  4. [https://telesputnik.ru/materials/tekhnika-i-tekhnologii/news/do-kontsa-2019-goda-v-moskve-zapustyat-5g/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email In Moscow
  5. experimental platforms on implementation of a 5G will appear]
  6. [https://telesputnik.ru/materials/tekhnika-i-tekhnologii/news/fas-raskritikovala-kontseptsiyu-minkomsvyazi-po-sozdaniyu-edinogo-operatora-5g-/?utm operators source=newsletter&utm medium=email
  7. FAS
  8. CRITICIZED the CONCEPT of the MINISTRY OF TELECOM AND MASS COMMUNICATIONS of software to CREATION of UNIFORM OPERATOR 5G]
  9. to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications suggests to resume testing of a 5G in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz
  10. will direct to the Power 28 billion rubles to Russian "iron" and software for a 5G and IoT
  11. The Ministry of Defence refused to transfer to operators of frequency for a 5G
  12. the Russian 5G it is in danger: The authorities selected with it the most marginal frequencies
  13. of the Ministry of Defence is not ready to transfer the frequencies, necessary for a 5G
  14. of the HSE: Losses of economy from creation of uniform operator 5G can be up to 250 billion rub.
  15. The state will pay clearing of frequencies for a 5G
  16. "Big Four" will create uniform operator 5G in Russia
  17. Where in Russia first of all will earn a 5G. List
  18. Experts approved the concept of development of 5G networks in Russia
  19. and media/04/09/2018/5b8eb3849a7947e428e5e8e9 postponed Development of communication of a 5G in Russia until 2022
  20. the Working group on digital economy approved the plan of investments into development of a 5G
  21. the President Kak of the power will help to build 5G networks in Russia
  22. the 5G is not ready to be tested in public
  23. [https://www.vedomosti.ru/technology/articles/2017/07/21/725072-5g-setei For construction of a 5G networks
  24. it is necessary in hundreds times more of stations, than is now]
  25. the Voronezh scientists created antenna 5G
  26. J’son & Partners Consulting: Commercial perspectives of use of frequencies for 5G networks in Russia and in the world
  27. of the Tender of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications 5G networks, devoted to a 5G, on the website of state procurements
  28. 28,0 28,1 by the CNews Magazine CNews edition