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2020/05/29 12:29:53

Development of 5G networks in Russia

5G – the next stage of development of mobile technologies assuming essentially new level of service and opportunities for clients. Among the main features of the developed standard it is possible to select the highest data transfer rates (much more 1 Gbps), midget transfer lags of information (~ 1 millisecond). These advantages will allow to solve a set of the new problems imposing high requirements to reliability of connection in real time. Such technologies as the complemented and virtual realities, thanks to a 5G will be able to provide complete effect of presence and a feedback for the user.

Content

What is a 5G

Main article: 5G (fifth generation of mobile communication)

5G networks in the world

Main article: Development of 5G networks in the world

Frequencies for a 5G in Russia

Main article: Frequencies for a 5G in Russia

5G network of telecom operators of Russia

The concept of a 5G in Russia

Main article: The concept of creation and development of communication of a 5G in Russia

2020

Rostec: reducing government spending on a 5G will delay development of networks for several years

At the end of May, 2020 Rostec sent to Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications the report in which warned about risks of insufficient financing of the technology projects including connected with development of a 5G networks. The state corporation considers that in case of decrease by 50% of state support of the technology planned for 2020, mastering of networks of fifth generation can be postponed for several years.

As the representative of Rostec told Vedomosti, suggested to limit a part of items of expenditure from the national program "Digital Economy" the government. The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications reported to the edition that process of balancing of the budget of the federal project by May 29 continues. The saved means will go for support of the population and commercial enterprises in the developed epidemiological conditions and an economic situation, tells the newspaper source familiar with plans of the government.

Fifth generation of communication without money will be backward, consider in Rostec

According to materials of Rostec, in 2020 regarding creation of the equipment, including base stations, instead of 4.3 billion rubles are going to select 2.4 billion rubles for development of a 5G. So, for example, according to Vedomosti, by 2024 Rostec will be able to create not 20 thousand base stations as it is planned, and 5 thousand.

Besides, as declare in Rostec, sequestering can concern execution of road maps on quantum technologies (instead of 1.8 billion rubles it is offered to subsidize only 608 million rubles) and also Internet of Things and a blockchain (reduction twice — to 50 million rubles on everyone).

The managing partner of AC&M Consulting analytical company Mikhail Alekseev doubted expediency of development of networks of fifth generation in Russia in a situation when the problem with selection of frequencies to operators is not solved. Also not clearly, when construction of such networks can begin, he specifies.[1]

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation it intends to cut down expenses on development of 5G network

Department is going to redistribute the funds allocated for implementation of the federal draft "Information Infrastructure" of the Digital Economy national program. It is about development and implementation of the plan for conversion of frequencies for deployment of a 5G in the territory of the Russian Federation in million-plus cities, TASS reports in May, 2020. On these purposes 470 million rubles are provided.

Changes will affect item of expenditure on creations of wireless communication for socially important objects in small localities. Expenditure will make 2 billion rubles. Also it is offered to redistribute on other purposes 619 million rubles selected for connection of socially important objects to the Internet, 1 billion more rubles - regarding development and implementation of the plan of conversion of a radio frequency spectrum for a 5G and also 3.3 billion rubles of the funds allocated for providing a covering with radio telephone communication of highways of federal importance.

Sent the offers of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation to ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika and also the Russian Government Analytical Centre.

ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika considers that the actual termination in 2020 of budget development financing of 5G network will influence as development of the industry in general, and will result in impossibility of accomplishment of tasks within the national program "Digital Economy" for creation of perspective communication networks of the next generations (5G/IMT2020) which are base of information infrastructure of the country.

Chance of acceleration: why to cellular operators it is necessary to a 5G

The last two years of network 5G are successfully tested in To Europe USA, China and To South Korea. Several years in many countries LTE the advanced format which on transmission rate data approaches fifth generation works. In Russia the most widespread frequencies under which are ground all by a 5G device (these are 3.4 — 3.8 GHz) are busy for state needs, and operators them are not given. It is difficult to do forecasts in such conditions.

For operators implementation of a 5G are significant investments with not clear payback period, but they are ready to them. Actually the market is in the middle between 4G and 5G thanks to a format for a long time LTE advanced. On maximum speeds it reaches format 5G speeds. Whether subscribers are ready to pay on the whole for a 5G — more difficult question. Read more here.

The Government of the Russian Federation is ready to give a 5G frequency without tender in exchange for a share in the joint venture of operators

On April 6, 2020 it became known of the draft of the concept of creation and development of a 5G networks developed the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications. According to the document, operators will be able to receive frequencies for a 5G without biddings if they give to the state a share in the joint venture (JV) which will be engaged in their clearing.

According to Vedomosti with reference to this project, the initiative is directed to reduction of operating costs of operators and stimulation investment ̆ to activity.

Operators will be able to receive frequencies for a 5G without biddings if the share in the joint venture (JV) which will be engaged in their clearing is received by the state

Before the deputy minister of digital development, communication and mass communications Oleg Ivanov  suggested to transfer to the state "golden share" of the joint venture for control of activity of the enterprise. Later Ivanov did not exclude that SCRF can delegate to the enterprise a part of the regulatory powers.

Also, as stated in the document, the joint venture can become "the collective negotiator" with the organizations and certain users of a range of a 5G for review of options of its release. Ideally the joint venture can execute a role of the wholesale buyer of capacity at satellite operators for a band 3400-3800 MHz for its subsequent resale to individual commercial owners of the terrestrial stations of satellite communication (TSSC). At the expense of it it is possible to release the most perspective range (3.4-3.8 GHz) for construction of a 5G "without one-time negative effect on satellite operators".

Development of a 5G networks in million-plus cities is estimated at 161 billion rubles which operators of "Big Four" will have to spend. Final expenses will depend including on assigned frequencies.  If for the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz network equipment is already made by several large vendors, then for 4.4-4.99 GHz which the Russian officials see an alternative to it, the offer of network equipment is much less, market participants told Vedomosti earlier.[2]

Russia will manufacture the equipment for a 5G networks

At the beginning of February, 2020 it became known of cooperation of Globalinformservice company (GIS) and Sozvezdiye concern (enters into Rostec Group), within which joint development of the equipment for a 5G networks will be adjusted. Read more here.

2019

For a 5G selected new frequencies to accelerate start of networks worldwide

At the end of November, 2019 the World Conference of a Radio Communication (WCRC) selected for a 5G to accelerate start of networks worldwide. Read more here.

The financial support of a 5G and Internet of Things is cut down four times

On November 7, 2019 it became known what the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications published final version of the road map of "Technology of wireless communication". The document was prepared by "subsidiary" of Rostec state corporation "National Center of Informatization" (NCI) within the actions of the federal draft "Digital Technologies" of the national program "Digital Economy of Russia".

The financial support of a 5G and Internet of Things is cut down four times

The first version of this document prepared in May, 2019 assumed an astronomical cost amount on development of wireless technologies in Russia – more than 1 trillion rub for the period till 2024. Including 550 billion rubles were supposed to spend for satellite communication, 423 billion rubles on cellular communication.

In final version of the road map the total costs of implementation of the road map will make much less - 105.16 billion rubles. From this amount non-budgetary sources will select 69.16 billion rubles, the federal budget – 36 billion rubles. In addition out of instruments of support of the road map 139 more billion rubles will be selected.

The cost plan on implementation of the road map of development of wireless technologies (one billion rubles)
' ' ' Grant support of small enterprises' Support of programs of activity of LITS Support of industry solutions ' Support of development and deployment of industrial solutions' ' Support of regional projects' Support of the leading companies Providing subsidies to credit institutions ' Total on substst' Out of instruments of support All
WAN 3,2 5,3 10 3 6 4,5 8 40 82 122
Budgetary funds 2.24 2.82 5.85 2.05 3.94 2.6 0.5 20 0
extrabudgetary funds 0.96 2.48 4.15 0.95 2.06 1.9 7.5 20 82
LPWAN 0,71 1,5 4,5 6 4,5 6 7,2 30,41 26 56,41
budgetary funds 0.5 0.5 1.5 2 1.5 2 0.7 8.7 0
extrabudgetary funds 0.21 1 3 4 3 4 6.5 21.71 26
WLAN 2,86 3,6 1,5 0 1,2 0 7,2 16,6 8 24,6
budgetary funds 0.8 1.2 0.5 0 0.4 0 0.7 3.6 0
extrabudgetary funds 1.86 2.4 1 0 0.8 0 6.5 12.56 8
PAN 0 0 0 1,5 0 1,5 5,64 8,64 5 13,64
budgetary funds 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.5 0.5 1.5 0
extrabudgetary funds 0 0 0 1 0 1 5.14 7.14 5
СТС 0,71 2,4 0 0 0 1,2 5,64 9,95 18 27,95
budgetary funds 0.5 0.8 0 0 0 0.4 0.5 2.2 0
extrabudgetary funds 0.21 1.6 0 0 0 0.8 5.14 7.75 18
Total budgetary funds 6.88 8.32 2 2.5 1.9 12 2.4 36 0
Total extrabudgetary funds 4.4 11.98 4 5 3.8 16.7 23.2869.16 139
Only 11.88 19.7 6 7.5 5.7 28.7 25.68 105.16 139 244.16

So the total volume of costs for support of producers of wireless means of communication for the period till 2024 will be 244.16 billion rubles – four times less, than was planned initially.

On support measures expense allocation looks as follows. Support of the leading companies will cost 28.7 billion rubles from which non-budgetary sources will select 16.7 billion rubles, the federal budget – 12 billion rubles.

Providing subsidies credit the organizations will cost 25.68 billion rubles. The most part of this amount – 23.28 billion rubles – will select non-budgetary sources. The federal budget will add 2.4 billion rubles.

Support of programs of activity of the leading innovation centers (LIC) will demand 19.7 billion rubles. From this amount non-budgetary sources will select 11.98 billion rubles, the federal budget – 8.32 billion rubles.

Grant support of small enterprises will cost 11.88 billion rubles from which the federal budget will select 6.88 billion rubles, non-budgetary sources – 4.4 billion rubles. Support of development and deployment of industrial solutions will demand 7.5 billion rubles. From this amount non-budgetary sources will select 5 billion rubles, the federal budget – 2.5 billion rubles.

Support of industry solutions will cost 6 billion rubles. From this amount non-budgetary sources will select 4 billion rubles, the federal budget – 2 billion rubles support of regional projects will demand 5.7 billion rubles from which non-budgetary sources will select 3.8 billion rubles, the federal budget – 1.9 billion rubles.

The document separates technologies of wireless communication into five subtechnologies (substst, "subtechnologies of end-to-end digital technologies"). Cellular communication of fourth generation (4G, the LTE standard) and fifth generation (5G) belongs to WAN subtechnology (Wide Area Network).

Technologies of wireless narrow-band Internet of Things both based on cellular networks (NB-IoT), and in specific sites of the range of 800 MHz (LoRaWan, XNB, NB-Fi) belong to LPWAN subtechnology (Low Power Wide Area Network). Wi-fi technologies and its analog – Li-Fi belong to WLAN subtechnology (Wireless Local Area Network) (it is similar to Wi-Fi, but uses in link quality for information transfer light).

The technologies of automatic identification and data collection using the electromagnetic or inductive coupling performed by means of radio waves belong to PAN subtechnology (Personal Area Network). The main technology is RFID.

At last, satellite Internet of Things, satellite broadband access and satellite personal communication treat subtechnology of satellite communication networks (STS). Including it is about building of grouping of satellites on a high ellipse of Express RV covering all territories of Russia and the Arctic and also about the satellite system of Internet of Things "Marafon-IOT".

At the initial document revision there was also a subtechnology of professional mobile communication (PMR). Within the relevant activities it was supposed to make import substitution by the Russian radio stations, the American which are nowadays used by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The project was estimated at 7 billion rubles. But in the final version of the road map was decided to refuse this subtechnology though process of import substitution of a radio communication for the Ministry of Internal Affairs all the same continues.

From subtechnologies the greatest costs will be involved on 4G and 5G - 122 of billion rubles. From this amount, within the road map, the federal budget and non-budgetary sources will select 20 billion rubles. 82 more billion rubles will be directed out of instruments of support.

56.41 billion rubles will be spent for LPWAN. From this amount non-budgetary sources will spend 21.71 billion rubles, the federal budget – 8.7 billion rubles, out of instruments of support 26 more billion rubles will be directed.

27.95 billion rubles will be spent for satellite technologies of communication. From this amount non-budgetary sources will select 7.75 billion rubles, the federal budget – 2.2 billion rubles, 18 more billion rubles will be directed out of instruments of support.

24.6 billion rubles will be spent for WLAN technologies. From this amount non-budgetary sources will select 12.56 billion rubles, the federal budget – 3.6 billion rubles, out of instruments of support 8 more billion rubles will be received.

27.95 billion rubles will be spent for PAN subtechnology. From this amount of 7.75 billion rubles will spend non-budgetary sources, the federal budget – 2.2 billion rubles, 18 more billion rubles will be directed out of instruments of support[3].

Huawei intends to invest within 5 years 50 million rubles in development of a 5G in Russia

On October 8, 2019 the Huawei company announced that the vice chairman of the board of the company Ken Hou talked with the presentation about a topic accelerations of deployment of 5G networks in the countries of Eurasia. The expert also emphasized importance of training of qualified specialists and support of innovations in area 5G. He gave the training program starting in 2019 in area 5G for customers, partners and students as an example. A task of the program is training of 10,000 specialists within the next 5 years, and investments of the company into this project will make more than 50 million rubles. Read more here.

ICT.Moscow and DIT of Moscow opened free access to the uniform knowledge base of a 5G

On October 3, 2019 the Moscow Department of Information Technology (DIT) reported that together with ICT.Moscow opened free access to the uniform knowledge base of a 5G. Read more here.

The head of Rostec called terms of start of a 5G network on the Russian equipment

In the middle of September, 2019 the head of Rostec Sergey Chemezov in a conversation with RBC said that the experienced network for implementation of technology 5G in Russia can be started in one of regions in 2022-2023. And localization of production is possible only in Russia, he noted.

«
Technologies are available, we can make this equipment. Already there are practices, and I think that in 2022-23 we will be able to create experienced network in one of regions — Chemezov reported.
»

According to him, separate modules or component parts should be manufactured completely in Russia as differently the country will depend completely on external producer. At the same time negotiations on technologies 5G with other countries, but with the compulsory provision — to make component parts in the territory of Russia continue.

Head of Rostec Sergey Chemezov
«
It is clear, what it is almost impossible to agree with Europe or America now, is not enough construct there. East Asia — quite … — the head of Rostec said.
»

Rostec conducted negotiations with Huawei on creation of storage systems of Big Data, but, as a result, "safely made all", he added.

That rules of localization of production of telecommunication equipment under a 5G network should be "quite tough", also the Deputy Prime Minister Maxim Akimov said earlier. According to him, about 650 billion rubles will be spent for creation of a communication network of fifth generation by the companies, and it would be undesirable that all this money (or their considerable part) was given to foreign vendors - equipment suppliers (Cisco, Huawei, Nokia). At the same time Russia by September, 2019 does not make the equipment for a 5G — all pilots were started by operators on technologies of foreign vendors.

According to forecasts of Rostec, in the presence of state support the share of the Russian telecom equipment in domestic market will grow from present 6-8% to 15% by 2024 and to 30% — to the 2030th.[4]

The competence center of NTI based on Skoltech started the first base station within test zone 5G

On September 12, 2019 the RVC company reported that the Skolkovo institute of science and technologies started the first base station within creation of pilot zone 5G for the Russian developers of the equipment in the territory of ITs Skolkovo. Read more here.

Akimov: to a 5G it is necessary to medicine, transport and defense have more, than to Internet users

On September 9, 2019 the TASS agency published an interview with the Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Maxim Akimov. That reported that to a 5G network are necessary  to medicine, transport and defense have more, than to Internet users.

According to Akimov, the Russian government did not make enough  in order that questions of creation of 5G network were not only questions of telecommunication operators.

Maxim Akimov considers that to a 5G network are necessary to medicine, transport and defense have more, than to the people living online
«
Not I should shout that these networks are necessary and not Socks (the Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications  —  a comment of TASS), and the Minister of Health, the Minister of Transport, all those who are engaged in our protection. Because technologies which are provided with this infrastructure are technologies industry, these are industry cases in education, health care, national security, municipal economy — he said.
»

Maxim Akimov considers that mayors of the Russian cities need to demand conversion of a frequency range.  They are insufficiently strongly involved in work on development of networks of fifth generation because explained to them insufficiently and what there will be benefits from here. 

He also noted that it is necessary to conduct broader explanatory work on perspectives of use of a 5G that the wide audience did not have an impression that  "it is necessary only for the four of operators and people who want to look in points of virtual reality in the online mode with a gigabit speed", and promised to change approach to this subject cardinally.

According to the Deputy Prime Minister, for construction of 5G networks solutions of foreign producers will be used. Plans to carry out complete import substitution of the foreign equipment for creation there is no infrastructure.[5]

«
We will not begin to sacrifice stability and technical operation parameters of network - it will be solutions of world level — Akimov in an interview  TASS on fields of East economic forum reported.
»

MGTS tests whitebox switches in preparation of network for a 5G

On August 19, 2019 MGTS reported that it began with one of the first in Russia testing of the whitebox network switches providing use of the network operating systems not related to suppliers of the hardware of network whose application will allow to respond to requirements of standard 5G to speeds and volumes of data transmission without considerable costs for upgrade of network. Read more here.

Russia started development of a 5G equipment

On July 11, 2019 it became known of the beginning of development in Russia of the equipment for networks of fifth generation (5G). The Sozvezdiye concern entering into Ruselectronics holding of State Corporation Rostec was engaged in creation of such equipment. Read more here.

Rostec and Rostelecom separated areas of responsibility in development in Russia of technologies of fifth generation of mobile communication

On July 10, 2019 the company Rostec reported that with Rostelecom Government of the Russian Federation Russia communications 5G PJSC " also signed the tripartite agreement about intentions of joint development in hi-tech area "Novye pokoleniya podvizhnoy besprovodnoy ("). The agreement defines the directions of development entering an area of responsibility of each of its participants. In more detail here.

Agreement of Rostec and Government of the Russian Federation on intentions on joint development of four hi-tech areas

On July 10, 2019 the state corporation Rostec in the presence of the President RUSSIAN FEDERATION Vladimir Putin signed from Government of the Russian Federation the agreement of intent on joint development of four hi-tech areas – technologies of the distributed register, quantum sensors, the last generations narrow-band wireless communications for Internet of Things and communications of near and average ranges and also the last generations of mobile wireless communication (5G) (together with "Rostelecom"). In more detail here.

The business community will be able to approve the developments in Moscow a demo center 5G

In Moscow there will be a 5G of a demo center based on which there will take place approbation of perspective technologies and city services using the advanced standard of communication. It was said on July 4, 2019 by the deputy manager of capital Department of information technologies (DIT of Moscow) Alexander Gorbatko.

DIT of Moscow will act as the operator of a demo center. It is supposed that the laboratory will simplify to entrepreneurs access to a 5G technologies, will create local competence center, will help the companies to find and hold specialists. Read more here.

For creation of 5G networks will use technologies of virtualization

On June 19, 2019 it became known that at construction in Russia of networks of fifth generation of cellular communication (5G) reasonablly actively to use technologies of virtualization. It follows from the draft of the Concept of the construction of 5G networks prepared by state enterprise "Research Institute of Radio" (RIR).

Cloud RAN (cloud infrastructure) and Virtualized Backhaul (virtualization of a transport network) is about such technologies as NFV (virtualization of network functions), SDN (Software Defined Network, software-defined networks).

Use of these technologies will provide the following advantages: high scalability of network, flexible centralized operation by network and network resources; decrease in a capital expenditure thanks to virtual functions; improvement of power efficiency due to use of the high-performance servers centers of processing data (DPC); reduction of time of start of network services; possibility of use of the equipment of different vendors; increased security and use of cloud platforms in DPC on the operator's periphery for quality improvement of service.

The NFV technology allows to separate software (SOFTWARE) from the physical equipment and to implement functions telecommunication of the equipment on a general purpose equipment – servers. In turn, SDN is the technology allowing to separate data transmission layer functions from layer functions of management switch and the traffic transferred to them. Such approach assumes transfer from the network device of an intellectual component on a dedicated server, and, as a result, the maximum simplification and reduction in cost of network elements – switches and routers.

Virtualization of network elements of infrastructure of a 5G/IMT-2020

Cloud infrastructure of Cloud RAN is a part of a radio access network of NG-RAN which will succeed a traditional radio access network (RAN) in 5G networks. This network is based on implementation of models of the base station for 5G networks - gNB - using technology of virtualization of NVF and has several advantages. In particular, implementation of software-defined multistandard base stations of NR/E-UTRA, flexibility and scalability of virtual solutions and also placement of the equipment of base stations in DPC of high degree of reliability and security is provided.

Cloud infrastructure of Cloud RAN of a radio access network NG-RAN

Besides, uniform cloud infrastructure of Cloud RAN manages a large number of radio modules and covers the large territory of a radio covering, provides more optimal use of a frequency resource, more effective work of algorithms of compensation of noises of ICIC (Coordination of an intercellular interference), multipoint transfer of CoMP (Coordination of acceptance and transfer for service of the subscriber with several honeycombs) and Intra-RAT-hendoverov (provides preserving of communication when moving the subscriber between cells).

Concerning virtualization of a transport network (Virtualized Backhaul) It should be noted that the classical transport network of a mobile network consists of two main parts: a distribution network (Backhaul) connecting base stations with functional elements of reference network, and a backbone network (Backbone) providing high-speed links of communication between functional elements of reference network.

Base stations in 5G networks – gNB – consist of three modules: Cloud RAN led the radio modules gNB-RU, the distributed modules gNB-DU and central modules of gNB-Cu.Perekhod on architecture to selection in Backhaul network of two segments: the Fronthaul network integrating pools of the modules gNB-RU and gNB-DU and the Midhaul network integrating pools of the modules gNB-DU and gNB-CU.

The set of Fronthoul, Midhaul and Backhaul networks received the generalized name of network X-haul and can be constructed using different technologies, including fiber optic communication lines, radio relay lines satellite links of communication , Carrier Ethernet IPMPLS,/, Segment Routing, etc.

Implementation of SDN/NFV technologies in 5G network is also going to be performed for upgrade of functional assemblies of a transport network. Therefore for creation of a transport network it is possible as application of the concept of NFV, i.e. implementation of the virtualized routers and switches working on commercial and available servers (COTS) and application of the complex concept of SDN/NFV what means a different approach to the organization of network interaction (use of the controller and the SDN switches as virtualized, and is not present).

The software-defined transport network of SDN/NFV allows to separate functionality of management (Control Plane and Management Plane plane) from functionality of acceptance, processing and transfer of data packets (Data Plane plane) and also to implement functionality of management using technology of virtualization. The virtual transport network allows to increase efficiency of mechanisms of management of network transmission capacity, to centralize control algorithms network, to increase scalability of network and to provide the automated implementation of new network services and network layers of reference 5G network[6].

Agreement of MTS and Huawei on development of technologies 5G

On June 5, 2019 the Huawei company announced agreement signature with PJSC MTS about development of technologies 5G and pilot starts in Russia of communication networks of fifth generation in 2019-2020. Read more here.

Ericsson invested 1 billion rubles in opening of center 5G of innovations in Moscow

On May 21, 2019 it became known that the Ericsson company opened Center 5G of innovations in Moscow. The center is located in Ericsson headquarters in Russia (Moscow, business center "Metropolis") and integrates test laboratory, Ericsson Academy and a demo studio with the modern equipment and solutions of the company in the field of a 5G and IoT. In 2019-2021 1 billion rubles will be invested in the project in total. Read more here.

Moscow will start four experimental platforms 5G

On May 31, 2019 it became known of the statement of the Mayor Moscow Sergey Sobyanin that until the end of 2019 in the city four experimental platforms on implementation will be started mobile communication fifth generation. Also capital city's mayor suggested to give To Moscow additional legal opportunities for creation of disruptive solutions in the area information technologies and artificial intelligence.

For deployment of the Russian 5G networks it is going to select the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz. Operators who work in this range are supposed to offset loss of a frequency resource. But neither the mechanism, nor the amount of compensation is even defined approximately[7] yet[8].

Main article Moscow - Smart city. Information technologies in Moscow

Organization of a pilot zone of a communication network of fifth generation

On May 20, 2019 it became known that at the end of 2019 in Russia the pilot zone of a communication network of fifth generation can be organized, for this purpose the State commission on radio frequencies (SCRF) will have to permit to use priority frequency band of 3.4-3.8 GHz. It follows from the draft of the concept of creation and development of a 5G of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications.

Applications for the organization of pilot zones 5G were submitted by MegaFon, VimpelCom, MTS, Rostelecom and Tele2.

Evgeny Novikov reported:

«
If before in pilot zones it was checked, the equipment works or not, then now operators will study integration of a 5G with the operating networks, applicability of new services, to estimate economy of projects.
Evgeny Novikov, representative of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications
»

For pilot zones the ranges of 4.8-4.99 GHz and 25.25-27.5 GHz on which there is already permission of SCRF will be used; besides, operators want to use and 3.4-3.8 GHz.

In the 4th quarter 2019 of SCRF can also determine frequencies for a 5G which will be submitted afterwards for auctions, and the decision on their carrying out is expected in the first quarter 2020.

The joint venture of Rostelecom and MegaFon — "New digital solutions" will be ready to be engaged in creation of pilot zones, it is important to continue testing in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, the representative of Rostelecom considers. MegaFon confirmed interest in development of a 5G in Russia and to participation in other projects. MTS is also interested in the organization of pilot zones, including in a band of 3.4-3.8 GHz. VimpelCom calls this range "basic for development of a 5G in Russia", prepare start of several pilot zones 5G until the end of 2019 and "certainly, are interested in a frequency resource". In Tele2 wait for the decision on selection of frequency bands, at the same time technology the network of the company is ready to testing.

At the end of March, 2019 it was announced unwillingness of the Ministry of Defence to transfer to mobile operators to use of frequency in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz. The ministry gave the corresponding response on the draft of the concept of development and creation of networks of fifth generation in Russia[9].

The authorities will direct 28 billion rubles to creation in Russia of the equipment and software for a 5G networks and IoT

On April 26, 2019 it became known that Ministry of Industry and Trade developed the draft of the target networks of fifth generation Internet of Things RUSSIAN FEDERATION program "Development of Production of Industrial Output and in for 2019-2024". Within this program it is going to direct about 28 billion rubles, 16 billion rubles from the federal budget and about 12 billion rubles from non-budgetary sources, to creation in Russia the equipment and SOFTWARE for networks 5G and Internet of Things (IoT).

Among project participants Rostec, the Skolkovo institute of science and technologies and the companies, whose products appear it is included in the register domestic an equipment telecom (the newspaper specifies, in the list their several tens, but sources were called the main beneficiaries of the program "РДП.РУ", "Eltex", NPP Poligon, NPF Mikran and "T8").

At the first stage, in 2019-2021, the companies should perform a complex of research and development, and on the second, in 2022-2024, - to arrange production of these products and its use on networks of the Russian and foreign mobile operators.

It is supposed to adjust release and implementation micro and macrobasic, switches for different types of networks, the systems of investigation and search operations (SISO) and other network equipment, but also, modules 5G for smartphones and other user devices, SIM cards of standards USIM/SIM, the digital IoT platforms and the software for monitoring of 5G networks and management of them.

As one of the priority directions of research works in the draft of the program appears "development of the Russian algorithms of security on 5G networks". This work assumes a research of characteristics of algorithms of security, development of offers on their implementation in network functions, base stations and a transport network of a 5G, including in sim cards and mobile devices of subscribers. It is separately emphasized that domestic algorithms of formation of keys, authentications, cryptography and control of integrity of messages will have to provide the necessary level of firmness, i.e. to resist to cryptoanalysis.

The project, in addition, provides subsidizing of equipment manufacturing for mobile operators from Russia and the countries of EEU and selection of subsidies for its purchase to the foreign companies. Minpromtorg calculates that by 2022 the share of the domestic equipment in the Russian 5G networks and IoT will make 16.1%, to the 2024th-18.7%. The same year deliveries to export will begin, and for 2024 from volume should make more than 2 billion rubles (the corresponding amount is provided in quality of subsidies to foreign buyers). Priority foreign markets are called Yerevan, Tashkent and Astana.

Authors of the project write that deployment of 5G networks in Russia will begin in 2022 and will take not less than ten years. The general estimated market capacity of the equipment and the software for 5G networks and IoT till 2030 is estimated more than at 300 billion rubles.

Let's remind, at the beginning of April the concept of development of IoT in Russia was approved by the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications. She assumes creation of the Register of identifiers of Internet of Things which will provide uniform identification of users of data of networks and, in fact, will create the closed IoT network in the territory of the country. Also the four-level model of work of networks of Internet of Things is stated in the concept. As for deployment of 5G networks, the Deputy Prime Minister Maxim Akimov said to the president Vladimir Putin that about 650 billion rubles will be spent for these purposes. He added that he would not like that the most part of this amount left "to foreign vendors - equipment suppliers, it is the so-called big three of an oligopoly: Cisco, Huawei and Nokia"[10].

The Deputy Prime Minister Akimov suggested Putin to complicate the admission of Cisco, Huawei and Nokia to construction of a 5G in Russia

On April 19, 2019 the president Russia Vladimir Putin discussed Maxim Akimov the course of implementation of a number of national projects with the Deputy Prime Minister. Among other it was talked of creation in the country of modern infrastructure for development of mobile communication of fifth generation (5G).

The Deputy Prime Minister Akimov suggested Putin to complicate Cisco, Huawei and Nokia admission to construction of a 5G in Russia

According to the Deputy Prime Minister, in Russia the good high-speed Internet and good positions in the world on this indicator, but it would not be if work on clearing of a frequency range was not carried out.

«
Difficult situation. We have a range which we, of course, can provide, but it will lead, so to say, to the market monopolization. And upper range is 3.4-3.8 gigahertzes – is in the basic in use for special tasks. The relevant decisions are necessary, of course, for activation of this work, we on the party of the Government will coordinate. But also would ask your corresponding instructions and an opportunity to report periodically on this matter within the report on the national project on the Council for implementation of national projects headed by you. It would be strong support to this project, - Akimov told.
»

According to him, the 5G is a huge market. About 650 billion rubles will be spent for creation of a communication network of the next generation by the companies.

«
We would not want that all this money (or their considerable part) was given to foreign vendors – equipment suppliers, it is the so-called big three of an oligopoly: Cisco, Huawei and Nokia. We have good backlogs. And I in Novosibirsk held a meeting. This question was brought up also at your meetings with Business Russia. We have good backlogs on telecommunication equipment on fifth generation. It is important to note that there a considerable part of costs are not actually the equipment, and a program code, and we are very strong here, - the official explained.
»

He considers that there will be strong pressure since the foreign companies have good positions in Russia. Competitive struggle therefore rules of localization during creation of communication networks of fifth generation should be happy with tough is necessary, Akimov believes.

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications develops requirements to mobile devices with support of a 5G

The Ministry of Communications of the Russian Federation announced the beginning of preparation of "rules of use of exchange service stations of networks of mobile radio telephone communication of standard 5G of NR technology". The document is published on April 12, 2019 on the Federal portal of projects of regulatory legal acts.

In the description of a problem it is specified that in case of use on a single network of telecommunication of the Russian Federation "exchange service stations of networks of mobile radio telephone communication of standard 5G of NR technology there are significant risks of violation of steady functioning connected with mismatch of parameters of this equipment to necessary mandatory requirements". At the same time the formalized requirements for such equipment — i.e., for devices with support of a 5G — the Russian legislation does not contain. As it is offered to correct.

IMT2020/5G is the fifth generation of mobile communication acting on the basis of standards of the telecommunications following the existing standards 4G/IMT-Advanced.

Technologies 5G are designed to provide higher capacity in comparison with technologies 4G that will allow to provide big availability of broadband mobile communication, use of the device-to-device modes (it is about direct connection between devices) and also a smaller delay time.

Standard 5G also assumes the speed of the Internet of 1-2 Gbps and smaller power consumption of batteries, than at the 4G-equipment.

Implementation of a 5G in the territory of the Russian Federation is complicated by that circumstance that those frequencies in which it is going to develop networks of fifth generation (3.4-3.8 GHz) are engaged in Russia by military. At the end of March it became known that the Ministry of Defence considers premature to transfer to mobile operators these frequencies.[11] One of the reasons consists that in this range satellite communication of the Defense Ministry works.

It became known is later, however, that the Russian President Vladimir Putin charged to the Security council to handle an issue of use of above-mentioned frequencies for networks of fifth generation to find option which will suit all parties.

«
Deployment of communication networks of fifth generation in the territory of Russia is inevitable — Dmitry Gvozdev, the CEO of Information Technologies of the Future company considers. — And actually, it already began — start of test zones and also creation of consortium which will act as the uniform infrastructure operator for networks of fifth generation is planned for the end of 2019. In the last decade the Russian Federation appeared among leaders in development of communication networks. Now, considering rapid deployment of a 5G in other countries, preserving of competitiveness will demand the fastest implementation of communication of fifth generation in all territory of the Russian Federation.
»

It is possible to study the draft of the regulatory legal act "Rules of Use of Exchange Service Stations of Networks of Mobile Radio Telephone Communication of Standard 5G of NR Technology" here.

Losses of economy from creation of uniform operator 5G can be up to 250 billion rubles.

On February 18, 2019 it became known that operators can invest in development of a 5G in Russia 360–480 billion rubles in five years – when preserving the competition with each other. During creation of the uniform operator of infrastructure of a 5G according to the scenario of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications, investment can decrease by 161–214 billion rubles, experts of Institute of the analysis of the enterprises and the markets of NIU "Higher School of Economics" (HSE) estimated.

Professor of the HSE Svetlana Avdasheva explained that calculations in a research are based on the world forecasts of economic effect of implementation of a 5G extrapolated to Russia and also growth of traffic on networks of the previous generations (3G and LTE). The uniform operator as the monopolist, most likely, will begin to implement a 5G for 1-2 years later, than it would be made by rival operators, at the same time growth rates of traffic at the uniform operator will be 1.5-2 times lower. Other losses of economy in five years can be from 20 billion to 250 billion rubles, the HSE warns: it is the half-received service fee which operators and their partners (for example, telemedicine services, services on control of smart cars and so forth) will not be able to render.

Avdasheva considers that the Russian operators can avoid losses and reduce costs on development of infrastructure of a 5G due to sharing of independent infrastructure facilities.

Before the deputy minister of digital development, communication and mass communications Oleg Ivanov explained need of creation of the uniform operator, in particular, with deficit of the frequencies, necessary for a 5G: can not be enough for their all operators.

Creation of the uniform operator is opposed by the Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS). According to the head of department of regulation of communication and information technologies of FAS Elena Zayeva, "it is the worst option from offered".

According to the representative of MTS Alexey Merkutov, loss for consumers, the industries and economies exceed benefits from creation of the uniform infrastructure operator. VimpelCom considers that the uniform operator – not the most optimal variant of deployment of 5G networks as does not meet market demands as regarding security. More justified scenario - creation of consortium for sharing of frequencies.

At the same time Tele2 supports creation of the uniform infrastructure operator. Cooperation of several players is considered the most profitable option and in MegaFon. The operator created the joint venture with Rostelecom for development of 5G networks[12]

2018

Operators of "Big Four" agreed about creation in Russia of uniform operator 5G

On December 25, 2018 it became known that the Russian cellular operators VimpelCom, MTS, MegaFon and Tele2 after a series of negotiations came to the preliminary arrangement on joint development in the country of cellular networks of fifth generation (5G). The agreement provides delicious of efforts of all four companies including creation of the new uniform telecom operator.

Achievement of the arrangement between telecom operators was announced by the deputy head Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications Oleg Ivanov after the meeting with representatives of the companies. On last action, according to the agency RIA Novosti, the concept of development of cellular networks 5G developed by specialists FEDERAL STATE UNITARY ENTERPRISE OF NIIR (Radio research institute) was considered. It means creation of the uniform telecom operator too as an optimal variant of development as if each of representatives of Big Four wants to build own 5G network, then selected on Russia frequencies with all can not be enough.

The State Radio Frequency Commission (GRKCh) takes active part in development of cellular networks of the next generation. On the commission session which took place on December 24, 2018 the decision on selection of separate radio frequency bands for implementation of so-called "pilot" zones of 5G networks was made. Frequencies were selected in the ranges of 4800-4990 MHz and 27.1-27.5 GHz to the unlimited group of people. According to Oleg Ivanov, the solution GRKCh to select frequencies to unlimited group of people is important. It is some kind of reserve option in case operators of Big Four will not manage to come to the final agreement, and everyone as a result will decide to build the 5G network.

Oleg Ivanov does not exclude that in the future the number of ranges for the Russian 5G networks will increase, but does not call exact terms. In the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications the separate working group which main objective will be a search of the frequency ranges potentially possible to release will be created.

Representatives of Big Four in general accepted the offer on creation of the uniform cellular operator. The representative of MTS reported about it, having added that all parties came to the decision on consideration of a possibility of release of frequencies in the range of 3400-3800 MHz.

The concept of NIIR includes not only the idea on creation of the uniform operator, but also, including, estimation of cost of investments in a 5G infrastructure in country scales. In the document both options of succession of events – both foundation of uniform operator 5G, and construction of own networks of the next generation by each of representatives of Big Four separately are considered.

The second option provides total capital and operating expenses in the amount of 163 billion rubles and 39 billion rubles respectively, besides for each of four operators. At the same time, if operators finally decide to combine efforts, then their total costs will make already 73 billion rubles and 17 billion rubles (capital and operational respectively).[13]

MegaFon, Rostelecom and Rostec can create the infrastructure operator of a 5G networks

On November 20, 2018 it became known of creation in Russia of the uniform infrastructure operator for development of 5G network. The joint project of Rostelecom, MegaFon and Rostec should reduce costs on deployment of network of fifth generation, however there is a risk of restriction of the competition. Read more here.

The concept of development of 5G networks in Russia is approved

On November 7, 2018 there was information that the working group "Information Infrastructure" at the autonomous nonprofit organization (ANO) "Digital Economy" approved the concept of creation and development of networks 5G/IMT-2020 in Russia. The document submitted by the Russian Union of LTE mobile operators (LTE Union), was prepared by Spektrum Management LLC.

Earlier participants of the world market agreed that radio frequency bands in three different ranges are necessary for networks of fifth generation: it is lower than 3 GHz (for providing a wide covering), 3-6 GHz (for a covering and the capacity of network, first of all in the large cities) and it is higher than 24 GHz (in the so-called millimetric range, for high-capacity of network and a point covering). According to this scheme in Europe and many other countries for development of a 5G select frequencies in the ranges of 700 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz and 26-28 GHz. However in Russia different restrictions because of the radio-electronic means of different departments operating in them are imposed on the majority of these ranges.

As a result the concept offers up to 3 GHz in a band to select to operators channels 5-20 MHz wide, in a band of 3-6 GHz — channels 40-100 MHz, and in bands higher than 24.25 GHz — channels 200-800 MHz. For investment of 5G networks with frequencies in all three ranges authors of the concept recommend to exempt a band 694-790 MHz from networks of digital on-air television broadcasting of DVB-T2 standard (having re-planned them lower than 694 MHz, taking into account shutdown of analog TV broadcasting in 2019), and in a band of 3.4-3.8 GHz in 19 largest cities to transfer terrestrial stations of the fixed satellite communication (S-range) to the range of Ku or to display out of borders of these cities, since December 15, 2019 to stop use of radio relay stations there and also to decide on an output from this range of the distribution zone of the fixed wireless access.

In addition to separate radio frequency bands in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz, the concept assumes use of RF spectrum of 4.4-4.99 GHz as Japan, China and Vietnam are going to make it. Authors of the document specify that on sections of a range of 4.4-4.5 GHz and 4.8-4.99 GHz in Russia radio relay stations, but work in districts of the large cities their use not so intensively. Section of 4.5-4.8 GHz is used for the fixed satellite communication (in the "space-Earth" direction), but too not intensively.

As for high frequencies (24.25-27.5 GHz) which have the smallest problems with employment, the concept suggests to bring in 19 largest cities of the country out of this range terrestrial stations of satellite service of a research of Earth (with creation of DPC for dissemination of data of this service in such cities), radio relay lines and networks of the fixed wireless access (also in 19 cities with the biggest population).

Now should approve the approved concept the Government commission on digital development, use of IT for improvement of quality of life and conditions of conducting business activity. It is supposed that the document to the commission will be entered the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications and ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika. The approval of the concept is planned for the first quarter 2019.[14]

Implementation of a 5G networks in Russia was postponed until 2021

At the beginning of September, 2018 it became known of postponement of implementation of a 5G networks in Russia. The government explained it with need of maturing of commercial demand for technology in economy.

That the authorities decided to postpone an implementation time in Russia of a 5G since 2019 until the end of the 2021st, reported the RBC edition with reference to the materials prepared for a meeting of the supervisory board of ANO Tsifrovaya ekonomika.

The government postponed implementation of a 5G in the large cities of the Russian Federation for the end of 2021

Follows from documents that in the first quarter 2019 of the power are going to approve the concept of creation and development of 5G networks, and by the end of the 2019th year — to determine frequency ranges. By the end of 2020, as expected, pilot projects on implementation of networks of fifth generation in five "key industries" and also in one million-plus city will be complete.

«
My personal point of view consists that the 5G is story in which the commercial request for it should ripen. The technology already appeared, and the request for it in economy should be born — the Deputy Prime Minister Maxim Akimov said.
»

According to him, by the end 2021 the government expects commercial operation of "some significant number" of base stations which would ensure stable network functioning in the large cities. 

The head Mintsifrazvitiya Konstantin Noskov specified that for implementation of a 5G it is necessary to exempt radio frequencies from the military systems.

According to the representative of "T2 PTK of Holding" (Tele2 brand) of Olga Galushina, postponement it will allow operators to be prepared for implementation of new technology better.

«
Today the standard for development of a 5G is not finalized yet, it will happen only in 2019. An attractive consumer ecosystem — devices and services — on our representation, will appear not earlier than in three-four years — she noted in a conversation with RBC.[15]
»

The authorities of the Russian Federation can aim about 180 billion rubles at the development of 5G networks

The working group on information infrastructure at the autonomous nonprofit organization (ANO) "Digital Economy" approved the plan of stimulation of investments into development of communication networks of fifth generation (5G) at the beginning of 2018, the volume of state support of this direction in the next five years can exceed 180 billion rubles, Kommersant writes [16].

In March the developed plan should be approved at first the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation, and then a government subcommittee on digital economy.

As the operating officer of MegaFon company of Serebryanikov Anna who is the head of the working group reported, it is supposed that within the next five years expenses of operators on implementation of a 5G will make about 300 billion rubles. The volume provided in the plan state supports can be from 87.1 to 181.1 billion rubles.

Authors of the document suggest to impose the moratorium on increase in a payment of operators for use of frequencies for the state. It is supposed that in 2019-2024 it will help operators to save 6.7-9.5 billion rubles. At the same time payments of operators are offered to be accumulated in special fund and to spend only for conversion — transfer of frequencies from state structures to operators. Developers estimated effect of it at 19-24 billion rubles in all five years.

2017

As the authorities will help to build 5G networks in Russia

The draft of the actions plan of the section "Information infrastructure" of the program "Digital economy" pays considerable attention to construction of networks of fifth generation of cellular communication (5G). The program was written Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications at the request of Russia Vladimir Putin[17].

According to the plan of actions of the section "Information infrastructure" until the end of 2017 the concept of construction of data of networks should be developed and it is carried out corresponding Researches and Development (research and development), CNews writes in November, 2017.

In these documents services of 5G networks, technological solutions and requirements of the high level to creation of networks, financial and economic justification of construction of networks, the needs of economy for them and a radio-frequency resource, necessary for them, will be defined.

At the same time in the document it is already specified that 5G networks will be under construction in the ranges of 694-790 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz, 4.4-4.99 GHz, 5.9 GHz, 24.25-29.5 GHz, 30-55 GHz, 66-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz.

Further the noise stability of the selected ranges will be analyzed and the principles of creation of 5G networks with reflection of necessary density of installation of the distribution zone (radio-electronic means), emissive powers, heights of suspension, using CFL (communication fiber lines), a packet network, the existing infrastructure and other are developed.

To summer of 2018 the list will be defined and the assessment of opportunities of the domestic industry for production of telecommunication equipment for 5G networks is carried out. Requirements to network equipment and architecture of 5G network and criteria of assignment to the equipment of the status of the Russian origin will be defined. Also development of measures for production incentive of a 5G equipment in Russia is planned.

Also in the summer of 2018 it is going to select territories for the organization of pilot zones 5G. In a year job evaluation of these zones with formation of the relevant proposals will be carried out.

For deployment of 5G networks the State Radio Frequency Commission (SCRF) will have to accept changes in allocation tables of a radio frequency spectrum and the plan of perspective use of radio frequencies. Besides, the regulatory base should be changed for the purpose of removal of barriers on sharing of a frequency range, the equipment and access to objects of federal infrastructure and also virtualization of resources and structures of network.


As the authorities will help operators to build 5G networks

Among other the possibility of placement of infrastructure facilities of 5G networks on the objects other than objects of communication should be provided and also the procedure of obtaining permissions for construction of infrastructure facilities is simplified and and the procedure of obtaining permission to commissioning of base stations is simplified.

Due to the start of 5G networks practice of licensing of services which will be rendered in such networks will be changed. Changes will affect also practice of payment of a radio frequency spectrum - it will consider need of compensation of the expected growth of operating costs of operators in connection with start of 5G networks.

Regulatory changes will lead also to simplification of the procedure of examination of electromagnetic compatibility (EMS) taking into account technology features of SDN networks (software-defined network, software-defined network) and flexible radio interfaces of new generation (New Radio) and also to review of the corresponding allowing procedures on spectrum use.

Besides, allowing procedures for installation of infrastructure (siting) of a radio subsystem (smallcells and the distributed antenna systems) and a wireless transport network of a 5G/IMT-2020 (wireless backhaul) will be simplified. Nedisikriminatsionny access to sewer will be provided to infrastructure for creation of optical networks and sharing of network infrastructure of a 5G is simplified.

At the level of regulations requirements of the high level for creation of network infrastructure of a 5G taking into account virtualization of network elements and functionality SDNNFV (/), implementations of cloud computing of a radio access (Cloud RAN) and virtualization of a transport network (Virtualized Backhaul) will be implemented. Also requirements of the high level for protection of personal privacy and personal data protection in networks of mobile communication of a 5G will be defined.

When in million-plus cities 5G networks appear

In 2020 the analysis of loading of a radio frequency spectrum in above-mentioned frequency ranges will be carried out and by its results conversion is carried out. Including a transfer of certain frequencies from category "PR" (primary use by government services) in category "SI" (sharing by civil and government services), and from category "SI" in category "GR" (primary use by civil services) will be made.

Conversion will be performed at the expense of the funds allocated by operators for payment of a radio frequency spectrum. Also perspective technologies of ensuring compatibility of 5G networks with the acting users of radio frequencies will be implemented and the refarming (exchange of frequencies) is performed. Proceeding from employment of a radio frequency spectrum, the financial and economic assessment of capital costs of deployment of 5G networks will be carried out.

According to the Digital Economy program, until the end of 2022 5G networks will appear in five Russian million-plus cities. And until the end of 2024 all cities with number of inhabitants from 1 million people will be covered by 5G networks.

Operators suggest to test a 5G in the companies

In October, 2017 the Russian operators suggested to test at first networks of fifth generation (5G) in the corporate sector. The technology will become demanded among the population not earlier than 2023, consider in MegaFon.

According to Kommersant with reference to the operating officer of MegaFon Anna Serebryanikova, the number of devices, commercially attractive to operators, with support of a 5G will appear in the market only by 2023-2025. Only by the end of the first quarter 2019 in the market the first commercial 5G chipsets will be available, she considers.

Though current plans assume that 5G networks should earn in five million-plus cities by 2022, need of the population for such covering will not be by this time yet, warn in MegaFon

The Digital Economy program assumes commercial start of 5G networks in "the pilot industries" by March, 2019. To the 2022nd the technology should earn in five million-plus cities.

«
We came to a conclusion that by this moment penetration in the market of the subscriber b2c devices supporting a 5G will be insufficiently, as well as needs of the population for such covering for the cities. At the same time large business can be interested in piloting of technology on the different directions. In a b2b segment of necessary devices for a 5G now is also not present, but as corporations can selectively buy them on specific programs, devices can be available to pilot projects by 2020 — Anna Serebryanikova reported.
»

VimpelCom agrees that testing of a 5G at first needs to be held in the b2b-sector, including in the market of Internet of Things.

In Tele2 among the most probable industry applications of a 5G call remote medicine, logistics and show business on the basis of augmented reality.

«
It is clear, that in addition to the mass user this network is necessary in such projects as the smart cities, smart transport, Internet of Things, smart services. But to speak about the final decisions it is still premature — told the edition in the press service of Rostelecom.[18]
»

The first tests of 5G networks on pilotless transport can be passed in Moscow in 2018

In 2018 in To Moscow the first tests of communication networks of fifth generation (5G) can take place on pilotless transport. The possibility of it was discussed within the meeting held by the Chairman Governments of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev reported on July 21 century Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications RUSSIAN FEDERATION.

According to the Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Nikolai Nikiforov, Moscow well is suitable as one of the key cities for testing of UAVs. However the high density of placement of base stations for this purpose will be required. In particular, each 400-500 meters the new base station connected on a communication fiber line should be set, the head of department specified.

Nikolai Nikiforov also paid attention to that fact, use of standard communication networks in pilotless transport is impossible because of the low speed of passing of a signal from the base station to the car. In particular, in networks of fourth generation (4G) transfer lag of information makes about 20 milliseconds. According to him, it is necessary to use technologies of communication networks of fifth generation which have essentially other characteristics: only one millisecond of a delay of passing of information.

"In 5G networks of information it is transferred at a huge speed — to 10 Gbit per second. Can work at one square kilometer at the same time to one million devices. 5G networks also support high speed by moving objects — to 500 km/h. All this gives not only convenience of use of modern technologies, but, the most important, security for all participants of traffic" — the minister emphasized.

On July 4, 2017 the State Radio Frequency Commission issued radio frequencies for testing in communication networks of fifth generation. In particular, as Nikolai Nikiforov reminded, on bands 3400–3800 MHz and 2520–29500 MHz will be unrolled the fixed and mobile segments 5G on the FIFA World Cup of 2018.

UBS: Costs of operators for implementation of a 5G will be unreasonably high

Costs of operators for implementation of technology of fifth generation of the cellular communication using frequency over 24 GHz will be unreasonably high, Vedomosti with reference to outputs of UBS Evidence Lab and UBS bank[19] reports [20]. Analysts modelled use of networks of fifth generation in agglomeration of New York – taking into account a circuit of houses and a relief.

Now in New York 1251 base stations, for a sure covering network of fifth generation it will be necessary to add 635,639 more stations to them, i.e. to increase their quantity more than by 500 times, showed calculations of UBS. Creation of such infrastructure will not make economic sense for operators, analysts of UBS draw a conclusion and assume that operators will be limited to construction of networks of fifth generation in separate hot zones – by analogy with the zones WiFi: in densely populated and rich urban areas.

In five Russian million-plus cities the technology of fifth generation of communication should appear in 2022 – is so told in the draft of the program of digital economy of Russia which of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications introduced to the government. The question at what frequencies the new standard in Russia will develop, is not solved yet. Range of 700 MHz because of a problem of interaction of broadcasters and mobile operators is not introduced into circulation and is not used for provision of services. And the International Telecommunication Union (the ITU, approves standards of communication) offered high frequencies which were investigated by UBS for fifth generation.

Capital costs of operators of fifth generation of orders will be higher, than on the previous standards, the deputy administrator of Roskomnadzor Oleg Ivanov says, but does not comment on calculations of UBS. For this reason of rapid growth of infrastructure of fifth generation you should not be coming, he considers.

Also it will be required to Moscow or St. Petersburg in hundreds times more of base stations, the CEO of Telecom Daily Denis Kuskov, but without big research that he made UBS says, it is impossible to give more exact number: it is necessary to consider many factors – from number of storeys of buildings to a land relief, Kuskov says.

Density of building of Moscow and New York cannot be compared: agglomerations have porous and fragmentary structure, existence of densely built up center in New York all is compensated, for example, by the huge water area, in Moscow absolutely not so, professor of the Higher school of urbanistics of A.A. Vysokovsky Alexey Krasheninnikov argues though population density is quite comparable.

The leading expert on fifth generation of communication of Ericsson in Russia Georgy Muratov shares some concerns of analysts of UBS, but in general treats their outputs watchfully. For the analysis, he pays attention, only frequency ranges over 24 GHz where the widest are located and free from use other systems of frequency band undertake. But, as also authors of a research recognize, there is an alternative in the form of bands of lower frequencies in the ranges of 3,4-3,6, 3,6-3,8 and 5 GHz and also lower frequency ranges occupied today with analog TV and radio broadcasting and the previous generations of mobile communication which will be taken out of service.

Moving to the lower ranges will mitigate some engineering and financial problems, but there will obviously not be enough range at low frequencies for a full-fledged work of fifth generation, analysts of UBS say, and then fifth generation will not give essentially new opportunities of communication, so, will not become large technology break. Capacity of network and information transmission rate depend on width of a range and the range is lower, the it is less than opportunities of application of a broadband signal, Ivanov agrees.

Speak about specific costs early, but without low-frequency range of costs of operators will increase, the representative of MegaFon says. It should be added that fifth generation will be available as addition to the existing networks of fourth generation, and it will significantly reduce costs, he notes.

Still early to consider investments, fifth generation should appear as the standard is closer by 2019-2020, the representative of MTS Dmitry Solodovnikov says. The operator does not dramatize a subject of the forthcoming investments, he continues, for example, along with a covering by means of usual base stations high data transfer rates will be provided with small cells which are easier for mounting, connecting and adapting for needs of subscribers.

Tele2 (Tele2 brand) does not expect that at the first stage of development fifth generation will become mass technology, the representative of operator Olga Galushina says: its application will be not carpet, and focused on certain scenarios and user groups – for example, accumulations of the devices of Internet of Things interacting among themselves, a management system for city transport, intelligent security systems.

5G in the Digital Economy program of Russia

In June, 2017 within the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum (SPIEF) Nikolai Nikiforov reported that the Digital Economy of Russia program was prepared and submitted to the Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev. The minister noted that in the program there is an indicator which concerns directly development of communication networks of a 5G in Russia: it is supposed that by 2024 5G networks in this or that type will be developed in all cities with the population from 300 thousand inhabitants. The Minister of Telecom and Mass Communications separately noted that the state should not interfere with process of creation of infrastructure for digitalization: "We want that it were strong, independent private companies which surely feel in the Russian market which have global ambitions and which created these potential disruptive digital platforms for the work. Too most, we consider, we will happen also to the telecommunication sector. The role of the state should come down only to the general regulyatorika, training, stimulation of research and development".

The minister told about what advantages give 5G communication networks: "In conditions when on one square kilometer we have millions of attached devices, and we to it will come very quickly, and in conditions when many crucial tasks are assigned to these devices, including, for life, health and safety of our citizens — in these conditions no networks created on old technologies will cope. The feature of technology 5G consists that the network can service much more the bigger number of devices per acre and considerably reduce the number of milliseconds which pass at signal transmission from the base station to the device. In these conditions we will receive essentially new data transmission medium which will urge on further digitalization".

Nikolai Nikiforov reminded of the prompt speed of development of modern technologies, having noted that in 2012 in Russia there was no base station working in the standard of communication of fourth generation 4G/LTE yet. At the same time today in this modern standard about a quarter of all civil cellular infrastructure or about 120 thousand base stations works already. "If there were no 4G networks, then it would be difficult to imagine such consumption of video content. Or it would be difficult to provide 66 million users of smartphones and tablets which are in the Russian Federation today. All this became a basis. Without users of smartphones we hardly could imagine such accelerated transformation which happens, for example, in the market of taxi services or in the online banking market when today there are already more and more transactions, financial services it appears through mobile application of bank. There are examples of banks which have no office, but there are only 500 programmers and is already unclear, whether it is bank, whether the IT company" — the minister told.

The Voronezh scientists created antenna 5G

Scientists of the Voronezh Technical University (VTU) invented the antenna which will allow to carry out the Internet of a 5G, television and cellular communication not only to the cities and villages, but also to any place in the world: to the Polar region, a taiga, the high sea, etc.

According to Vladimir Pendyurin, the CEO of Avtomatizirovannye svyazi Ltd (the Voronezh company cooperating with VTU), mobile communication of fifth generation which will accelerate data transmission from 300 Mbit to 2-7 Gbit per second is around the world developed. The Voronezh scientists managed to create the compact device worth about 5 thousand dollars — 10 times less, than at foreign competitors — due to application of inexpensive modern techniques.

Pilot tests of a device in city conditions are now carried out, and necessary design documentation then serial production of antennas will begin is developed. To innovation the Moscow Russian Satellite Communications Company and two Asian telecommunication firms which made the decision to equip with the Russian devices cars already showed interest: devices are capable to work uninterruptedly during the movement of the machine. Mass use of technology is expected in 2020.

Let's note that in Voronezh the first-ever mobile communication appeared: developments began in 1958, and in the mid-sixties in the USSR implemented stations of Special Communications and Information Service which could be transferred from place to place[21].

2016: Owners of failed 4G-operator "Osnova-telecom" are going to invest in projects 5G

The Aykominvest company owning Osnova Telecom 4G-operator is going to invest in the projects connected with technology 5G. The director of child structure of the enterprise – "National research institute of technologies and communication" reported about it at a conference in the middle of December, 2016 (NIITS) Alexander of Minnovas. In more detail - in the separate article.

2015: The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications orders from Scientific Research Institute Radio the draft of the concept of development of 5G networks in Russia for 6.9 million rub

Main article: The concept of development of 5G networks in Russia

At the end of June, 2015 the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation selected at tender of the contractor who will be engaged in the analysis of perspectives of development[22].

The only participant of tender - Scientific Research Institute Radio became the winner. Working costs in the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications were estimated at 6.9 million rubles. As a result of tender it did not fall. Execution of works should be complete in 90 days from the date of signing of the contract. Read more here.

2014

5G networks will be "the device - focused"

According to a number of experts which in 2014 were given[23], 5G networks will be "the device - focused", but not "a cell - focused". In other words, the concept of "cellular communication" will not be applicable any more. Cellular communication means that the network of the operator consists of cells — the base stations providing communication in a certain range. The device which is in this range creates the proceeding and descending communication channels, controlling both connection, and volume of the transferred traffic while the base station manages all cell in which there is a set of subscriber devices.

In 5G networks of the device exchange multiple information streams along with nodes of different types which problem in specific timepoint will be a service of this device.

"We consider that the architecture consisting of cells will be replaced by the architecture consisting of devices" — the engineer of Bell Laboratories (research division of Alcatel-Lucent) Federico Boccardi, one of authors of the joint work devoted to the new principles of work of networks of fifth generation explains.

Ericsson says that 5G networks represent a combination of the technologies of a radio access existing before, in that their form which they will have by 2020, with new data transmission technologies:

"Arguing on a 5G, we mean not replacement of present standards, but their addition with the new technologies satisfying the new needs for different spheres".
«
Now radio access networks consist of big (macro-) cells which provide continuity covering/mobility of subscribers, and small (micro) cells which are established in places with the greatest density of subscribers (spot jotas) and provide necessary additional capacity there — Alexey Potryakhayev, the top manager on development of an access network of VimpelCom explained to the CNews magazine.
»

The size of macrocells, generally according to Potryakhayev, is defined by the used frequency range (for low frequencies — it is more, for high — it is less). For radio networks of standards 2G/3G/4G now in Russia frequency from 800 to 2600 MHz are used. If higher frequencies, density of installation of the base stations creating macrocells are not used for 5G networks it will not be required to increase, the expert considers.

As for microcells, their quantity (installation density) is proportional to required capacity.

"As requirements to capacity grow on orders from generation to generation of mobile communication, it is possible to predict significant increase in required quantity of microcells at implementation of a 5G" — the representative of VimpelCom said.

According to the forecast of Ericsson, in the future such devices there will be around the world from 50 to 500 billion — in 10–100 times more in comparison with present number of active subscriber Internet devices. An important task of developers of standards is providing with reliable wireless connection each of them. For each device the policy of interaction with network considering the volume of transmitted data, value of an admissible delay and other parameters will be defined.

Besides, if now one base station services several hundred at the same time attached devices, then in the next years in connection with distribution of the intercomputer communications (M2M) the number of devices will repeatedly grow. And in certain cases the base station should process up to 10 thousand devices at the same time. It requires as development of new nodes which will be capable to manage networks, and upgrades of reference infrastructure.

Thus, the 5G is not the solution which will come to replacement 4G in that type as 4G replaced 3G, and 3G forced out 2G. the 5G will represent heterogeneous network. In it different technologies for service of traffic and users of different types will be used.

The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications monitors development of development of a 5G

«
For today the subject of technologies of fifth generation  is a range of questions which should be investigated to create the corresponding standard"  — Alexander Ponkin, the associate director of department of infrastructure projects of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications told in 2014 to the CNews edition (since April, 2015 - the director of the same department). The Russian ministry,  according to Ponkin, watches closely  research activities in  this area ( in particular,  the METIS2020 project, initiatives of the Chinese and  European producers).
»

All activities at that time, according to Ponkin, mentioned the main requirements and  technologies for standards of the very high speed systems higher than 10 GHz up to  80 GHz. In addition, works on  new protocols for minimization of a delay in  communication networks and  ensuring the mass M2M connections were conducted.

«
The purposes of developments of technologies 5G are significant increase in data transfer rate, number  of the subscribers connected in network, repeated reduction of transfer lags of a signal"  — the representative of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications noted.
»

Several international organizations are engaged in studying of technologies of fifth generation of communication. Among them  — Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN)  which includes about 20 operators,  including Russian VimpelCom, and  about 30 equipment suppliers of communication.

«
Development of new architecture and  the new principles of signaling  — among key tasks of developers of the standard  — Alexey Potryakhayev from  VimpelCom considers.  — At  this stage  there is no reality on this subject. Among the considered innovations  — a straight line (without participation of other network elements) exchange of both  traffic, and  the service information between subscriber devices.
»

The European organization METIS2020 founded with the assistance of European Commission is engaged in determination of the basic principles of 5G networks.  About 30 partners among whom  — the largest equipment manufacturer of communication of Ericsson enter it. Also it is worth mentioning the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), one of  the oldest organizations which are taking part in  formation of standards of communication  around the world. Founded in   1865 in  Paris, the union represents UN specialized agency and  contains in  the structure 193 states and  over 700 private organizations and  academic institutions.

The deputy CEO of Huawei,  the second in total revenue equipment supplier of communication after Ericsson, Ken Hu in   August, 2013 said that Huawei is going to start the first commercial networks of fifth generation in   2020, on condition of selection by regulators of a necessary frequency spectrum.

Questions of selection of radio frequency bands for perspective radio technologies are considered,  including,  within study groups, the International Telecommunication Union, Alexander Ponkin from  the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications reminds. So far frequency bands under technologies 5G are not defined by ITU, and terms of commercial start of networks will depend on  these solutions.  The Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications waits for the first networks  about 2020, but  note that they will appear only in  the large cities.

At the same time  operators can start test operation of the first-ever 5G networks in   2018-2019, as soon as the required equipment is provided. "We hope that there will be also  Russian developers"  — Ponkin in 2014 in the comment for CNews said[23].

See Also

Notes

  1. Fifth generation of communication without money will be backward
  2. The state wants to receive a share in the joint venture of mobile operators for start of a 5G
  3. of the Power of Russia cut off a financial support of a 5G and Internet of Things four times
  4. Sergey Chemezov – RBC: "It is technically impossible to close completely the country"
  5. Maxim Akimov: to a 5G it is necessary to medicine, transport and defense have more, than to the people living online
  6. In the Russian 5G networks instead of the telecom equipment will deliver servers
  7. [https://telesputnik.ru/materials/tekhnika-i-tekhnologii/news/do-kontsa-2019-goda-v-moskve-zapustyat-5g/?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email In Moscow
  8. experimental platforms on implementation of a 5G will appear]
  9. to the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications suggests to resume testing of a 5G in the range of 3.4-3.8 GHz
  10. will direct to the Power 28 billion rubles to Russian "iron" and software for a 5G and IoT
  11. The Ministry of Defence refused to transfer to operators of frequency for a 5G
  12. of the HSE: Losses of economy from creation of uniform operator 5G can be up to 250 billion rub.
  13. "Big Four" will create uniform operator 5G in Russia
  14. Experts approved the concept of development of 5G networks in Russia
  15. and media/04/09/2018/5b8eb3849a7947e428e5e8e9 postponed Development of communication of a 5G in Russia until 2022
  16. the Working group on digital economy approved the plan of investments into development of a 5G
  17. the President Kak of the power will help to build 5G networks in Russia
  18. the 5G is not ready to be tested in public
  19. [https://www.vedomosti.ru/technology/articles/2017/07/21/725072-5g-setei For construction of a 5G networks
  20. it is necessary in hundreds times more of stations, than is now]
  21. the Voronezh scientists created antenna 5G
  22. of the Tender of the Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications 5G networks, devoted to a 5G, on the website of state procurements
  23. 23,0 23,1 by the CNews Magazine CNews edition